您的位置:考研教育网>  > 考研英语 > 复习指导 正文

英语翻译之词义省略法

东方网   2010-11-26 16:04 【 】【我要纠错

  一、从语法角度来看

  (一)省代词

  1.省略作主语的人称代词

  (1)省略作主语的人称代词

  I had many wonderful ideas, but I only put a few into practice.

  我有很多美妙的想法,但是只把少数付诸实践了。

  He was thin and haggard and he looked miserable.

  他瘦弱憔悴,看上去一副可怜相。

  (2)英语中,泛指人称代词作主语时,即使是作第一个主语,在汉语译文中往往也可以省略。

  We live and learn.

  活到老,学到老。

  When will he arrive?—You can never tell.

  他什么时候到?——说不准。

  The significance of a man is not in what he attained but rather in what he longs to attain.

  人生的意义不在于已经获取的,而在于渴望得到什么样的东西。

  2.省略作宾语的代词

  The more he tried to hide his mistakes, the more he revealed them.

  他越是想要掩盖他的错误,就越是容易暴露。

  Please take off the old picture and throw it away.

  请把那张旧画取下来扔掉。

  3.省略物主代词

  I put my hand into my pocket.

  我把手放进口袋。

  She listened to me with her rounded eyes.

  她睁大双眼,听我说话。

  (二)代词it的省略

  Outside it was pitch dark and it was raining cats and dogs.

  外面一团漆黑,大雨倾盆。

  He glanced at his watch; it was 7:15.

  他一看表,是七点一刻了。

  It took me a long time to reach the hospital.

  我花了很长时间才到了医院。

  It is the people who are really powerful.

  人民才是最强大的。

  (三)省略连接词

  He looked gloomy and troubled.

  他看上去有些忧愁不安。(省略并列连接词)

  As it is late, you had better go home.

  时间不早了,你最好回家去吧。(省略表示原因的连接词)

  If sinter comes, can spring be far behind?

  冬天来了,春天还会远吗?(省略表示条件的连接词)

  If I had known it, I would not have joined in to.

  早知如此,我就不参加了。(省略表示条件的连接词)

  John rose gloomily as the train stopped, for he was thinking of his ailing mother.

  火车停了,约翰郁郁地站了起来,因为他想起了病中的母亲。(省略表示时间的连接词)

  (四)省略冠词

  1.英语有冠词,汉语没有冠词;因此,英译汉时往往可将冠词省略。

  A teacher should have patience in his work.

  当教员的应当有耐心。(省略不定冠词A)

  The horse is a useful animal.

  马是有益的动物。(省略定完词The)

  It is out of the question to fly to the moon in the past.

  在过去,飞往月球是绝对办不到的事情。(省略定完词The)

  The moon was slowly rising above the sea.

  月亮慢慢从海上升起。(省略定冠词The)

  2.英译汉时,省略原文中的冠词是一般情况。但在某些场合,冠词却不能省略,可以翻译为“一个,每一,这个,那个”等。例如:

  He left without saying a word.

  他一句话不说就走了。

  Egbert said he was getting a dollar a mile.

  埃格伯特说,他(开车)每天一英里就赚一块钱。

  This is the book you wanted.

  这就是你要的那本书。

  (五)省略介词

  1.省略表示时间的前置词

  The People‘s Republic of China was founded in 1949.

  一九四九年中华人民共和国成立。

  比较:中华人民共和国成立于一九四九年。

  (介词译成汉语在句首时可以省略,在句尾就没有省略)

  On July 1, 1997, Hongkong returned to the People‘s Republic of China.

  一九九七年七月,香港回归了中华人民共和国。

  2.省略表示地点的前置词

  Smoking is prohibited in public places.

  公共场所不准吸烟。

  In winter, it is much colder in the North than it is in the South.

  冬天,北方的天气比南方冷得多。

  如:

  He stood by the desk.

  他站在桌旁。

  I stayed in my brother‘s house.

  我住在弟弟家里。

  (六)省略动词

  When the pressure gets low, the boiling-point becomes low.

  气压低,沸点就低。

  Delivery must be effected within the time stated on the purchase order.

  必须在购货单规定的时间交货。

  二、从修辞角度看

  (一)英语句子中有些短语重复出现,或者具有相同意义的词重复出现,英译汉时可按情况作适当省略。

  University applicants who had worked at a job would receive preference over those who had not.

  报考大学的人,有工作经验的优先录取。

  Neither party shall cancel the contract without sufficient cause or reason.

  双方均不得无故解除合同。

  (二)根据汉语习惯,译文中可以省略一些可有可无的词。

  There was no snow, the leaves were gone from the trees, the grass was dead.

◇ 编辑推荐
·2016年考研调剂信息汇总(更新中)
·2016年考研国家线
·2017考研网上辅导招生简章
相关热词:英语翻译 省略 词义
 考研教育网官方微信

微信公众账号cnedu_cn

 网上辅导课程特色
  • 即报即学
  • 名师团队
  • 反复看课
  • 在线答疑
  • 移动教学
  • 讲义下载
  • 课后练习
  • 模拟测试
 24小时报名咨询
考研网上辅导课程 精品班 实验班
学费 购买 学费 购买
公共课 政 治 1500元 购买 3500元 购买
英 语 1500元 购买 3500元 购买
数 学 1500元 购买 3500元 购买
专业课 考研名师编写,网校独创考研管理类、法律类、教育等专业课电子书正在热卖!