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2011年考研英语预测题及答案六

网络   2010-12-10 13:59 【 】【我要纠错

    Section Ⅰ Use of English

    Directions:Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

    There is growing interest in East Japan Railway Co. ltd., one of the six companies, created out of the privatized national railway system. In an industry lacking exciting growth__1__, its plan to use real-estate assets in and around train stations__2__is drawing interest. In a plan called “Station Renaissance” that it__3__in November, JR East said that it would__4__using its commercial spaces for shops and restaurants, extending them to__5__more suitable for the information age. It wants train stations as pick-up__6__for such goods as books, flowers and groceries__7__over the Internet. In a country where city__8__depend heavily on trains__9__commuting, about 16 million people a day go to its train stations anyway, the company __10__. So, picking up commodities at train stations__11__consumers extra travel and missed home deliveries. JR East already has been using its station__12__stores for this purpose, but it plans to create__13__spaces for the delivery of Internet goods. The company also plans to introduce __14__cards—known in Japan as IC cards because they use integrated circuit for__15__information__16__ train tickets and commuter passes__17__the magnetic ones used today, integrating them into a/an __18__pass. This will save the company money, because__19__for IC cards are much less expensive than magnetic systems. Increased use of IC cards should also__20__the space needed for ticket vending. 1.[A]perspectives  [B]outlooks             [C]prospects       [D]spectacles 2.[A]creatively           [B]originally            [C]authentically         [D]initially 3.[A]displayed        [B]demonstrated    [C]embarked       [D]unveiled 4.[A]go beyond          [B]set out               [C]come around         [D]spread over 5.[A]applications   [B]enterprises        [C]functions       [D]performances 6.[A]districts         [B]vicinities            [C]resorts           [D]locations 7.[A]acquired         [B]purchased          [C]presided        [D]attained 8.[A]lodgers           [B]tenants                     [C]dwellers         [D]boarders 9.[A]for                  [B]in                       [C]of                   [D]as 10.[A]figures          [B]exhibits                 [C]convinces      [D]speculates 11.[A]deprives              [B]retrieves            [C]spares            [D]exempts 12.[A]conjunction [B]convenience          [C]department          [D]ornament 13.[A]delegated         [B]designated         [C]devoted                [D]dedicated 14.[A]clever           [B]smart                 [C]ingenious       [D]intelligent 15.[A]checking           [B]gathering          [C]holding        [D]accommodating 16.[A]as                 [B]for                   [C]with               [D]of 17.[A]but for          [B]as well as           [C]instead of      [D]more than 18.[A]unique          [B]single                 [C]unitary           [D]only 19.[A]devices         [B]instruments              [C]readers                  [D]examiners 20.[A]reduce          [B]narrow               [C]dwarf                 [D]shrink

    答案1.C         2.A         3.D         4.A         5.C         6.D         7.B       8.C         9.A       10.A 11.C       12.B              13.D              14.B              15.C              16.A              17.C              18.B  19.C    20.A

    总体分析本文介绍了东日本铁路公司引人关注的新计划。文章第一段介绍说东日本铁路公司创造性地利用车站内部及周围房地产的计划正引起越来越多人的关注。第二段具体介绍了这一计划的内容及好处,即适应信息时代的要求,把车站作为网上购物的物品收取地,这样既为消费者提供了方便,又提高了递送物品的安全性。第三段介绍了该公司引入智能卡代替目前使用的各种磁卡作车票的计划及其优点。

    试题精解1.[精解] 本题考查名词的词义辨析。空格处填入的名词与growth搭配,由上下文语义可知,此处表达的含义是“铁路业没有令人振奋的发展前景”,Prospect“景色,前景,期望”指的是possibility of advancement or success.所以[C]项正确。perspective做可数名词时多指viewpoint(态度,观点),如You have the wrong perspective on this situation(对于那个情势的未来发展,你的看法是错的)。outlook用作“前景”讲时用单数形式,如the outlook for economic growth(经济发展的前景)。spectacle“景象,奇观,场面,眼镜”,如A quarrel between drunken women is an unpleasant spectacle(喝醉酒的女人吵架是个丑恶的场面)。

