Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)
The inclusion of all children and youth is part of a general integrative trend that has accelerated since World War II. It relates to some newer developments as well. Concern for the earth’s endangered environment has become central, emphasizing in both intellectual and social life the need for cooperation rather than competition, the importance of understanding interrelationships of the ecosystem, and the idea that ecology can be used as an organizing concept. In a different vein, the rapid development of microelectronics, particularly the use of computers for multiple functions in education, goes for beyond possibilities of earlier technological advances. Although technology is thought of by some as antagonistic to humanistic concerns, others argue that it makes communication and comprehension available to a wider population and encourages “system thinking,” both ultimately integrative effects.
The polarization of opinion on technology’s effects and most other important issues is a problem in educational policy determination. In addition to the difficulties of governing increasingly large and diverse education systems, as well as those of meeting the never-ending demands of expanding education, the chronic lack of consensus makes the system unable to respond satisfactorily to public criticism and unable to plan for substantive long-range development.
The political and administrative responses so far have been to attend to short-run efficiency by improving management techniques and to adopt polar responses to accommodate polar criticisms. Thus, community and community schools have been emphasized along with central control and standardization, and institutional alternatives have been opened, while the structure of main institutions has become more articulated. For example, the focus of attention has been placed on the transition stages, which earlier were virtually ignored: from home to school from primary to secondary to upper secondary, from school to work. Tertiary institutions have been reconceived as part of a unified level; testing has become more sophisticated and credentials have become more differentiated either by certificate or by transcript.
Alternative teaching strategies have been encouraged in theory, but basic, curriculum uniformity has effectively restricted the practice of new methods. General education is still mainly abstract, and subject matter, though internally more dynamic, still rests on language, mathematics, and science. There has been an increasing reliance on the construction of subject matter to guide the method of teaching. Teachers are entrusted with a greater variety of tasks, but they are less trusted with knowledge, leading political authorities to call for upgrading of teacher training, teacher inservice training, and regular assessment of teacher performance.
Recent reform efforts have been focused on integrating general and vocational education and on encouraging lifelong or recurrent education to meet changing individual and social needs. Thus, not only has the number of students and institutions increased, as a result of inclusion policies, but the scope of education has also expanded. This tremendous growth, however, has raised new questions about the proper functions of the school and the effectiveness for life, work, or intellectual advancement of present programs and means of instruction.
21. The passage is mainly about.
\[A\] major difficulties in education
\[B\] effects of modem technology on education
\[C\] major trends and problems in education
\[D\] the tremendous growth of education
22. From the passage we can infer that.
\[A\] the rapid development of modem technology
\[B\] some modem developments relating to the inclusion policies
\[C\] the inclusion policies of education
\[D\] concern for the earth’s endangered environments
23. The second passage is mainly about.
\[A\] the polarization of opinion on some important issues about educational policy
\[B\] the rapid development of education
\[C\] the difficulties in meeting the demands of expanding education
\[D\] the political and administrative measures taken to further expand education
24. The author uses the example of transition of stage in school to show.
\[A\] school life is important for families in a community
\[B\] schooling is important for students to go to work
\[C\] disciplines are emphasized in community school
\[D\] all levels of schools are unified
25. According to this passage, which of the following is FALSE?
\[A\] Various teaching methodologies have not been widely adopted in general education.
\[B\] Focusing on subject matter is still an obvious feature of general education.
\[C\] The transition from school to work has never been overlooked.
\[D\] The professional quality of the major, of teachers has not been considerably enhanced.
The evolution of intelligence among early large mammals of the grasslands was due in great measure to the interaction between two ecologically synchronized groups of these animals, the hunting carnivores and the herbivores that they hunted. The interaction resulting from the differences between predator and prey led to a general improvement in brain functions; however, certain components of intelligence were improved far more than others.
The kind of intelligence favored by the interplay of increasingly smarter catchers and increasingly keener escapers is defined by attention—that aspect of mind carrying consciousness forward from one moment to the next. It ranges from a passive freefloating awareness to a highly focused, active fixation. the range through these states is mediated by the arousal system, a network of tracts converging from sensory systems to integrating centers in the brain stem. From the more relaxed to the more vigorous levels sensitivity to novelty is increased. The organism is more awake more vigilant; this increased vigilance results in the apprehension of ever more subtle signals as the organism becomes more sensitive to its surroundings. The processes of arousal and concentration give attention to its direction. Arousal is at first general with a flooding of impulses in the brain stem; then gradually the activation is channeled. Thus begins concentration, the holding of consistent images. One meaning of intelligence is the way in thigh these images and other alertly searched information are used in the context of previous experience. Consciousness links past attention to the present and permits the integration of details with perceived ends purposes.
The elements of intelligence and consciousness come together marvelously to produce different styles in predator and prey. Herbivores and carnivores develop different kinds of attention related to escaping or chasing. Although in both kinds of animal arousal stimulates the production of adrenaline and nor epinephrine by the adrenal glands the effect in herbivores is primarily fear, whereas in carnivores the effect is primarily aggression. For both, arousal attunes the animal to what is ahead. Perhaps it does not experience forethought as we know it but the animal does experience something like it.
The predator is searchingly aggressive innerdirected, used by the nervous system and the adrenal hormones, but aware in a sense closer to human consciousness than, say, a hungry lizard’s instinctive snap at a passing beetle. Using past events as a framework. The large mammal predator is working out a relationship between movement and food, sensitive to possibilities in cold trails and distant soundsand yesterday’s unforgotten lessons. The herbivore bray is of a different mind. Its mood of wariness rather than searching and its attitude of general expectancy instead of anticipating are silkthin veils of tranquility over an explosive endocrine system.
26. The author is primarily concerned with .
\[A\] disproving the view that herbivores are less intelligent than carnivores
\[B\] describing a relationship between animals’ intelligence and their ecological roles
\[C\] establishing a direct link between early large mammals and their modern counterparts
\[D\] analyzing the ecological basis for the dominance of some carnivores over other carnivores
27. According to the passage, as the process of arousal in an organism continues, all of the following may occur EXCEPT.
\[A\] the production of adrenaline
\[B\] the production of norepinephrine
\[C\] a heightening of sensitivity to stimulate
\[D\] an expansion of the range of states mediated by the brain stem
28. According to the passage, improvement in brain function among early large mammals resulted primarily from which of the following?
\[A\] Interplay of predator and prey.
\[B\] Persistence of free floating awareness in animals of the grasslands.
\[C\] Gradual dominance of warm blooded mammals over cold blooded reptiles.
\[D\] Interaction of early large mammals with less intelligent species.
29. The author refers to a hungry lizard (last paragraph) primarily in order to.
\[A\] demonstrate the similarity between the hunting methods of mammals and those of no mammals
\[B\] broaden the application of his argument by including an insectivore as an example
\[C\] make a distinction between higher and lower levels of consciousness
\[D\] provide an additional illustration of the brutality characteristic of predators
30. The author’s attitude toward the mammals discussed in the passage is best described as .
\[A\] superior condescending \[B\] lighthearted and jocular
\[C\] apologetic and conciliatory \[D\] respectful and admiring
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