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2011年考研英语预测及解析十三

网络   2010-12-15 09:04 【 】【我要纠错

  Part C Directions:Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points)

  Economics, as we know it, is the social science concerned with the production, distribution, exchange, and consumption of goods and services. Economists focus on the way in which individuals, groups, business enterprises, and governments seek to achieve efficiently any economic objective they select. (46) Other fields of study also contribute to this knowledge: Psychology and ethics try to explain how objectives are formed, history records changes in human objectives, and sociology interprets human behavior in social contexts. Standard economics can be divided into two major fields. (47) The first, price theory or microeconomics, explains how the interplay of supply and demand in competitive markets creates a multitude of individual prices, wage rates, profit margins, and rental changes. Microeconomics assumes that people behave rationally. Consumers try to spend their income in ways that give them as much pleasure as possible. As economists say, they maximize utility. For their part, entrepreneurs seek as much profit as they can extract from their operations. The second field, macroeconomics, deals with modern explanations of national income and employment. Macroeconomics dates from the book, The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money (1935), by the British economist John Maynard Keynes. His explanation of prosperity and depression centers on the total or aggregate demand for goods and services by consumers, business investors, and governments, (48) Because, according to Keynes, inadequate total demand increases unemployment, the indicated cure is either more investment by businesses or more spending and consequently larger budget deficits by government. Economic issues have occupied people‘s minds throughout the ages. (49) Aristotle and Plato in ancient Greece wrote about problems of wealth, property, and trade, both of whom were prejudiced against commerce, feeling that to live by trade was undesirable. The Romans borrowed their economic ideas from the Greeks and showed the same contempt for trade. (50) During the Middle Ages the economic ideas of the Roman Catholic church were expressed in the law of the church, which condemned the taking of interest for money loaned and regarded commerce as inferior to agriculture. Economics as a subject of modern study, distinguishable from moral philosophy and politics, dates from the work, Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776), by the Scottish philosopher and economist Adam Smith. Mercantilism and physiocracy were precursors of the classical economics of Smith and his 19th-century successors.

  答案46.其他领域的研究也有助于对此的理解:心理学和伦理学试图解释目标是如何形成的,历史记录着人们所追求的目标的变化,社会学则从社会环境的角度来解释人们的行为。

  47.第一个领域,价格理论或微观经济学,解释在竞争的市场中供需间的相互作用是怎样导致了大量的个别价格、工资率、利润空间和租金的变化。

  48.因为,按照凯恩斯的理论,不充分的总体需求会增加失业,建议的解决方式是企业扩大投资或政府增加开支,继而增加预算赤字。

  49.古希腊的亚里士多德和柏图都在著作中谈到财富、财产和贸易问题,两人都对商业持有偏见,认为靠生意来谋生是不足取的。

  50.在中世纪,罗马天主教会的经济学思想表达在其教法中,教法谴责从借贷中获利的行为,并认为商业地位劣于农业。

  总体分析本文主要介绍了经济学的研究发展历史。

  第一段:经济学的定义及研究对象。

  第二、三段:经济学的两大领域:微观经济学和宏观经济学。

  第四、五段:经济学研究的古代和现代理论。

  试题精解46.[精解] 本题考核的知识点是:并列分句、后置定语。

  该句子中冒号后是并列的三个简单句。第一个分句中how引导的从句做explain的宾语;第二个和第三个分句中都有介词in的短语做后置定语,翻译时应提前。

  词汇方面:contribute to意为“是……的原因;增进,有助于”;knowledge意为“知识;知晓,了解”,文中活译为“对…的理解”。

  47.[精解] 本题考核的知识点是:宾语从句、状语。

  句子的主干是The first explains how…。主语后的名词短语price theory or microeconomics是其同位语,因此翻译the first时,应增译为“第一个领域”。how引导宾语从句,其主干是the interplay … creates …。介词短语in competitive markets做地点状语,翻译时应前置。