    2.[精解] 本题考查通过上下文选择适当的副词的能力。空格处的副词修饰的动作是use real-estate assets in and around train stations(利用车站内部及周围的房地产)。由上下文可知,该举动是有创造性的,所以才会引起人们的关注,因此[A]项creatively“创造性地”正确。originally“最初,原先 ,新颖地”,如The apartment was decorated quite originally(这套公寓装饰的十分别致);authentically“确实地,真正地,逼真地”,其形容词形式为authentic,如 DiMaggio was an authentic folk hero(迪马乔是一位真正的民间英雄);initially“最初,开头”,如His response was initially adamant(他的反应开始很强硬)。

    3.[精解] 本题考查动词词义的辨析。由语法知识可知,空格前的it指代的是主语JR East(东日本铁路),所填动词表示的是该公司对“Station Renaissance”这一计划发出的动作。[C]项embarked“着手,从事”是不及物动词,常用于embark on/upon sth.,如 He has embarked on a new career(他开始了一种新的职业生涯),embark on a new plan意为“着手一项新的计划”。[A]项displayed指把物品展示给人们看, display a plan意为“展示一张设计图”; [B]项demonstrated“示范,证明”与plan搭配,指通过具体演示来说明计划的可行性,均不符合文意。[D]项unveiled“揭露,公布”正确,原文意为:东日本铁路有限公司在11月份公布的“车站复兴”计划中说……。

    4.[精解] 本题考查动词短语的辨析。空格处填入的动词短语与using its commercial spaces for shops and restaurants搭配,应符合文意。首先[B]、[C]两项的用法分别为set out to do sth.“打算、试图做某事”,如He failed in what he had set out to do(他没有做到自己原来想做的事);come around to sth.“平息,苏醒,改变观点、立场”,如It will take him a while to come around to the idea(他需要时间来接受这个观点),可排除。[D]项指时间上的扩展,如The economic unrest spread over several years(经济的动荡不安延续了数年之久),不符合文意。[A]项go beyond“不止,超出”与状语extending them to呼应,意为“不仅把它的商业空地用于开商店和餐馆,而且还……”。

    5.[精解] 本题考查名词词义的辨析。空格处填入的名词充当extending them to结构中的介词宾语,其中extend……to……意为“扩展……用于……”,them指上文中的its commercial spaces(东日本铁路的商业空地)。因此,所填的名词应与前文一致,表达这些空地的用处或功能,应与use的名词形式usage属同一范畴。 [A]、[C]项都有“使用”的意思,但application常与“科技成果、理论、法规”等搭配,强调它们的实际应用,一般不与spaces搭配,如 The new invention would have a wide range of applications in industry(这项新发明会在工业上获得广泛应用),[C]项functions“功能,作用”正确,即“还要把这些商业空地用于更加适应信息时代的功能上”。enterprise“企业,事业,计划”;performance“履行,执行,性能”。

    6.[精解] 本题考查名词词义的辨析。空格处填入的名词作pick-up(物品收取)修饰的中心名词,说明东日本铁路公司想把车站作为物品收取的什么。district指有一定特色的区域、地区,如rural/mountainous/financial/theatre district;或行政区域,如election/school/postal district.vicinity“临近地区,附近”,常用单数,如the inhabitants of the vicinity(附近地区的居民)。resort“旅游、度假胜地”,如seaside/beach/ski resort.Location泛指某个地点,与文中pick-up搭配,意为:物品收取地,符合文意。

    7.[精解] 本题考查动词词义的辨析。空格处填入的过去分词与over the Internet搭配,作定语修饰such goods as books, flowers and groceries.由其中心语goods可知文章所讲的是网上购物,所以[B]项purchase“买,购买”正确,即“东日本铁路打算把车站作为网上所购物品的收取地”。[A]项acquire“获得”,虽然也可以表示“购得”,如The company has just acquired new premises(公司刚购得新办公楼),但它强调“得到”的结果,但该处顾客应该还没有得到货物,所以不正确。 [C]preside常与over搭配,意为“主持,主管”,接的宾语为“会议、活动、事件、机构”等,如preside over the meeting/the business.主持会议/主管业务。[D]项attain“达到,(经过努力)获得”也是强调“得到”,不正确。

