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Text 3

   What accounts for the astounding popularity of Dr.Phil McGraw? Why have so many TV viewers and book buyers embraced this tough warrior of a psychologist who tells them to suck it up and deal with their own problems rather than complaining and blaming everyone else? Obviously, Oprah Winfrey has a lot to do with it. She made him famous with regular appearances on her show, and is co-producing the new "Dr.Phil" show that’s likely to be the hottest new daytime offering this fall. But we decided to put Dr. Phil on the cover not just because he’s a phenomenon. We think his success may reflect an interesting shift in the American spirit of time. Could it be that we’re finally getting tired of the culture of victimology?
   This is a tricky subject, because there are very sad real victims among us. Men still abuse women in alarming numbers. Racism and discrimination persist in subtle and not-so-subtle forms. But these days, almost anyone can find a therapist or lawyer to assure them that their professional relationship or health problems aren’t their fault. As Marc Peyser tells us in his terrific profile of Dr. Phil, the TV suits were initially afraid audiences would be offended by his stern advice to "get real!" In fact, viewers thirsted for the tough talk. Privately, we all know we have to take responsibility for decisions we control. It may not be revolutionary advice (and may leave out important factors like unconscious impulses). But it’s still an important message with clear echoing as, a year later, we contemplate the personal lessons of September 11.
   Back at the ranch (livestock farm)-the one in Crawford, Texas-President Bush continued to issue mixed signals on Iraq. He finally promised to consult allies and Congress before going to war, and signaled an attack isn’t coming right now ("I’m a patient man"). But so far there has been little consensus-building, even as the administration talks of "regime change" and positions troops in the gulf. Bush’s team also ridiculed the press for giving so much coverage to the Iraq issue. Defense Secretary Rumsfeld called it a "frenzy," and Press Secretary Ari Fleischer dismissed it as "self-inflicted silliness." But as Michael Hirsh notes in our lead story, much of the debate has been inside the Republican Party, where important voices of experience argue Bush needs to prepare domestic and world opinion and think through the global consequences before moving forward. With so much at stake, the media shouldn’t pay attention? Now who’s being silly?

   31. Faced with diversified issues of injustice, Dr. Phil McGraw advised that people should __.
   [A] strongly voice their condemnation of those responsible
   [B] directly probe the root of their victimization
   [C] carefully examine their own problems
   [D] sincerely express their sympathy for the victims
   32. One possible response, when the program "Dr. Phil" was first presented on TV, that people were afraid of was _____.
   [A] suspicion
   [B] satisfaction
   [C] indifference
   [D] indignation
   33. The word "tough"(Line 7, Paragraph 2) most probably means_____.
   [A] piercing to the truth
   [B] using vulgar language
   [C] mean and hostile
   [D] difficult to understand
   34. The author advises the public to _____.
   [A] leave out factors such as unconscious impulses
   [B] draw lessons of their own from September 11
   [C] respond decisively to September 11 tragedy
   [D] accept decisions beyond our control
   35. With a series of questions at the end of the text, the author _____.
   [A] feels uncertain of what his own opinion is
   [B] differentiates two conflicting views
   [C] criticizes the Bush Administration
   [D] argues for the US policy on Iraq

Text 4

   With the extension of democratic rights in the first half of the nineteenth century and the ensuing decline of the Federalist establishment, a new conception of education began to emerge. Education was no longer a confirmation of a pre-existing status, but an instrument in the acquisition of higher status. For a new generation of upwardly mobile students, the goal of education was not to prepare them to live comfortably in the world into which they had been born, but to teach them new virtues and skills that would propel them into a different and better world. Education became training; and the student was no longer the gentleman-in-waiting, but the journeyman apprentice for upward mobility.
   In the nineteenth century a college education began to be seen as a way to get ahead in the world. The founding of the land-grant colleges opened the doors of higher education to poor but aspiring boys from non-Anglo-Saxon, working-class and lower-middle-class backgrounds. The myth of the poor boy who worked his way through college to success drew millions of poor boys to the new campuses. And with this shift, education became more vocational: its object was the acquisition of practical skills and useful information.
   For the gentleman-in-waiting, virtue consisted above all in grace and style, in doing well what was appropriate to his position; education was merely a way of acquiring polish. And vice was manifested in gracelessness, awkwardness, in behaving inappropriately, discourteously, or ostentatiously. For the apprentice, however, virtue was evidenced in success through hard work. The requisite qualities of character were not grace or style, but drive, determination, and a sharp eye for opportunity. While casual liberality and even prodigality characterized the gentleman, frugality, thrift, and self-control came to distinguish the new apprentice. And while the gentleman did not aspire to a higher station because his station was already high, the apprentice was continually becoming, striving, struggling upward. Failure for the apprentice meant standing still, not rising.

   36. Which of the following is true according to the first paragraph?
   [A] Democratic ideas started with education.
   [B] Federalists were opposed to education.
   [C] New education helped confirm people’s social status.
   [D] Old education had been in tune with hierarchical society.
   37.The difference between "gentleman-in-waiting" and "journeyman" is that _____ .
   [A] education trained gentleman-in-waiting to climb higher ladders
   [B] journeyman was ready to take whatever was given to him
   [C] gentleman-in-waiting belonged to a fixed and high social class
   [D] journeyman could do practically nothing without education
   38. According to the second paragraph, land-grant College _____.
   [A] belonged to the land-owning class
   [B] enlarged the scope of education
   [C] was provided only to the poor
   [D] benefited all but the upper class
   39.Which of the following was the most important for a "gentleman-in-waiting"?
   [A] Manners.
   [B] Education.
   [C] Moral.
   [D] Personality.
   40. The best title for the passage is _____.
   [A] Education and Progress
   [B] Old and New Social Norms
   [C] New Education: Opportunities for More
   [D] Demerits of Hierarchical Society

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