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中国研究生招生信息网   2010-05-26 16:06 【 】【我要纠错

  Human beings in all times and places think about their world and wonder at their place in it.Humans are thoughtful and creative,possessed of insatiable curiosity. (61)Furthermore,humans have the ability to modify the environment in which they live,thus subjecting all other life forms to their own peculiar ideas and fancies.Therefore,it is important to study humans in all their richness and diversity in a calm and systematic manner,with the hope that the knowledge resulting from such studies can lead humans to a more harmonious way of living with themselves and with all other life forms on this planet Earth.

  “Anthropology”derives from the Green words anthropos“human”and logos“the study of”.By its very name,anthropology encompasses the study of all humankind.

  Anthropology is one of the social sciences. (62)Social science is that branch of intellectual enquiry which seeks to study humans and their endeavors in the same reasoned,orderly,systematic,and dispassioned manner that natural scientists use for the study of natural phenomena.

  Social science disciplines include geography,economics,political science,psychology,and sociology.Each of thesesoical sciences has a subfield or specialization which lies particularly close to anthropology.

  All the social sciences focus upon the study of humanity.Anthropology is a fieldstudy oriented discipline which makes extensive use of the comparative method in analysis. (63)The emphasis on data gathered firsthand,combined with a crosscultural perspective brought to the analysis of cultures past and present,makes this study a unique and distinctly important social science.

  Anthropological analyses rest heavily upon the concept of culture.Sir Edward Tylor’s formulation of the concept of culture was one of the great intellectual achievements of19th century science. (64)Tylor defined culture as“…that complex whole which includes belief,art,morals,law,custom,and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society”. This insight,so profound in its simplicity,opened up an entirely new way of perceiving and understa nding human life.Implicit within Tylor’s definition is the concept that culture is learned,shared,and patterned behavior.

  (65)Thus,the anthropological concept of“culture”,like the concept of“set”in mathematics,is an abstract concept whichmakes possible immense amounts of concrete research and understanding.

  cross-cultrual perspective 跨文化的角度

  concrete research 具体研究


  in… manner 以…方式;用…方法

  seek to 力图;试图;设法

  combined with 加上;连同

  bring to 加进;使用;采用

  define…as… 把…定义为

  makes…possible 使…成为可能










  nothing but 只不过是

  by means of 通过;借助于

  by the help of 通过…的帮助

  in a sort of sense 从某种意义上来说

  manage to do sth. 设法做到

  extract …from 从……提炼出

  out of…起源;来源;根据

  build up 建立;树立

  by no means 绝不

  be compared with 与……相比

  a sort of 某种

  set…… in motion 开始;

  differ in…在…方面不同

  go through 经历;经受;仔细检查

  in the one case =on the one hand

  in the course of the day=during the day

  a train of=a series of=an array of=a variety of

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