    8.[精解] 本题考查名词的辨析。由上下文可知,该处应泛指城市人,所以[C]项city dwellers“城市居民”符合文意。 [A]项logers“寄宿者”,[B]项tenants“承租人,房客 ”,[D]项boarders“寄膳宿者,寄宿生”,都具体到以某种特殊方式居住的人,不合文意。

    9.[精解] 本题考查介词的用法。depend on sb/sth for sth是习惯搭配,意为:依靠……来做……,符合文意,原文意为:都市人严重依赖列车作为上下班的交通工具。depend on sth as sth意为:依靠……作为……,但as后通常接名词,如 We depended on E-mail as the only way of communication when she was abroad(她出国时我们依靠邮件作为惟一的通讯方式)。in“在……期间,从事于”,of“……的(表所属)”。

    10.[精解] 本题考查动词词义的辨析。空格处填入的动词作谓语,表明铁路公司对about 16 million people a day go to its train stations anyway(无论如何,每天大约一千六百万人来到它的车站)发出的动作。参考选项,该句所述内容应是该公司“计算或估计”的,[A]项figures正确。[B]项exhibits意为“展示(物品)”,与上下文文意不符。[C]项convinces“使确信,使信服”,后面接人,如We convinced Anne(我们说服了安妮),如果要接事,应改为is convinced.[D]项speculates指“没有确切证据的推测、估计”,在这里不符合文意;11.[精解] 本题考查动词词义的辨析。空格处填入的动词与consumers extra travel and missed home deliveries搭配。所填动词首先要能接双宾语,即使用sb. sth.的结构,其次搭配后的含义要符合文意。[A]项“剥夺,使丧失”的搭配为deprive sb. of sth.,如deprived him of sleep(使他不能入睡);[B]项“重新得到,找回,挽回”的搭配是retrieve sth. from sb.如retrieve my bag from him(从他那找回我的包);[D]项“免除,豁免”的搭配为exempt sb from sth.,如exempt him from military service(免服兵役)。只有[C]项的搭配为spare sb. (from)sth.,意为“使某人免于做某事”,如spare his mother any anxiety(不让母亲有丝毫的担忧),原文意为:在车站收取物品使消费者节省了路途而且也不像往家里递送那样容易丢失。

    12.[精解] 本题考查习惯搭配。[A]项conjunction不与store搭配,它常指“(引起某种结果的事物等的)结合”,如The conjunction of low inflation and low employment came as a very pleasant surprise(低通货膨胀和低失业率的同时出现是一个大惊喜)。考生不要望文生义, “连锁店”是chain store.convenience store指“便利店”,department store “百货店”,ornament store指“饰品店”,根据常识,车站里面比较普遍的是各式各样的便利店,所以[B]项符合文意。

    13.[精解] 本题考查形近词的辨析。本题表面上是填入合适的过去分词做定语,实际上是辨析四个核心动词的用法。[A]项delegate搭配事物时意为“授权,委任,委托”,如delegate a task /power(委托任务/授权),因此它不与spaces搭配。[B]项designated spaces意为“指定的场地”,但与上文的create搭配后语义重复。[C]项devoted“投入的,深爱的”,表感情色彩,显然不符文意。[D]项dedicated与spaces搭配表示“专用的空间/场地”。

    14.[精解] 本题考查形容词的辨析及固定用法。[B]项smart card 是固定搭配,意为:(内有集成电路可储存记忆的)智能卡。四个选项都可含有“聪明的”含义,但当修饰事物时,[A]项“机敏的,巧妙的”,强调“用智慧或小聪明达到目的”,如a clever reply(机敏的回答),play a clever trick(耍一个巧妙的花招);[C]项指“(机器等)制作精巧的” 或“(方法等)巧妙的”,如an ingenious toy(制作精巧的玩具),an ingenious idea/lie(巧妙的主意/谎言);[D]项Intelligent指“(计算机部件工作性能)智能的”,如an intelligent terminal (智能终端,即具有处理信息能力的终端)。

