（71）Some of these causes are completely reasonable results of social needs. Others are reasonable consequences of particular advances in science being to some extent self-accelerating.
（72）This trend began during the Second World War， when several governments came to the conclusion that the specific demands that a government wants to make of its scientific establishment cannot generally be foreseen in detail.
（73）This seems mostly effectively done by supporting a certain amount of research not related to immediate goals but of possible consequence in the future.
（74）However， the world is so made that elegant systems are in principle unable to deal with some of the world's more fascinating and delightful aspects.
（75）New forms of thought as well as new subjects for thought must arise in the future as they have in the past， giving rise to new standards of elegance.
（71）Actually， it isn't， because it assumes that there is an agreed account of human rights， which is something the world does not have.
（72）Some philosophers argue that rights exist only within a social contract， as part of an exchange of duties and entitlements.
（73）It leads the discussion to extremes at the outset： it invites you to think that animals should be treated either with the consideration humans extend to other humans， or with no consideration at all.
（74）Arguing from the view that humans are different from animals in every relevant respect， extremists of this kind think that animals lie outside the area of moral choice.
（75）When that happens， it is not a mistake： it is mankind's instinct for moral reasoning in action， an instinct that should be encouraged rather than laughed at.
（71）But even more important， it was the farthest that scientists had been able to look into the past， for what they were seeing were the patterns and structures that existed 15 billion years ago.
（72）The existence of the giant clouds was virtually required for the Big Bang， first put forward in the 1920s， to maintain its reign as the dominant explanation of the cosmos.
（73）Astrophysicists working with ground-based detectors at the South Pole and balloon-borne instruments are closing in on such structures， and may report their findings soon.
（74）If the small hot spots look as expected， that will be a triumph for yet another scientific idea， a refinement of the Big Bang called the inflationary universe theory.
（75）Odd though it sounds， cosmic inflation is a scientifically plausible consequence of some respected ideas in elementary-particle physics， and many astrophysicists have been convinced for the better part of a decade that it is true.
（71） While there are almost as many definitions of history as there are historians， modern practice most closely conforms to one that sees history as the attempt to recreate and explain the significant events of the past.
（72） Interest in historical methods has arisen less through external challenge to the validity of history as an intellectual discipline and more from internal quarrels among historians themselves. （73）During this transfer， traditional historical methods were augmented by additional methodologies designed to interpret the new forms of evidence in the historical study.
（74） There is no agreement whether methodology refers to the concepts peculiar to historical work in general or to the research techniques appropriate to the various branches of historical inquiry.
（75） It applies equally to traditional historians who view history as only the external and internal criticism of sources， and to social science historians who equate their activity with specific techniques.
（71） Under modern conditions， this requires varying measures of centralized control and hence the help of specialized scientists such as economists and operational research experts. （72）Furthermore， it is obvious that the strength of a country's economy is directly bound up with the efficiency of its agriculture and industry， and that this in turn rests upon the efforts of scientists and technologists of all kinds.
（73）Owing to the remarkable development in mass communications， people everywhere are feeling new wants and are being exposed to new customs and ideas， while governments are often forced to introduce still further innovations for the reasons given above.
（74） in the early industrialized countries of Europe the process of industrialization—with all the far reaching changes in social patterns that followed—was spread over nearly a century， whereas nowadays a developing nation may undergo the same process in a decade or so.
（75）Additional social stresses may also occur because of the population explosion or problems arising from mass migration movements—themselves made relatively easy nowadays by modern means of transport.
（71） There will be television chat shows hosted by robots， and cars with pollution monitors that will disable them when they offend.
（72） Children will play with dolls equipped with personality chips， computers with in-built personalities will be regarded as workmates rather than tools， relaxation will be in front of smell-television， and digital age will have arrived.
（73）Pearson has pieced together the work of hundreds of researchers around the world to produce a unique millennium technology calendar that gives the latest dates when we can expect hundreds of key breakthroughs and discoveries to take place.
（74） But that， Pearson points out， is only the start of man-machine integration：“It will be the beginning of the long process of integration that will ultimately lead to a fully electronic human before the end of the next century.”
（75）And home appliances will also become so smart that controlling and operating them will result in the breakout of a new psychological disorder—kitchen rage.
（61） One difficulty is that almost all of what is called behavioral science continues to trace behavior to states of mind， feelings， traits of character， human nature， and so on.
（62）The behavioral sciences have been slow to change partly because the explanatory items often seem to be directly observed and partly because other kinds of explanations have been hard to find. （63）The role of natural selection in evolution was formulated only a little more than a hundred years ago， and the selective role of the environment in shaping and maintaining the behavior of the individual is only beginning to be recognized and studied.
（64）They are the possessions of the autonomous （self-governing） man of traditional theory， and they are essential to practices in which a person is held responsible for his conduct and given credit for his achievements.
（65） Until these issues are resolved， a technology of behavior will continue to be rejected， and with it possibly the only way to solve our problems.
（61）Furthermore， humans have the ability to modify the environment in which they live， thus subjecting all other life forms to their own peculiar ideas and fancies.
（62）Social science is that branch of intellectual enquiry which seeks to study humans and their endeavors in the same reasoned， orderly， systematic， and dispassioned manner that natural scientists use for the study of natural phenomena.
