Great emotional and intellectual resources are demanded in quarrels; stamina helps, as does a capacity for obsession. But no one is born a good quarreler, the craft must be learned.
There are two generally recognized apprenticeships. First, and universally preferred, is likely to grow up failing to understand that quarrels, unlike arguments, are not about anything, least of all the pursuit of truth. The apparent subject of a quarrel is a mere pretext; the real business is the quarrel itself.
Essentially, adversaries in a quarrel age out to establish or rescue their dignity. Hence the elementary principle: anything may be said. The unschooled, may spend an hour with knocking heart, sifting the consequences of calling this old acquaintance a lying fraud.
Those who miss their first apprenticeship may care to enroll in the second, the bad marriage. This can be perilous for the neophyte; the mutual intimacy of spouses makes them at once more vulnerable and more dangerous in attack. Once sex is involved, the stakes are higher all round. And there is an unspoken rule that those who love, or have loved, one another are granted a license for unlimited beastliness such as is denied to mere sworn enemies. For all that some of our most tenacious black belt quarrelers have come to it late in life and mastered every throw.
A quarrel may last years. Among brooding types with time on their hands, like writers, half a lifetime is not uncommon. In its most refined form, a quarrel may consist of the participants not talking to each other. They will need to scheme laboriously to appear in public together to register their silence.
Brief, violent quarrels are also known as rows. In all cases the essential ingredient remains the same; the original cause must be forgotten as possible. From here on, dignity, pride, selfesteem, honor is quarrelling, like jealousy, is an ailconsuming business, virtually a profession. For the quarreler’s very selfhood is on the line. To lose an argument is a brief disappointment, much like losing a game of tennis; but to be crushed in a quarrel rather bite off your tongue and spread it at your opponent’s feet.
31. According to the passage, which is false?
\[A\] It is a good way to establish or rescue one’s dignity through quarrel.
\[B\] Quarrel is very different from argument.
\[C\] Spouses can benefit little from quarrel.
\[D\] Quarrel is not an instinct of human being.
32. What does the expression “rainy afternoon” (2nd paragraph) mean about brothers and sisters?
\[A\] Had to play at home. \[B\] Felt depressed.
\[C\] Were quarrelling. \[D\] Got the only chance to stay together.
33. The author implies that.
\[A\] an excellent quarreler must be trained through two phrases
\[B\] in people’s whole life, there are two periods full of quarreling
\[C\] quarrel is much like argument
\[D\] all people like quarreling
34.Which is the difference between a quarrel and an argument?
\[A\] A quarrel involves individual pride.
\[B\] A quarrel concerns strong points of view.
\[C\] An argument has wellestablished rules.
\[D\] An argument concerns trivial issues.
35. The author’s opinion is.
\[A\] objective \[B\] subjective \[C\] progressive \[D\] conservative
Islamic law is a particularly instructive example of “sacred law”. Islamic law is a phenomenon so different from all other forms of lawnotwithstanding, of course, a considerable and inevitable number of coincidences with one or the other of them as far as subject matter and positive enactments are concerned that its study is indispensable in order to appreciate adequately the full range of possible legal phenomena. Even the two other representatives of sacred law that are historically and geographically nearest to it, Jewish law and Roman Catholic canon law, are perceptibly different.
Both Jewish law and canon law are more uniform than Islamic law. Though historically there is a discernible break between Jewish law of the sovereign state of ancient Israel and of the Diaspora (the dispersion of Jewish people after the conquest of Israel), the spirit of the legal matter in later parts of the Old Testament is very close to that of the Talmud, one of the primary codifications（诠释） of Jewish law in the Diaspora. Islam, on the other hand, represented a radical breakaway from the Arab paganism(信仰) that preceded it; Islamic law is the result of an examination, from a religious angle, of legal subject matter that was far from uniform, comprising as it did the various components of the laws of preIslamic Arabia and numerous legal elements taken over from the nonArab peoples of the conquered territories. All this was unified by being subjected to the same kind of religious scrutiny, the impact of which varied greatly, being almost nonexistent in some fields, and in others originating novel institutions. This central duality of legal subject matter and religious norm is additional to the variety of legal ethical and ritual rules that is typical of sacred law.
In its relation to the secular state, Islamic law differed from both Jewish and canon law. Jewish law was buttressed by the cohesion of the community, reinforced by pressure from outside: its rules are the direct expression of this feeling of cohesion, tending toward the accommodation of dissent. Canon and Islamic law, on the contrary, were dominated by the dualism of religion and state, where the state was not, in contrast with Judaism, an alien power but the political expression of the same religion. But the conflict between state and religion took different forms; in Christianity it appeared as the struggle for political power on the part of a tightly organized ecclesiastical hierarchy, and canon law was one of its political weapons. Islamic law, on the other hand, was never supported by and organized institution; consequently there never developed an overt trial of strength. There merely existed discordance between application of the sacred law and many of the regulations framed by Islamic states; this antagonism varied according to place and time.
36. According to the author, which of the following is not true?
\[A\] Islamic law is rarely different from Jewish law and canon law.
\[B\] Islamic law is especially instructive example of scared law.
\[C\] Jewish law is the same as canon law.
\[D\] Islamic law is more uniform than both Jewish law and canon law.
37. The word “it” (in Line 7, Para 2) most probably refers to.
\[A\] the Old Testament \[B\] Islamic law
\[C\] canon law \[D\] legal subject matter
38. The word“ buttress ” (in Line 2，Para 3) means.
\[A\] buttonhole\[B\] distress\[C\] support\[D\] hinder
39. Islamic law never developed an overt trial of strength, because.
\[A\] it was never supported by an organized institute
\[B\] it was dominated by the dualism of religion and state
\[C\] it was reinforced by pressure from outside
\[D\] it was supported by an organized institution
40. The best title for this passage could be.
\[A\] Scared Law \[B\] Islamic Law
\[C\] Islamic Law, Jewish Law and Canon Law \[D\] All Kinds of Laws
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