    15.[精解] 本题考查动词词义的辨析。题目要求填入一个动名词与information搭配,说明集成电路在IC 卡中的作用。IC卡,即智能卡,内部的集成电路是储存信息的,所以[C]项holding“容纳,储存,准备着”正确。check information“核对信息”, gather information“收集信息”,accommodate information“整理信息”,都不符合文意。

    16.[精解] 本题考查介词的用法。解题难点在于理清空格所在句子的结构,该句子的主干为the company plans to introduce cards…… __16__ train tickets and commuter passes,所填介词与introduce搭配,[A]项as表方式,符合文意,introduce sth as sth(引入……作为……),原文意为“引入智能卡作为车票和定期券”。for表目的、用途,Introduce sth for sth意为“为……而引入、提出……”,如introduce a topic for discussion(提出议题供讨论);with表伴随 ,introduce sth with sth意为“把……作为……的开头,用……引出……”,如introduce a talk with an anecdote(说一则轶闻作为讲话的引子),均不符合文意。of表所属,不直接跟introduce搭配。

    17.[精解] 本题考查句内逻辑关系。空格处填入的介词短语连接smart cards as train tickets and commuter passes(作为车票和定期券的智能卡)和the magnetic ones used today(现在使用的磁卡)。由于两者是同一性质的物质,因此排除表假设逻辑关系的[A]项but for“要不是”。此外,根据下文可知用智能卡比现在使用的磁卡系统成本要低,因此引用智能卡的目的是使它取代磁卡作车票和定期券,因此[C]instead of项“代替,而不是……”正确。[B]as well as项“也,又,和”表并列,[D]more than项“比……多”表比较。

    18.[精解] 本题考查形容词的词义辨析。填入的形容词修饰pass.原文意为:把多种形式的票和券合为一张智能卡,[B]项“单一的,专一的”,有把不同的东西统一标准或合为一体的意思,如a single scale of wages(单一工资等级),是正确选项。[A]项“独一无二的,独特的”,强调独特性,意为being the only one of its kind,如the unique human ability(人类独有的能力);[C]项“整体的,统一的,不可分的”,强调完整性,指relating to or existing as a single unit,如 a unitary policy of government(政府的统一政策);[D]项“惟一的,单独的”,强调某种情况下的惟一性,指there is one person, thing, or group in a particular situation and no others,如I was the only one who disagreed(我是惟一一个持不同意见的人)。

    19.[精解] 本题考查名词词义的辨析。空格填入的名词与for IC cards 搭配,与magnetic systems(磁系统)作比较。首先排除[D]项examiners“主考者,检查人”,因为人和系统之间无法比较价格高低。[A]项“装置,设备”、[B]项“工具,手段”的用法为device/instrument for doing sth,如a device for opening bottles(一个打开瓶子的装置);an instrument for writing(书写工具)。所以[C]项readers正确,意为:IC卡或智能卡的读卡机。

    20.[精解] 本题考查动词词义的辨析。填入的动词,表达Increased use of IC cards(对IC卡使用的增加)对 the space needed for ticket vending (售票需要的空间)的影响。根据上文可知道,IC卡的使用替代了传统的车票和定期券,因此空格所在句子的含义是:IC卡使用的增加减少了售票所占的空间。关键看四个选项哪个与space搭配,符合文意。[A]项reduce“减少,缩小”,用法较为广泛,除表示数量、大小、价格等的减少外,还可以接表抽象含义的词,如reduce the risk of detection(减少被发现的危险),原文意为:对IC卡使用的增加将会减少售票占用的空间。[B]项narrow“使变狭窄,使缩小”与space搭配,指“使空间变得狭小”,有“拥挤”的含义;[C]项dwarf指“(通过与大的事物比较)使显得小”,而实际大小没有改变,如Most professional basketball players dwarf other men(大多数职业篮球运动员使别人显得矮小);[D]项shrink意为“使事物本身缩小或萎缩”,如shrink the markets for the exports(使出口市场萎缩),均不符合文意。

