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  Action is needed,__12__simply aiming to reduce the__13__(and cost)of public pensions,or trying to__14__the role of privately funded pensions within the system,though necessary steps,may be__15__to deal with the dependency challenge. After years of__16__early retirement schemes to avoid__17__and higher unemployment,many governments are now looking__18__persuading people to stay in work until they are older. Surely,the thinking goes,if we are healthier now and jobs are physically less__19__and unemployment is down,then perhaps the__20__rate should rise anew.

  1.[A] unsolvable [B] additional [C] unsustainable [D] undue

  2.[A] delaying [B] retaining [C] detaining [D] hindering

  3.[A] ultimate [B] unattainable [C] specific [D] expensive

  4.[A] substantial [B] essential [C] potential [D] controversial

  5.[A] donating [B] sponsoring [C] subsidizing [D] funding

  6.[A] outlook [B] outcome [C] outbreak [D] outset

  7.[A] prolonging [B] expanding [C] soaring [D] rising

  8.[A] in [B] on [C] by [D] for

  9.[A] conceived [B] reckoned [C] expected [D] meant

  10.[A] As [B] Such [C] So [D] It

  11.[A] should pay [B] paying [C] be paid [D] would pay

  12.[A] but [B] for [C] and [D] thus

  13.[A] multitude [B] implementation [C] application [D] generosity

  14.[A] exaggerate [B] augment [C] magnify [D] multiply

  15.[A] insufficient [B] influential [C] inefficient [D] intrinsic

  16.[A] advancing [B] previous [C] ahead [D] preceding

  17.[A] suspensions [B] abundances [C] redundancies [D] discrepancies

  18.[A] for [B] to [C] about [D] at

  19.[A] turbulent [B] strenuous [C] compact [D] intricate

  20.[A] dependency [B] fertility [C] present [D] mortality


  1.C 2.A 3.D 4.B 5.D 6.A 7.D 8.A 9.C 10.B

  11.C 12.A 13.D 14.B 15.A 16.A 17.C 18.D 19.B 20.C








  The success of Augustus owed much to the character of Roman theorizing about the state. The Romans did not produce ambitious blueprints1 the construction of idea__l__ states,such as__2__ to the Greeks. With very few exceptions,Roman theorists ignored,or rejected__3__ valueless,intellectual exercises like Plato‘s Republic,in__4__ the relationship of the individual to the state was__5__ out painstakingly without reference to__6__ states or individuals. The closest the Roman came to the Greek model was Cicero’s De Re Publica,and even here Cicero had Rome clearly in __7__. Roman thought about the state was concrete,even when it__8__ religious and moral concepts. The first ruler of Rome,Romulus,was__9__ to have received authority from the gods,specifically from Jupiter,the“guarantor”of Rome. All constitutional__10__was a method of conferring and administering the__11__. Very clearly it was believed that only the assembly of the__12__,the family heads who formed the original senate,__13__the religious character necessary to exercise authority,because its original function was to__14__the gods. Being practical as well as exclusive,the senators moved__15__to divide the authority,holding that their consuls,or chief officials,would possess it on__16__months,and later extending its possession to lower officials.__17__the important achievement was to create the idea of continuing__18__authority embodied only temporarily in certain upper-class individuals and conferred only__19__the mass of the people concurred. The system grew with enormous __20__,as new offices and assemblies were created and almost none discarded.

  1.[A] with [B] for [C] in [D] to

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

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