  词汇方面:interplay意为“相互影响”;a multitude of意为“许多的,大量的”;individual意为“个别的,单独的, 个人的”;margin意为“(时间、空间、金钱的)余地”,profit margin指“利润空间”。

  48.[精解] 本题考核的知识点是:词性转换。

  该句是包含原因状语从句的复合句,句子主干是the indicated cure is…,表语由并列连词either … or…连接。

  词汇方面:indicated是过去分词用做形容词,动词indicate意为“表明,暗示,提及,建议”,根据上下文indicated译为“建议的”。more investment,more spending和larger budget deficits是形容词比较级加名词,根据汉语习惯转换成动词加名词的搭配,即“扩大投资”、“增加开支”和“增加预算赤字”。

  49.[精解] 本题考核的知识点是:定语从句、分词做状语。

  主句是Aristotle and … wrote about problems …,后面接有both of whom引导的定语从句,采用拆译法单独成句。句子最后的分词结构feeling that …在定语从句中做状语,翻译时也应单独成句,that后引导的是宾语从句,做feeling的宾语。

  词汇方面:be prejudiced against意为“对…有偏见”,undesirable意为“不想要的,不得人心的”。

  50.[精解] 本题考核的知识点是:非谓语动词作后置定语、定语从句。

  该句含有which引导的非限定性从句做定语,翻译时拆开单独成句,并重复先行词,做从句的主语。

  词汇方面:condemn意为“谴责”,taking of interest是动名词结构,可增译为“获利的行为”。

  全文翻译正如大家所知道的,经济学是与生产、分配、交换和消费物品和服务相关的社会科学。经济学家关注个人、群体、商业企业和政府试图有效地实现他们选定的任何经济目标的方式。其他领域的研究也有助于对此的理解:心理学和伦理学试图解释目标是如何形成的,历史学记录着人们所追求的目标的变化,社会学则从社会环境的角度来解释人们的行为。

  规范的经济学可分为两大主要的领域。第一个领域,价格理论或微观经济学,解释在竞争的市场中供需间的相互作用是怎样导致了大量的个别价格、工资率、利润空间和租金的变化。微观经济学认为人的行为是理性的。消费者努力以能带来最大愉悦的方式花费他们的收入。按经济学家所说,他们使效用最大化。对企业家而言,他们从经营中寻求最大的利润。

  第二个领域,宏观经济学,是涉及国民收入和就业的现代理论。宏观经济学最早可追述到英国经济学家约翰。梅纳德。凯恩斯 1935年所著的《就业、利息和货币通论》一书。他对繁荣和萧条的解释围绕消费者、商业投资者和政府对货物或服务的总体需求。因为,按照凯恩斯的理论,不充分的总体需求会增加失业,建议的解决方式是企业扩大投资或政府增加开支,继而增加预算赤字。

  经济问题一直以来都占据着人们的思想。古希腊的亚里士多德和柏图都在著作中谈到财富、财产和贸易问题,两人都对商业持有偏见,认为靠生意来谋生是不足取的。罗马人从希腊人那里借用了经济学思想,对经商同样不屑一顾。在中世纪,罗马天主教会的经济学思想表达在其教法中,教法谴责从借贷中获利的行为,并认为商业地位劣于农业。

  经济学作为一门现代研究学科,区别于道德哲学和政治学,可追述到苏格兰哲学家兼经济学家亚当。斯密1776年著的《国民财富的性质和原因的研究》。重商主义和重农主义是斯密的古典经济学及其19世纪后继者(新古典经济学)的理论先驱。

  Section Ⅲ Writing

  Part A 51. Directions:On your way from Beijing to Paris, you lost you luggage carried by the airline. Write a complaint letter to the service center of the Airline. In your letter, you should tell them 1) what happened to your luggage,2) what your luggage is like,3) what compensation you expect. You should write about 100 words neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2. Do not sign your own name. Use “Li Ming” instead. You do not need to write the address. (10 points)