    全文翻译通过国家铁路系统的私有化创建起来的六大公司之一的东日本铁路有限公司,正吸引着越来越多人的目光。在一个发展前景不振的行业,它创造性地利用车站内部及周围的房地产的计划正引起人们的关注。

    东日本铁路在11月份公布的“车站复兴”计划中说:它将不仅把它的商业空地用于开商店和餐馆,而且还要把这些商业空地用于更加适应信息时代的功能上去。它打算把车站作为网上所购物品如书籍、花卉和日用百货等的收取地。该公司估算,在一个都市人严重依赖列车作为上下班交通工具的国度里,每天大约有1600万人因各种原因来到它的车站。因此,在车站收取物品使消费者节省了路途而且也不像往家里递送那样容易丢失。东日本铁路已经开始把车站的便利店用于这一目的,但它打算为网上货物的递送创立专门的空间。

    该公司还打算引入智能卡(在日本称为IC卡,因为它们利用集成电路储存信息)取代目前使用的磁卡作为车票和定期券,把各种不同的票券合为一体。这将为公司节省资金,因为IC卡的读卡机比磁系统要便宜的多。IC卡使用的增加还将会减少售票所占用的空间。

    Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension

    Part A Directions:Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

    Text 1“I‘ve never met a human worth cloning,” says cloning expert Mark Westhusin from the cramped confines of his lab at Texas A&M University. “It’s a stupid endeavor.” That‘s an interesting choice of adjective, coming from a man who has spent millions of dollars trying to clone a 13-year-old dog named Missy. So far, he and his team have not succeeded, though they have cloned two calves and expect to clone a cat soon. They just might succeed in cloning Missy later this year—or perhaps not for another five years. It seems the reproductive system of man’s best friend is one of the mysteries of modern science. Westhusin‘s experience with cloning animals leaves him vexed by all this talk of human cloning. In three years of work on the Missyplicity project, using hundreds upon hundreds of canine eggs, the A&M team has produced only a dozen or so embryos carrying Missy’s DNA. None have survived the transfer to a surrogate mother. The wastage of eggs and the many spontaneously aborted fetuses may be acceptable when you‘re dealing with cats or bulls, he argues, but not with humans. “Cloning is incredibly inefficient, and also dangerous,” he says. Even so, dog cloning is a commercial opportunity, with a nice research payoff. Ever since Dolly the sheep was cloned in 1997, Westhusin’s phone at A&M College of Veterinary Medicine  has been ringing busily. Cost is no obstacle for customers like Missy‘s mysterious owner, who wishes to remain unknown to protect his privacy. He’s plopped down $3.7 million so far to fund  the research because he wants a twin to carry on Missy‘s fine qualities after she dies. But he knows her clone may not have her temperament. In a statement of purpose, Missy’s owners and the A&M team say they are “both looking forward to studying the ways that her clone differs from Missy.”

    The fate of the dog samples will depend on Westhusin‘s work. He knows that even if he gets a dog viably pregnant, the offspring, should they survive, will face the problems shown at  birth by other cloned animals: abnormalities like immature lungs and heart and weight problems. “Why would you ever want to clone humans,” Westhusin asks, “when we’re not even close to getting it worked out in animals yet?”

