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考研英语常见知识点精析—状语从句

搜狐博客   2010-05-19 17:09 【 】【我要纠错

  状语从句在考研语法体系当中,三大从句的重要性不言而喻,而其中的副词性从句也就是状语从句更是不容忽视,状语从句体现了从句和主句之间的逻辑关系,它具体可以分为9种:时间、地点、条件、让步、原因、结果、目的、比较和方式状语。在这里我们不具体讲解各个状语从句,而是通过几个例子分析一下状语从句在考试中出现的形式。
    1. While formal learning is transmitted by teachers selected to perform this role, informal learning is acquired as a natural part of a child's development。

  该句可拆分为两部分,(While formal learning is transmitted by teachers selected to perform this role,) (informal learning is acquired as a natural part of a child's development. ),第一部分是While引导的让步状语从句,第二部分是主句;从句中,formal learning是主语,谓语是is transmitted,过去分词selected作teachers的后置定语,是不定式to perform this role作selected的目的状语;主句中,informal learning是主语,谓语是is acquired,介词短语as a natural part of a child's development作acquired的结果状语。

  参考译文:尽管正式的学习过程是由挑选出来担当此角色的教师来进行的,非正式的学习过程却是作为孩子成长的自然一部分而完成的。

  2. While it is true that this competition may induce efforts to expand territory at the expense of others, and thus lead to conflict, it cannot be said that war-like conflict among other nations is inevitable, although competition is。

  该句可拆分为三大部分;(White it is true that this competition may induce efforts to expand territory at the expense of others, and thus lead to conflict, ) (it cannot be said that war-like conflict among other nations is inevitable,) (although competition is. ),第一部分是While引导的让步状语从句,第二部分是主句,第三部分是although引导的让步状语从句;第一部分的主语是山指代后面的that从句,实际上,While it is true that已形成固定结构,参见知识链接,that从句的主语是this competition,谓语是may induce,宾语是efforts,不定式to expand territory作efforts的后置定语,at the expense of others作expand的状语;and之后的lead to是谓语,与前面的induce并列,conflict是宾语;主句中的主语是it,指代后面的that从句,该从句的主语是conflict,谓语动词是is,表语是inevitable,复合形容词war-like作conflict的定语,among other nations作conflict的后置定语;第三部分although从句的主语是competition,谓语是is,表语是inevitable,承前省略了。该句的第二部分,即主句运用了被动语态,在翻译时要译为汉语的主动语态,这是常用的一条原则,因为英文多被动,汉语多主动。

  参考译文:虽然这种竞争会引发以他人利益为代价的领土扩张行动,因此也会引发冲突,但却不能认为类似于战争的国家间的冲突不可避免,尽管竞争是不可避免的。

  3. While it is true that to date the Internet seems to be favoring the most developed sectors of the international community over the less developed, this need not always be the case。

  该句可拆分为两部分: (While it is true that to date the Internet seems to be favoring the most developed sectors of the international community over the less developed,) (this need not always be the case. ),第一部分是While引导的让步状语从句,第二部分是主句;从句中,it是形式主语,指代后面的that从句,While it is true that已形成固定结构,参见知识链接,that从句主语是the Internet,谓语是seems,不定式to be..。作表语,介词短语over the less developed作favoring的状语;主句比较简单,主语是this,指代从句内容,谓语是need not always be,表语是the case。

  参考译文: 尽管迄今为止互联网似乎更加青睐国际社会中的发达领域,而非不太发达的领域,情形并不总是如此。

  4.There is a virtual limit on how long we can hope to remain alive,however lucky and robust we are。

  该句分为两部分:(There is a virtual limit on how long we can hope to remain alive, ) (however lucky and robust we are。),第一部分是主句,第二部分是however引导的让步状语从句;主句中on…alive是介词短语,作limit的后置定语,how引导的从句是介词on的宾语,该从句的主语是we,谓语是can hope to remain,表语是alive;让步状语从句的主语是we,谓语是are,表语是lucky and robust。这句话翻译时也要将从句提前,然后再译主句。

  参考译文:不管我们多么幸运,多么健壮,我们所希望的长寿年龄实际上是有限度的。

  5. While the roots of social psychology lie in the intellectual soil of the whole western civilization, its present flowering is recognized to be characteristically an American phenomenon。

  该句可拆分为两部分:(While the roots of social psychology lie in the intellectual soil of the whole western civilization,) (its present flowering is recognized to be characteristically an American phenomenon. ),第一部分是以While引导的让步状语从句,第二部分是主句;从句中,主语是the roots,谓语是lie in,of social psychology是roots的后置定语,the intellectual…western civilization是介词in的宾语,of the whole western civilization是soil 的后置定语;主句的主语是its present flowering,其中的its指代前面的roots,谓语是is recognized,不定式to be...an American phenomenon作主语flowering的补足语。

  参考译文:虽然社会心理学根植于整个西方文明的知识土壤里,其今日的繁盛却被认为是典型的美国现象

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