In the following article, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41-45, choose the most suitable one from the lish A-G to fit into each of the numbered blank. There are two extra choices that do not fit in any of the gaps. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
As more and more material from other cultures became available, European scholars came to recognize even greater complexity in mythological traditions. Especially valuable was the evidence provided by ancient Indian and Iranian texts such as the Bhagavad-Gita and the Zend-Avesta. From these sources it became apparent that the character of myths varied widely, not only by geographical region but also by historical period.
He argued that the relatively simple Greek myth of Persephone reflects the concerns of a basic agricultural community, whereas the more involved and complex myths found later in Homer are the product of a more developed society.
Scholars also attempted to tie various myths of the world together in some way. From the late 18th century through the early 19th century, the comparative study of languages had led to the reconstruction of a hypothetical parent language to account for striking similarities among the various languages of Europe and the Near East. These languages, scholars concluded, belonged to an Indo-European language family. Experts on mythology likewise searched for a parent mythology that presumably stood behind the mythologies of all the European peoples.
For example, an expression like "maiden dawn" for "sunrise" resulted first in personification of the dawn, and then in myths about her.
Later in the 19th century the theory of evolution put forward by English naturalist Charles Darwin heavily influenced the study of mythology. Scholars researched on the history of mythology, much as they would dig fossil-bearing geological formations, for remains from the distant past.
Similarly, British anthropologist Sir James George Frazer proposed a three-stage evolutionary scheme in The Golden Bough. According to Frazer’s scheme, human beings first attributed natural phenomena to arbitrary supernatural forces (magic), later explaining them as the will of the gods (religion), and finally subjecting them to rational investigation (science).
The research of British scholar William Robertson Smith, published in Lectures on the Religion of the Semites (1889), also influenced Frazer. Through Smith’s work, Frazer came to believe that many myths had their origin in the ritual practices of ancient agricultural peoples, for whom the annual cycles of vegetation were of central importance.
This approach reached its most extreme form in the so-called functionalism of British anthropologist A. R. Radcliffe-Brown, who held that every myth implies a ritual, and every ritual implies a myth.
Most analyses of myths in the 18th and 19th centuries showed a tendency to reduce myths to some essential core-whether the seasonal cycles of nature, historical circumstances, or ritual. That core supposedly remained once the fanciful elements of the narratives had been stripped away. In the 20th century, investigators began to pay closer attention to the content of the narratives themselves.
[A] German-born British scholar Max Müller concluded that the Rig-Veda of ancient India-the oldest preserved body of literature written in an Indo-European language-reflected the earliest stages of an Indo-European mythology. M?ller attributed all later myths to misunderstandings that arose from the picturesque terms in which early peoples described natural phenomena.
[B] The myth and ritual theory, as this approach came to be called, was developed most fully by British scholar Jane Ellen Harrison. Using insight gained from the work of French sociologist Emile Durkheim, Harrison argued that all myths have their origin in collective rituals of a society.
[C] Austrian psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud held that myths-like dreams-condense the material of experience and represent it in symbols.
[D] This approach can be seen in the work of British anthropologist Edward Burnett Tylor. In Primitive Culture (1871), Tylor organized the religious and philosophical development of humanity into separate and distinct evolutionary stages.
[E] The studies made in this period were consolidated in the work of German scholar Christian Gottolob Heyne, who was the first scholar to use the Latin term myths (instead of fibula, meaning "fable") to refer to the tales of heroes and gods.
[F] German scholar Karl Otfried M? ller followed this line of inquiry in his Prolegomena to a Scientific Mythology, 1825).
The following paragraphs are given in a wrong order. For Questions 4145, you are required to reorganize these paragraphs into a coherent article by choosing from the list AG to fill in each numbered box. The first and the last paragraphs have been placed for you in Boxes. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
\[A\] Chinese culture and Western cultures are polarized in many aspects. Communication might appear easy where they share commonalities, but unfortunately there are many cultural gaps. Bridging them is always a difficult problem, sometimes even an impossibility.
\[B\] On the contrary, traditional Chinese are apt to refer to oneself with expressions like “your underling (zai xia, 在下)”, “my humble self (bi ren, 鄙人)”, “the poortalented (bu cai, 不才)”, “the base one (jian ren, 贱人)”, “your servant (nu bi, 奴婢)”; and even emperors would refer to themselves as “the one who lacks morality (gua ren, 寡人)” or “the solitary (gu, 孤)”, showing a mentality of selfrestraint, selfdiscipline, and respect for others.
\[C\] I have had the unhappy experience at customs offices where without hesitation foreigners often “kindly helped” me to change my name order. For this, I would always argue and fight with them until the name order was changed back. Nowadays, many Chinese make it a matter of course to accept Western customs in their way of selfintroduction. But foreigners do not necessarily acknowledge the contrary Chinese customs. Many potential culture clashes are actually rooted in such misreadings and prejudices.
\[D\] Also, the orders of listing names and addresses for Chinese and Westerners are actually opposite, which may be taken to reveal that Chinese tend to respect wholeness and collectiveness, and their thinking pattern is more often from big to small, and from macro to micro. Meanwhile, Westerners tend to respect subdivided parts and individuals, more often moving from small to big, and from micro to macro. When Chinese present their names, they put surnames before their own given names, thus showing respect to their ancestors. Westerners act in a contrary way, showing selfrespect.
\[E\] A language epitomizes the cognitive pattern of a worldview. Any new language one has learned is as good as a new way one views the world. Important values are usually embedded within languages, which to some extent affect our fortunes at every moment. The extent that one can break out of language obstacles is a measure of one’s capacity to break away from bondages of one’s own fortune.
\[F\] Before we have a clear idea of the above problem, it might be misleading or extremist to discuss such topics as whether we should maintain the traditional Chinese ethical and political systems as the core of Chinese culture while making use of Western science and technology as the practical means to strengthen China \[zhong ti xi yong, 中体西用\] or whether we should mainly adopt Western ethical and political systems to improve Chinese culture \[xi ti zhong yong, 西体中用\].
\[G\] The great disparities between Chinese and Western cultures can be identified even in some everyday linguistic usages, Chinese or Western. For example, in English, the only pronoun that is capitalized is “I”. Capitalization is an emphasis. No doubt, a capitalized “I” stresses egocentrism or individualism as a value, with its implications of selfdependence, selfstrengthening, selfinterestedness and selfimportance.
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