In the following article, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41-45, choose the most suitable one from the list AG to fit into each of the numbered blank. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the gaps. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
In Europe and Asia the first “medium of exchange” or “standard of value” was not gold or silver, but cattle (the Spanish words relating to cattle, pecuario, and to money, pecuniario, both have the same root). In other parts of the world, however, such different commodities as salt, shells, stones and cocoa beans were all used as “money”. They all offered advantages over the barter system (the direct exchange of goods), but none of them was perfect. (41).
The invention of coins appears to have occurred almost simultaneously but quite independently in ancient Greece and in China in about 700 B.C. (42).
In Greece, a natural alloy of gold and silver called “electrun” occurred in river in nugget form. The first coins were taken out of these nuggets with a tool called a punch. In order to distinguish these coins from gold ornaments, a design, or “type”, to use the technical numismatic expression, was added on one side. At first, these types were very simple: flowers, squares or, in the case of the city of Phocaea, a seal (seal = foca Spanish). (43).Soon, inscriptions appeared, the first known one being “I am the sign of Phanes.” From Halicarnassus around 600 B.C., about 200years later, the first portraits of rulers appeared on coins.
(44).Firstly, it was made of bronze. More notable, it was not circular, but in the shape of a knife! The knife had a hole pierced in the handle so that it could be suspended (for example, from a string), and, like some Greek coins, it generally bore an inscription. Other shapes included keys or spades, but what they had in common was the pierced hole. It was probably around 250 B.C. that the first Chinese money we would recognize as coins appeared, and, subsequently, the famous Ming Mint produced a round coin with a square hole in it. This particular coin bore the inscription, “Knife of Ming,” but later the knife itself disappeared. It was from this coin that the famous “cash” developed. The Chinese word, “cash”, means “a small unit of currency.” Although Chinese coins often had inscriptions, they virtually never had portraits, or types of any kind, until the nineteenth century when were influenced by western models.
(45). In the thirteenth century A.D. Marco Polo brought stories of such money to Europe, but the concept did not inspire the Europeans of his time. In fact, the true ancestors of modern paper money were the billets printed in France in 1716 by the Scottish financier, John Law. So the English word “cash” comes from a Chinese word, and the Spanish word billeted comes from a Scotsman in France. Money certainly seems to make the word go round!
\[A\] Some were too heavy, some could not be divided into small enough parts (How much of a cow would you need to buy a piece of cheese?), some were not permanent enough. The solution was money as we know it, that is, money in the form of coins.
\[B\] As for paper money, that was a Chinese invention, too.
\[C\] Meanwhile, in another part of Greece, circular silver coins were made, and these quickly became more common everywhere in Greece than the electrun ones.
\[D\] The reason why historians believe the development was independent is because of the notable difference in the two systems.
\[E\] Checks have largely replaced money as a means of exchange, for they are widely accepted everywhere.
\[F\] The first money to appear in China was very different.
\[G\] Though this is very convenient for both buyer and seller, it should not be forgotten that checks are not real money: they are quite valueless in themselves.
The following paragraphs are given in a wrong order. For Questions 4145, you are required to reorganize these paragraphs into a coherent article by choosing from the list A-G to fill in each numbered box. The first and the last paragraphs have been placed for you in Boxes. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
\[A\] It is also used to help students gain transition skills: Students with autism or developmental delay can visit a virtual supermarket, take public transportation, cross the street, or organize his or her day. Students in wheelchairs can learn how to navigate buildings. And the beauty is, these students can make any number of mistakes without endangering themselves.
\[B\] For example, virtual reality has been used effectively to assess students’ depth perception, with the results being quite different from those obtained from traditional paper and pencil tests.
\[C\] Then we gradually begin shrinking the sign and adding other environmental elements. Once the student has mastered this virtually, he or she transfers the knowledge to the real world. In the end, this is the most important function of virtual reality programs for special students.
\[D\] Virtual reality even allows us to tailor the world to meet a child’s needs. Let’s say we’re teaching a child to cross the street by paying attention to traffic signs. Educators have found that it is often difficult for the child to locate the traffic sign in a busy environment. With virtual reality, we can blow up the “walk sign” so the student knows what it looks like.