    1. Which of the following best represents Mr. Westhusin‘s attitude toward cloning?

    [A] Animal cloning is a stupid attempt.[B] Human cloning is not yet close to getting it worked out.[C] Cloning is too inefficient and should be stopped.[D] Animals cloning yes, and human cloning at least not now. 2. The Missyplicity project does not seem very successful probably because _____.[A] there isn‘t enough fund to support the research[B] cloning dogs is more complicated than cloning cats and bulls[C] Mr. Westhusin is too busy taking care of the business[D] the owner is asking for an exact copy of his pet 3. When Mr. Westhusin says “…… cloning is dangerous,” he implies that _____.[A] lab technicians may be affected by chemicals[B] cats and dogs in the lab may die of diseases[C] experiments may waste lots of lives[D] cloned animals could outlive the natural ones 4. We can infer from the third paragraph that _____.[A] rich people are more interested in cloning humans than animals[B] cloning of animal pets is becoming a prosperous industry[C] there is no distinction between a cloned and a natural dog[D] Missy’s master pays a lot in a hope to revive the dog 5. We may conclude from the text that _____.[A] human cloning will not succeed unless the technique is more efficient[B] scientists are optimistic about cloning technique[C] many people are against the idea of human cloning[D] cloned animals are more favored by owners even if they are weaker

    答案1. D              2.B         3.C         4.B         5.A

    总体分析本文是一篇讨论克隆动物和克隆人实验的文章。

    第一段:引用专家的话指出克隆人是愚蠢的尝试,接着提到正在进行的克隆动物的实验,指出狗的克隆最具有难度。

    第二段:介绍动物克隆实验所反映出来的低效性使威斯苏森教授反对克隆人。

    第三段:转折指出,但是克隆狗存在巨大的商机。

    第四段:指出克隆动物还远没有成功,并再次引用专家的话否认目前克隆人的可行性。

    试题精解1.下面哪一个最能代表威斯苏森先生对克隆的态度?

    [A] 克隆动物是一种愚蠢的尝试。

    [B] 克隆人还没有接近成功。

    [C] 克隆的效率太低,应该被禁止。

    [D] 克隆动物可以,克隆人至少现在还不行。

    [精解] 本题考查考生文中人物观点。文中多次引用了威斯苏森先生有关克隆的话,从中我们可以判断出他的态度。[A]中a stupid attempt出现在文章开始部分,是他对于克隆人而非克隆动物的看法。[B]中not yet close to getting it worked out出现在文章末句,是他对待动物实验的看法,不包括克隆人。事实上,克隆人还没有开始,谈不上是否接近成功。第二段末句,威斯苏森先生提到克隆是极其低效的,但没有提出因此就应该被禁止。因此,[C]部分错误。第二段倒数第二句,威斯苏森先生提出,动物实验中对动物卵的浪费以及动物的自然性流产还可以接受,但研究人就不行。可见,他默许克隆动物,反对克隆人,因此[D]正确。

    2. 克隆密斯项目似乎不是非常成功,原因可能是_____.[A] 没有足够的资金支持这项研究[B] 克隆狗比克隆猫或牛更复杂[C] 威斯苏森先生太忙于照料生意[D] 狗的主人要求和他的宠物一模一样的复制品[精解] 本题考查事实细节。第一段倒数第二句指出,克隆密斯可能成功也可能失败。该段最后一句解释其原因是:狗的生殖系统似乎是现代科学中一个神秘的领域。因此[B]为正确项。

    第三段首句提到,克隆狗是一个商机,能带来丰厚的科研报酬。该段第三句又提到,对于像密斯的主人这样的消费者来说,高额的花销并不是什么障碍。由此可知,[A]不是项目不成功的原因。[C]属于无中生有项,第三段第二句只提到,多利羊克隆成功后,威斯苏森教授接到很多希望克隆狗的电话,这些电话都潜藏商机。但不能由此推知他忙于商业活动。第三段最后两句提到,密斯的主人知道,密斯的克隆体不一定能有与它一样的脾气秉性。在一份用途声明中,密斯的主人和农业机械大学的团队表示,他们“共同期待能研究密斯的克隆体与它本身的差异之处。”可见[D]也不是原因。

    3. 当威斯苏森先生说“克隆是危险的”,他的意思是______.[A] 实验室的技术员可能会受到化学物质的感染[B] 实验室里的猫和狗可能死于疾病[C] 实验会浪费很多生命[D] 克隆的动物比一般的动物能活得更长[精解] 本题考查句意的理解。题干引用的话出现在第二段末。其上文即该段倒数第二句中,威斯苏森先生指出,在猫或牛的克隆试验中,对动物卵的浪费以及许多动物的自然性流产都可以接受,但是克隆人就不行。因此可知,[C]是“危险”的真正含义。其他项文中都未提及。

