您的位置:考研教育网>  > 考研英语 > 历年试题 正文

2009年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题(2)

考研教育网   2010-11-29 15:01 【 】【我要纠错

  Section II Reading Comprehension

  Part A

  Directions:

  Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

  Text 1

  Habits are a funny thing. We reach for them mindlessly, setting our brains on auto-pilot and relaxing into the unconscious comfort of familiar routine. "Not choice, but habit rules the unreflecting herd," William Wordsworth said in the 19th century. In the ever-changing 21st century, even the word "habit" carries a negative connotation. So it seems antithetical to talk about habits in the same context as creativity and innovation. But brain researchers have discovered that when we consciously develop new habits, we create parallel synaptic paths, and even entirely new brain cells, that can jump our trains of thought onto new, innovative tracks. But don't bother trying to kill off old habits; once those ruts of procedure are worn into the hippocampus, they're there to stay. Instead, the new habits we deliberately ingrain into ourselves create parallel pathways that can bypass those old roads. "The first thing needed for innovation is a fascination with wonder," says Dawna Markova, author of "The Open Mind" and an executive change consultant for Professional Thinking Partners. "But we are taught instead to 'decide,' just as our president calls himself 'the Decider.' " She adds, however, that "to decide is to kill off all possibilities but one. A good innovational thinker is always exploring the many other possibilities." All of us work through problems in ways of which we're unaware, she says. Researchers in the late 1960 covered that humans are born with the capacity to approach challenges in four primary ways: analytically, procedurally, relationally (or collaboratively) and innovatively. At puberty, however, the brain shuts down half of that capacity, preserving only those modes of thought that have seemed most valuable during the first decade or so of life. The current emphasis on standardized testing highlights analysis and procedure, meaning that few of us inherently use our innovative and collaborative modes of thought. "This breaks the major rule in the American belief system - that anyone can do anything," explains M. J. Ryan, author of the 2006 book "This Year I Will……" and Ms. Markova's business partner. "That's a lie that we have perpetuated, and it fosters commonness. Knowing what you're good at and doing even more of it creates excellence." This is where developing new habits comes in.

  21. The view of Wordsworth habit is claimed by being ________.

  A. casual B. familiar C. mechanical D. changeable

  22. The researchers have discovered that the formation of habit can be ________

  A. predicted B. regulated C. traced D. guided

  23. "ruts"(in line one, paragraph 3) has closest meaning to ________

  A. tracks B. series C. characteristics D. connections

  24. Ms. Markova's comments suggest that the practice of standard testing ________?

  A, prevents new habits form being formed

  B, no longer emphasizes commonness

  C, maintains the inherent American thinking model

  D, complies with the American belief system

  25. Ryan most probably agree that

  A. ideas are born of a relaxing mind

  B. innovativeness could be taught

  C. decisiveness derives from fantastic ideas

  D. curiosity activates creative minds

  Text 2

  It is a wise father that knows his own child, but today a man can boost his paternal (fatherly) wisdom - or at least confirm that he's the kid's dad. All he needs to do is shell our $30 for paternity testing kit (PTK) at his local drugstore - and another $120 to get the results. More than 60,000 people have purchased the PTKs since they first become available without prescriptions last years, according to Doug Fog, chief operating officer of Identigene, which makes the over-the-counter kits. More than two dozen companies sell DNA tests Directly to the public , ranging in price from a few hundred dollars to more than $2500. Among the most popular : paternity and kinship testing , which adopted children can use to find their biological relatives and latest rage a many passionate genealogists-and supports businesses that offer to search for a family's geographic roots . Most tests require collecting cells by webbing saliva in the mouth and sending it to the company for testing. All tests require a potential candidate with whom to compare DNA. But some observers are skeptical, "There is a kind of false precision being hawked by people claiming they are doing ancestry testing," says Trey Duster, a New York University sociologist. He notes that each individual has many ancestors-numbering in the hundreds just a few centuries back. Yet most ancestry testing only considers a single lineage, either the Y chromosome inherited through men in a father's line or mitochondrial DNA, which a passed down only from mothers. This DNA can reveal genetic information about only one or two ancestors, even though, for example, just three generations back people also have six other great-grandparents or, four generations back, 14 other great-great-grandparents. Critics also argue that commercial genetic testing is only as good as the reference collections to which a sample is compared. Databases used by some companies don't rely on data collected systematically but rather lump together information from different research projects. This means that a DNA database may differ depending on the company that processes the results. In addition, the computer programs a company uses to estimate relationships may be patented and not subject to peer review or outside evaluation.

  26. In paragraphs 1 and 2, the text shows PTK's ___________.

  [A] easy availability

  [B] flexibility in pricing

  [C] successful promotion

  [D] popularity with households

  27. PTK is used to __________.

  [A] locate one's birth place

  [B] promote genetic research

  [C] identify parent-child kinship

  [D] choose children for adoption

  28. Skeptical observers believe that ancestry testing fails to__________.

  [A] trace distant ancestors

  [B] rebuild reliable bloodlines

  [C] fully use genetic information

  [D] achieve the claimed accuracy

  29. In the last paragraph, a problem commercial genetic testing faces is __________.

  [A] disorganized data collection

  [B] overlapping database building

  [C] excessive sample comparison

  [D] lack of patent evaluation

  30. An appropriate title for the text is most likely to be__________.

  [A] Fors and Againsts of DNA testing

  [B] DNA testing and It's problems

  [C] DNA testing outside the lab

  [D] lies behind DNA testing

上一页     下一页

◇ 编辑推荐
·2015年考研复习:政治 英语 数学  专业课 · 2014年考研真题及答案汇总   历年考研真题
· 考研网上辅导热招!  ·2015年考研报考指南   ·历年考研国家分数线汇总   复试信息
 考研教育网官方微信

微信公众账号cnedu_cn

 网上辅导课程特色
  • 即报即学
  • 名师团队
  • 反复看课
  • 在线答疑
  • 移动教学
  • 讲义下载
  • 课后练习
  • 模拟测试
 24小时报名咨询
考研网上辅导课程 特色班 精品班 实验班
学费 购买 学费 购买 学费 购买
公共课 政 治 800元 购买 1500元 购买 3500元 购买
英 语 800元 购买 1500元 购买 3500元 购买
数 学 800元 购买 1500元 购买 3500元 购买

专业课

资料

952所考研院校、57300个招生专业、245000份考研辅导课件、核心纲要、考研笔记、内部题库现正热卖!

说明 专业课请到考研开放平台上注册及缴费----帮助