\[E\] And it is expected that future teachers will be exposed to virtual classes, complete with “difficult students” to help them master behavior management techniques.
\[F\] In fact, one of the biggest virtues of virtual reality is that it allows students to learn in a safe environment, and this holds true for students with behavior disorders. After a student has learned an appropriate behavior or way of controlling his or her anger, the student is put in progressively more difficult virtual social situations where he or she can practice the new technique.
\[G\] Some of today’s most cutting-edge technology is now being used to help students with special needs. No longer just the province of games for “video needs,” virtual reality has come into its own as a tool for special education teachers and therapists. As such, it is used for assessment, teaching, and practice, according to Skip Rizzo, research assistant/professor at the University of Southern California.
You are going to read a text about Olympic Games, followed by a list of explanations. Choose the best explanation from the list A-F for each numbered subheading (41-45). There is one extra explanation which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
Olympic Games (modern), international sports competition, held every four years at a different site, in which athletes from different nations compete against each other in a variety of sports. There are two types of Olympics, the Summer Olympics and the Winter Olympics. Through 1992 they were held in the same year, but beginning in 1994 they were rescheduled so that they are held in alternate evennumbered years.
(41) Modern Olympic Gamesfrom past to present
The modern Olympic Games began in Athens, Greece, in 1896, two years after French educator and thinker Pierre de Coubertin proposed that the Olympic Games of ancient Greece be revived to promote a more peaceful world.
(42) International Olympic Committee
The Olympic Games are administered by the International Olympic Committee (IOC), which is headquartered in Lausanne, Switzerland.
(43) Awarding the Games
In order to host the Olympics, a city must submit a proposal to the IOC. After all proposals have been submitted, the IOC votes.
(44) Athletes and eligibility
Although the Olympic Charter, the official constitution of the Olympic movement, proclaims that the Olympics are contests among individuals and not among nations, the IOC assigns to the various NOCs the task of selecting national Olympic teams.
The Olympic Games have always included a number of ceremonies, many of which emphasize the themes of international friendship and peaceful cooperation.
\[A\] Although they were founded as part of a vision of world peace, once the modern Olympic Games became a truly important international event they also became a stage for political disputes. The most controversial Olympics were the Berlin Games of 1936.
\[B\] From the start of the modern Olympic Games, male amateur athletes of every race, religion, and nationality have been eligible to participate. Although Coubertin opposed the participation of women in the Olympics and no women competed in 1896, a few female golfers and tennis players were allowed to participate in the 1900 Games. Female swimmers and divers were admitted to the 1912 Games, and female gymnasts and trackandfield athletes first competed at the 1928 Games. Women’s Olympic sports have grown significantly since then, and currently women account for approximately half of the members of teams.
\[C\] Typically the Games are awarded several years in advance, allowing the winning city time to prepare for the Games. In selecting the site of the Olympic Games, the IOC considers a number of factors, chief among them which city has, or promises to build, the best facilities, and which organizing committee seems most likely to stage the Games effectively. The IOC also considers which parts of the world have not yet hosted the Games.
\[D\] The program for the 1896 Games, including only summer events (the Winter Olympics were not established until 1924), included about 300 athletes from fewer than 15 countries competing in 43 events in nine different sports. In contrast, the program 100 years later for the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, Georgia, included more than 10,000 athletes from more than 190 countries competing in 271 events in 29 different sports.
\[E\] IOC members are officially considered to be representatives from the IOC to their own nations, not delegates from their own countries to the IOC. Most members are elected to the IOC after serving on the National Olympic Committees (NOCs) of their own countries.
\[F\] The opening ceremony has always included the parade of nations, in which the teams from each nation enter the main stadium as part of a procession. The Greek team always enters first, to commemorate the ancient origins of the modern Games, and the team of the host nation always enters last. The opening ceremony has evolved over the years into a complex extravaganza, with music, speeches, and pageantry. It is eagerly anticipated and well attended.
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