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2011考研英语模拟题(13)

考研教育网   2010-08-06 14:50 【 】【我要纠错

  Action is needed,__12__simply aiming to reduce the__13__(and cost)of public pensions,or trying to__14__the role of privately funded pensions within the system,though necessary steps,may be__15__to deal with the dependency challenge. After years of__16__early retirement schemes to avoid__17__and higher unemployment,many governments are now looking__18__persuading people to stay in work until they are older. Surely,the thinking goes,if we are healthier now and jobs are physically less__19__and unemployment is down,then perhaps the__20__rate should rise anew.

  1.[A] unsolvable [B] additional [C] unsustainable [D] undue

  2.[A] delaying [B] retaining [C] detaining [D] hindering

  3.[A] ultimate [B] unattainable [C] specific [D] expensive

  4.[A] substantial [B] essential [C] potential [D] controversial

  5.[A] donating [B] sponsoring [C] subsidizing [D] funding

  6.[A] outlook [B] outcome [C] outbreak [D] outset

  7.[A] prolonging [B] expanding [C] soaring [D] rising

  8.[A] in [B] on [C] by [D] for

  9.[A] conceived [B] reckoned [C] expected [D] meant

  10.[A] As [B] Such [C] So [D] It

  11.[A] should pay [B] paying [C] be paid [D] would pay

  12.[A] but [B] for [C] and [D] thus

  13.[A] multitude [B] implementation [C] application [D] generosity

  14.[A] exaggerate [B] augment [C] magnify [D] multiply

  15.[A] insufficient [B] influential [C] inefficient [D] intrinsic

  16.[A] advancing [B] previous [C] ahead [D] preceding

  17.[A] suspensions [B] abundances [C] redundancies [D] discrepancies

  18.[A] for [B] to [C] about [D] at

  19.[A] turbulent [B] strenuous [C] compact [D] intricate

  20.[A] dependency [B] fertility [C] present [D] mortality

  答案

  1.C 2.A 3.D 4.B 5.D 6.A 7.D 8.A 9.C 10.B

  11.C 12.A 13.D 14.B 15.A 16.A 17.C 18.D 19.B 20.C

  总体分析

  本文主要讨论了老龄化给经合组织国家现存养老体系带来的挑战。文章第一段指出老龄化给经合组织国家带来的挑战,并提出推迟退休可能对解决该问题有所帮助。第二段分析了早退休给养老体系带来的问题,即越来越多的人早退休而寿命延长,随着出生率的降低,就会有更多退休的人依靠更少工作的人来为他们养老,养老金在国家财政中所占的比例增加,成为无法承受的负担。第三段探讨了解决方法,指出仅仅减少公共养老金的数量,增加私有养老的比例是不够的,许多政府在考虑说服人们晚退休。

  全文翻译

  老龄化给经合组织国家,尤其是在如何支付未来的公共养老金负债方面,带来了严重的挑战。早退休给退休金的融资带来了难以承受的负担。没有什么简单的解决方案,但推迟退休(年龄)可能有所帮助。

  早退休可能看起来是个值得追求的个人目标,但对于社会来说却是昂贵的,它使当前的公共养老金系统难以持久。基本原因是更多的人退休早而寿命却更长。这意味着更多的退休人员要依赖在职者的资助作为收入。这一前景是令人担忧的。未来50年,经合组织国家的低出生率和预期寿命的增加将使这一老年依赖率提高大约一倍。占经合组织国家全部退休收入30%-80%的公共退休金的支出,在国内生产总值中的比例预期将平均增加超过三个百分点,而在有些国家甚至会增加八个百分点。养老基金的压力如此之大以至于现在的工人有得不到他们预期或认为应该得到的养老金的危险。

  行动是必需的,但仅仅试图减少公共养老金的慷慨度或增加系统内私有养老金的作用,尽管是必要的,但在应对这种依赖挑战方面仍是不够的。前些年为了避免下岗及高失业,政府采取提前早退休的方案,而现在许多政府正考虑劝说人们晚点退休。当然,他们是这么想的,如果现在我们更加健康了、工作对体力的要求降低了、失业率也降低了,那么(工作)出席率可能也该重新上升了。

  九、罗马人的建国

  The success of Augustus owed much to the character of Roman theorizing about the state. The Romans did not produce ambitious blueprints1 the construction of idea__l__ states,such as__2__ to the Greeks. With very few exceptions,Roman theorists ignored,or rejected__3__ valueless,intellectual exercises like Plato‘s Republic,in__4__ the relationship of the individual to the state was__5__ out painstakingly without reference to__6__ states or individuals. The closest the Roman came to the Greek model was Cicero’s De Re Publica,and even here Cicero had Rome clearly in __7__. Roman thought about the state was concrete,even when it__8__ religious and moral concepts. The first ruler of Rome,Romulus,was__9__ to have received authority from the gods,specifically from Jupiter,the“guarantor”of Rome. All constitutional__10__was a method of conferring and administering the__11__. Very clearly it was believed that only the assembly of the__12__,the family heads who formed the original senate,__13__the religious character necessary to exercise authority,because its original function was to__14__the gods. Being practical as well as exclusive,the senators moved__15__to divide the authority,holding that their consuls,or chief officials,would possess it on__16__months,and later extending its possession to lower officials.__17__the important achievement was to create the idea of continuing__18__authority embodied only temporarily in certain upper-class individuals and conferred only__19__the mass of the people concurred. The system grew with enormous __20__,as new offices and assemblies were created and almost none discarded.

  1.[A] with [B] for [C] in [D] to

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

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