    4. 从第三段我们可以推知______.[A] 富人对克隆人比对克隆动物更感兴趣[B] 克隆动物宠物正成为一个欣欣向荣的产业[C] 克隆狗和一般的狗之间没有什么区别[D] 密斯的主人出重金希望狗能复活[精解] 本题考查推理引申。第三段首句提到,克隆狗是能带来丰厚科研报酬的商机。下文无论是提到动医学院频繁接到的电话,还是举出一掷千金想克隆爱犬的富人的例子都是为了说明首句的观点。因此从第三段可推出的结论是[B]。

    该段主要涉及的是克隆狗,因此无从推知[A];从该段最后两句可知,[C]与事实相反;[D]错在revive,由该段第四句可知,密斯的主人只是想要一个密斯的孪生子在它死后继承其优良品质。

    5. 从文章中我们可以得知________.[A] 除非技术效率提高否则克隆人类不会成功[B] 科学家们对克隆技术持乐观态度[C] 许多人反对克隆人的想法[D] 克隆的动物即使弱小也更受主人青睐[精解] 本题考查全局事实细节题。文章一开始就引用专家威斯苏森的话,指出克隆人是愚蠢的尝试。第二段最后两句提到,克隆实验的低效性和危险性在克隆人中不可接受。文章末尾再次引用该专家的话,指出现在动物的研究还没成功,没有必要想到克隆人。由此可见,技术是克隆实验存在的主要问题,也是阻碍克隆人实验的重要原因,因此可推知[A]正确。[B]明显错误,科学家并不乐观。全文只涉及专家和拥护克隆实验的人的观点,因此无从推知[C]。[D]在文中未提及。

    核心词汇或超纲词汇(1)cramped(a.) 狭窄的,狭小的,如working in ~ conditions(在拥挤的环境里工作)

    (2)confines(n. pl.)范围,界限,边界,如the ~ of human knowledge(人类的知识范围),the ~ of family life(家庭生活的范围)

    (3)vexed (a.) 焦急的,为难的,恼怒的(4)Missyplicity(n.)这是个临时造的词,是三个部分的合成:Missy指文中提到的那条狗密斯,duplicate意为“复制”,-ity为名词后缀。

    (5)canine (a.) 犬的,犬科的(6)surrogate mother代理母体(7)aborted (a.) 流产的;出故障的(8)fetus (n.) 胎,胎儿(9)veterinary (a.)兽医的,~ medicine/science兽医学(10)plop(v.)扑通一声把……放下,如Can you ~ some ice in my drink?(能在我的饮料中放点冰块吗?)(文中是比喻用法,指“投入资金”)

    (11)viably (ad.) 可实施地,切实可行地;能独立生存地,能独立发展地(12)abnormality (n.)变态,畸形,异常

    全文翻译“我还没有遇到一个值得被克隆的人,” 克隆专家马克。威斯苏森在德克萨斯州农业机械大学空间狭小的实验室里说,“那是一种愚蠢的尝试。”这种风趣的用来形容克隆人的言辞来自一位富人,他花费数百万美金试图克隆一只13岁的名叫密斯的狗。到目前为止,他和他的团队还没有获得成功,尽管他们已经克隆出了两只牛并且正计划在短期内克隆出一只猫。他们可能会在年底成功克隆出密斯,也可能再过五年都不会成功。人类最亲密的朋友——狗的生殖系统似乎是现代科学中一个神秘的领域。

    威斯苏森克隆动物的经验使他对克隆人的种种说法十分恼火。在研究“克隆密斯项目”的三年时间里,农业机械大学的团队使用了成百上千只犬科动物的卵,却仅仅获得了一打左右的带有密斯DNA的胚胎,并且没有一个在被转移至克隆母体时存活下来。教授争辩道,在研究猫或牛的克隆试验中,对动物卵的浪费以及许多动物的自然性流产都是可以为人们所接受的,但是对于研究人来说就不行。他表示说,“克隆是十分低效的,而且也相当危险。”