（63）The emphasis on data gathered first-hand， combined with a cross-cultural perspective brought to the analysis of cultures past and present， makes this study a unique and distinctly important social science.
（64）Tylor defined culture as “……that complex whole which includes belief， art， morals， law， custom， and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society.”
（65）Thus， the anthropological concept of “culture，" like the concept of ”set“ in mathematics， is an abstract concept which makes possible immense amounts of concrete research and understanding.
（61） The Greeks assumed that the structure of language had some connection with the process of thought， which took root in Europe long before people realized how diverse languages could be.
（62） We are obliged to them because some of these languages have since vanished， as the peoples who spoke them died out or became assimilated and lost their native languages.
（63） The newly described languages were often so strikingly different from the well studied languages of Europe and Southeast Asia that some scholars even accused Boas and Sapir of fabricating their data.
（64） Being interested in the relationship of language and thought， Whorf developed the idea that the structure of language determines the structure of habitual thought ma society.
（65） Whorf came to believe in a sort of linguistic determinism which， in its strongest form， states that language imprisons the mind， and that the grammatical patterns in a language can produce far-reaching consequences for the culture of a society.
46） Television is one of the means by which these feelings are created and conveyed —— and perhaps never before has it served so much to connect different peoples and nations as in the recent events in Europe.
47） In Europe， as elsewhere， multi-media groups have been increasingly successful： groups which bring together television， radio newspapers， magazines and publishing houses that work in relation to one another.
48） This alone demonstrates that the television business is not an easy world to survive in， a fact underlined by statistics that show that out of eighty European television networks no less than 50% took a loss in 1989.
49） Creating a “European identity” that respects the different cultures and traditions which go to make up the connecting fabric of the Old Continent is no easy task and demands a strategic choice
50） In dealing with a challenge on such a scale， it is no exaggeration to say “United we stand， divided we fall”
46） I shall define him as an individual who has elected as his primary duty and pleasure in life the activity of thinking in Socratic （苏格拉底） way about moral problems.
47） His function is analogous to that of a judge， who must accept the obligation of revealing in as obvious a manner as possible the course of reasoning which led him to his decision.
48） I have excluded him because， while his accomplishments may contribute to the solution of moral problems， he has not been charged with the task of approaching any but the factual aspects of those problems.
49） But his primary task is not to think about the moral code， which governs his activity， any more than a businessman is expected to dedicate his energies to an exploration of rules of conduct in business.
50） They may teach very well and more than earn their salaries， but most of them make little or no independent reflections on human problems which involve moral judgment.
（46） Traditionally， legal learning has been viewed in such institutions as the special preserve of lawyers， rather than a necessary part of the intellectual equipment of an educated person.
（47） On the other， it links these concepts to everyday realities in a manner which is parallel to the links journalists forge on a daily basis as they cover and comment on the news.
（48） But the idea that the journalist must understand the law more profoundly than an ordinary citizen rests on an understanding of the established conventions and special responsibilities of the news media.
（49） In fact， it is difficult to see how journalists who do not have a clear grasp of the basic features of the Canadian Constitution can do a competent job on political stories.
（50） While comment and reaction from lawyers may enhance stories， it is preferable for journalists to rely on their own notions of significance and make their own judgments.
（46） he believes that this very difficulty may have had the compensating advantage of forcing him to think long and intently about every sentence， and thus enabling him to detect errors in reasoning and in his own observations.
（47） He asserted， also， that his power to follow a long and purely abstract train of thought was very limited， for which reason he felt certain that he never could have succeeded with mathematics.
（48） On the other hand， he did not accept as well founded the charge made by some of his critics that， while he was a good observer， he had no power of reasoning.
（49） He adds humbly that perhaps he was “superior to the common run of men in noticing things which easily escape attention， and in observing them carefully.”
（50） Darwin was convinced that the loss of these tastes was not only a loss of happiness， but might possibly be injurious to the intellect， and more probably to the moral character.
（46） It may be said that the measure of the worth of any social institution is its effect in enlarging and improving experience； but this effect is not a part of its original motive.
（47） Only gradually was the by-product of the institution noted， and only more gradually still was this effect considered as a directive factor in the conduct of the institution.
（48） While it is easy to ignore in our contact with them the effect of our acts upon their disposition， it is not so easy as in dealing with adults.
（49） Since our chief business with them is to enable them to share in a common life we cannot help considering whether or no we are forming the powers which will secure this ability.
（50） We are thus led to distinguish， within the broad educational process which we have been so far considering， a more formal kind of education —— that of direct tuition or schooling.
46）Scientists jumped to the rescue with some distinctly shaky evidence to the effect that insects would eat us up if birds failed to control them.
47）but we have at least drawn near the point of admitting that birds should continue as a matter of intrinsic right， regardless of the presence or absence of economic advantage to us.
48）Time was when biologists somewhat overworked the evidence that these creatures preserve the health of game by killing the physically weak， or that they prey only on “worthless species.
49）In Europe， where forestry is ecologically more advanced， the non-commercial tree species are recognized as members of native forest community， to be preserved as such ，within reason.
50）It tends to ignore， and thus eventually to eliminate， many elements in the land community that lack commercial value， but that are essential to its healthy functioning.