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2011年考研英语备考作文之炼油

网络   2010-12-17 08:47 【 】【我要纠错

  Oil Refining

  An important new industry, oil refining, grew after the Civil War. Crude oil, or petroleum —— a dark, thick ooze from the earth —— had been known for hundreds of years, but little use had ever been made of it. In the 1850's Samuel M. Kier, a manufacturer in western Pennsylvania, began collecting the oil from local seepages and refining it into kerosene. Refining, like smelting, is a process of removing impurities from a raw material. Kerosene was used to light lamps. It was a cheap substitute for whale oil, which was becoming harder to get. Soon there was a large demand for kerosene. People began to search for new supplies of petroleum.The first oil well was drilled by E. L. Drake, a retired railroad conductor. In 1859 he began drilling in Titusville, Pennsylvania. The whole venture seemed so impractical and foolish that onlookers called it "Drake's Folly". But when he had drilled down about 70 feet (21 meters), Drake struck oil. His well began to yield 20 barrels of crude oil a day. News of Drake's success brought oil prospectors to the scene. By the early 1860's these wildcatters were drilling for "black gold" all over western Pennsylvania. The boom rivaled the California gold rush of 1848 in its excitement and Wild West atmosphere. And it brought far more wealth to the prospectors than any gold rush.Crude oil could be refined into many products. For some years kerosene continued to be the principal one. It was sold in grocery stores and door-to-door. In the 1880's refiners learned how to make other petroleum products such as waxes and lubricating oils. Petroleum was not then used to make gasoline or heating oil.

  全文翻译:炼油

  一种重要的新兴工业——炼油业在国内战争后成长起来。 未加工的石油,或原油——一种深 色的地下的稠浆——数百年来一直为大众所知,但是人们却很少使用过它。 在十九世纪五十 年代,萨缪尔。M.科尔,宾西法尼亚西部的一位制造商,开始从当地的溢出物中收集石油 并将它炼成煤油。与冶炼矿石一样,石油提炼是一个从未加工的原料中除去杂质的过程。煤 油被用来点灯。

  它是鲸油的一种便宜的替代品,而鲸油正变得越来越难以获得。 不久就产 生了对煤油的大量需求。 人们开始寻找新的石油供应。 第一口油井为 E.L.瑞克,一个 退休的火车检票员所钻得。 1859 年他开始在宾西法尼亚的泰特斯维尔钻井。 整个的这项冒险事业看起来是如此不现实和愚蠢以致旁观者称之为"鸭子的蠢行". (译者注:Drake's Folly, drake 在这里意含双关,即指瑞克的名字,又指该词的本义即鸭子。 )但当瑞克往下钻 至 70 英尺(21 米)的时候,他发现了石油。 他的油井从此每天生产20 桶原油。 瑞克成功的 消息将石油勘探者们吸引到现场。 截止到 19 世纪 60 年代早期,这些冒险者为寻找"黑色的 金子"钻探遍了整个宾西法尼亚西部。 这项繁荣的事业在刺激性和粗犷的西部气氛上可与1848 年的加州淘金热相媲美,而且它为勘探者带来了远超过淘金潮的财富。 原油能被提炼 成许多产品。 多年以来煤油一直是主要的一种产品。

  它在杂货店中出售由人挨户推销。 19 世纪八十九十年代炼油者们懂得了生产其它石油产品,如蜡和润滑油。 那时石油还没有被用来制造汽油或采暖装置用油。

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