  一、审题与谋篇本题要求写一封投诉信。写投诉信的目的是表达不满、愤怒等情绪,并希望遇到的问题能够得到解决。投诉的原因多种多样,如:顾客投宿服务或产品的质量差、价格高、没有达到标准;学生投诉食堂的饭菜又贵又难吃;居民投诉附近噪音大等。由于写信的目的主要是希望自己的声音能被听到,问题能够快速得到解决,因此写出恰当而有力的投诉信是非常重要的。写此类信时应尽量保持一种礼貌而坚定的语气,不能恐吓或威胁。注意用简洁而切题的方式把问题陈述清楚,详细描述所投诉的产品或服务,说明给你带来的不便,陈述你希望得到的问题解决方式,可以明确时间的期限。此外,写信时应表示出对得到公正对待的自信,但避免过于情绪化。

  指导语中给出的情景是托运行李在航班上丢失,信的内容包括:(1)介绍你的行李所发生的状况;(2)说明行李的具体特征;(3)希望得到的赔偿。

  二、 参考范文Dear Sir or Madam,I am writing because I need to complain to you about what happened to my luggage carried by your airlines. On Friday, June 2, 2006, I traveled on your airlines from Beijing to Paris. When I went to pick up my luggage in Paris, I was informed that it was missing. The lost luggage is a black suitcase, 50 cm in length and 30 cm in width, in which there are five volumes of valuable research papers. If they cannot be found for me, I am sure that you will agree to pay me ¥1000, the estimated worth of my luggage on my claim ticket, to compensate for my great loss. I have always enjoyed the good service of your airlines, and I look forward to receiving the same kind of good service in this matter. Sincerely Li Ming

  Part B 52. Directions:Study the following drawing carefully and write an essay in which you should 1) describe the drawing, 2) interpret its implications, 3) give your comments. You should write about 200 words neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (20 points)

  一、 审题谋篇本题为图画式作文。一篇好的作文首先要中心明确,所以考试中,确定主题也成了我们的第一要务。由于指导语对主题的提示较少,所以本篇作文的关键是看图,尤其是图画的题目。在图画中,我们可以看到一匹抬起前腿,将要驰骋的骏马,题目为:千里之行,是从第一步开始的。可见,文章主题应围绕“第一步”与“千里之行”的关系展开论述,可以讨论“起步”或“行动”的重要性。

  再看指导语可知,文章应以图画展示的内容为主题,(一)描述图画;(二)阐述图画所要表达的含义;(三)发表自己的看法。

  二、参考范文范文一As we can see in the picture, a horse is starting the first step in his journey vigorously. The prancing horse, together with the line of words beneath that every journey begins with the first step, implies the importance of beginnings, and the necessity of getting off to a right start in anything that one undertakes. As we all know, the foundations of a building must be strong, or else the whole structure will fall down someday. The pioneering of any enterprise always contains the soul of it, in which is wrapped the whole motive, purpose and plan of the venture. The success of autumn crops depends on the initial steps taken in the spring. Therefore, it seems that the beginning point is dynamic and alive and often more important than any other point in the journey. When asked about the key to success, a successful author replied that the most helpful thing was to start writing. Without taking the first step, potential genius will contents itself with mediocrity. Only by trying, the first can produce the second, the second the third, and so on to the very goal. In sum, there is a magic potential in the first step taken toward a successful end in view.

  范文二As we can see in the picture, a horse is taking his first step of a journey. This beginning seems to be hard and painstaking, but every journey begins with the first step. No matter what we are going to do, we should start with our action. Though planning and dreaming is important, action is essential for our success. Maybe after all the efforts we still can‘t accomplish our aims, but taking no action can get us nowhere. For example, some students often complain about their bad luck when getting low marks in an exam; however, the reason for their failure is that most of them don’t listen carefully in class nor review their lessons after class. By contrast, those who get high marks have devoted much time and effort to learning. The most accomplished people in the world always have a history of making perseverant efforts, as Madam Cury and Edison did as scientists, Beethoven and Bach did as musicians, Marx and Confucius did as philosophers. In short, no pains no gains. Let us put our p

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