Directions： In the following text， some sentences have been removed. For Questions （41-45）， choose the most suitable one from the list A-G to fit into each of the numbered blank. There are two extra choices， which do not fit in any of the gaps. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. （10 points）
Coinciding with the groundbreaking theory of biological evolution proposed by British naturalist Charles Darwin in the 1860s， British social philosopher Herbert Spencer put forward his own theory of biological and cultural evolution. Spencer argued that all worldly phenomena， including human societies， changed over time， advancing toward perfection. 41.____________. American social scientist Lewis Henry Morgan introduced another theory of cultural evolution in the late 1800s. Morgan， along with Tylor， was one of the founders of modern anthropology. In his work， he attempted to show how all aspects of culture changed together in the evolution of societies.42._____________. In the early 1900s in North America， German-born American anthropologist Franz Boas developed a new theory of culture known as historical particularism. Historical particularism， which emphasized the uniqueness of all cultures， gave new direction to anthropology. 43._____________. Boas felt that the culture of any society must be understood as the result of a unique history and not as one of many cultures belonging to a broader evolutionary stage or type of culture. 44._______________. Historical particularism became a dominant approach to the study of culture in American anthropology， largely through the influence of many students of Boas. But a number of anthropologists in the early 1900s also rejected the particularist theory of culture in favor of diffusionism. Some attributed virtually every important cultural achievement to the inventions of a few， especially gifted peoples that， according to diffusionists， then spread to other cultures. 45.________________. Also in the early 1900s， French sociologist ？mile Durkheim developed a theory of culture that would greatly influence anthropology. Durkheim proposed that religious beliefs functioned to reinforce social solidarity. An interest in the relationship between the function of society and culture-known as functionalism-became a major theme in European， and especially British， anthropology.
[A] Other anthropologists believed that cultural innovations， such as inventions， had a single origin and passed from society to society. This theory was known as diffusionism.
[B] In order to study particular cultures as completely as possible， Boas became skilled in linguistics， the study of languages， and in physical anthropology， the study of human biology and anatomy.
[C] He argued that human evolution was characterized by a struggle he called the "survival of the fittest，" in which weaker races and societies must eventually be replaced by stronger， more advanced races and societies.
[D] They also focused on important rituals that appeared to preserve a people's social structure， such as initiation ceremonies that formally signify children's entrance into adulthood.
[E] Thus， in his view， diverse aspects of culture， such as the structure of families， forms of marriage， categories of kinship， ownership of property， forms of government， technology， and systems of food production， all changed as societies evolved.
[F] Supporters of the theory viewed as a collection of integrated parts that work together to keep a society functioning.
[G] For example， British anthropologists Grafton Elliot Smith and W. J. Perry incorrectly suggested， on the basis of inadequate information， that farming， pottery making， and metallurgy all originated in ancient Egypt and diffused throughout the world. In fact， all of these cultural developments occurred separately at different times in many parts of the world.
Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written carefully on ANSWER SHEET 2. （10 points）
There is a marked difference between the education which everyone gets from living with others， and the deliberate educating of the young. In the former case the education is incidental； it is natural and important， but it is not the express reason of the association. （46） It may be said that the measure of the worth of any social institution is its effect in enlarging and improving experience； but this effect is not a part of its original motive. Religious associations began， for example， in the desire to secure the favor of overruling powers and to ward off evil influences； family life in the desire to gratify appetites and secure family perpetuity； systematic labor， for the most part， because of enslavement to others， etc. （47） Only gradually was the by-product of the institution noted， and only more gradually still was this effect considered as a directive factor in the conduct of the institution. Even today， in our industrial life， apart from certain values of industriousness and thrift， the intellectual and emotional reaction of the forms of human association under which the world's work is carried on receives little attention as compared with physical output. But in dealing with the young， the fact of association itself as an immediate human fact， gains in importance. （48） While it is easy to ignore in our contact with them the effect of our acts upon their disposition， it is not so easy as in dealing with adults. The need of training is too evident； the pressure to accomplish a change in their attitude and habits is too urgent to leave these consequences wholly out of account. （49） Since our chief business with them is to enable them to share in a common life we cannot help considering whether or no we are forming the powers which will secure this ability. If humanity has made some headway in realizing that the ultimate value of every institution is its distinctively human effect we may well believe that this lesson has been learned largely through dealings with the young.
（50） We are thus led to distinguish， within the broad educational process which we have been so far considering， a more formal kind of education —— that of direct tuition or schooling. In undeveloped social groups， we find very little formal teaching and training. These groups mainly rely for instilling needed dispositions into the young upon the same sort of association which keeps the adults loyal to their group.
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