    尽管如此,克隆狗仍是一个商机,能带来丰厚的科研报酬。自从1997年多利羊克隆成功后,威斯苏森教授在农业机械大学动医学院的电话就频频响起。对于像密斯的神秘主人这样的消费者来说,高额的花销并不是什么难题,他只是希望匿名以保护自己的隐私。到目前为止,他已经投入了370万美金来资助这项研究,因为他想要一个密斯的孪生子在它死后继承其优良品质。但是这位主人知道,密斯的克隆体不一定能有与它一样的脾气秉性。在一份用途声明中,密斯的主人和农业机械大学的团队表示,他们“共同期待能研究密斯的克隆体与它本身的差异之处。”

    用于实验的狗的命运将由威斯苏森教授的工作来决定。他知道即使有一只能成功怀孕的狗,它的后代,如果能幸存下来,一出生就要面对其他克隆动物所面临的问题:像肺部和心脏发育不全造成的畸形以及体重问题等等。威斯苏森教授质问道,“在我们克隆动物的研究还没有接近成功时,为什么还想到要克隆人呢?”

    Text 2 For more than two decades, U.S. courts have been limiting affirmative-action programs in universities and other areas. The legal rationale is that racial preferences are unconstitutional, even those intended to compensate for racism or intolerance. For many colleges, this means students can be admitted only on merit, not on their race or ethnicity. It has been a divisive issue across the U.S., as educators blame the prolonged reaction to affirmative-action for declines in minority admissions. Meanwhile, activists continue to battle race preferences in courts from Michigan to North Carolina. Now, chief executives of about two dozen companies have decided to plunge headfirst into this politically unsettled debate. They, together with 36 universities and 7 nonprofitable organizations, formed a forum that set forth an action plan essentially designed to help colleges circumvent court-imposed restrictions on affirmative action. The CEOs‘ motive: “Our audience is growing more diverse, so the communities we serve benefit if our employees are racially and ethnically diverse as well”, says one CEO of a compang that owns nine television stations. Among the steps the forum is pushing: finding creative yet legal ways to boost minority enrollment through new admissions policies; promoting admissions decisions that look at more than test scores; and encouraging universities to step up their minority outreach and financial aid. And to counter accusations by critics to challenge these tactics in court, the group says it will give legal assistance to colleges sued for trying them. “Diversity diminished by the court must be made up for in other legitimate, legal ways,” says, a forum member. One of the more controversial methods advocated is the so-called 10% rule. The idea is for public universities—which educate three-quarters of all U.S. undergraduates—to admit students who are in the top 10% of their high school graduating class. Doing so allows colleges to take minorities who excel in average urban schools, even if they wouldn’t have made the cut under the current statewide ranking many universities use. 1. U.S. court restrictions on affirmative action signifies that______.[A]minorities no longer hold the once favored status[B]the quality of American colleges has improved[C]racial preferences has replaced racial prejudice[D]the minority is on an equal footing with the majority 2. What has been a divisive issue across the United States?

    [A]Whether affirmative action should continue to exist.[B]Whether this law is helping minorities or the white majority.[C]Whether racism exists in American college admission.[D]Whether racial intolerance should be punished. 3. CEOs of big companies decided to help colleges enroll more minority students because they_____.[A]think it wrong to deprive the minorities of their rights to receive education[B]want to conserve the fine characteristics of American nation[C]want a workforce that reflects the diversity of their customers[D]think it their duty to help develop education of the country 4. The major tactic the forum uses is to_____.[A]battle the racial preferences in court[B]support colleges involved in lawsuits of racism[C]strive to settle this political debate nationwide[D]find legally viable ways to ensure minority admissions 5. If the 10% rule is applied, ______.[A]the best white high school students can get into colleges[B]public universities can get excellent students[C]students from poor rural families can go to colleges[D]good minority students can get into public universities

    答案1. A        2.B         3.C         4.D         5.D

    总体分析本文介绍了美国法院对平等权利法案实施的限制以及社会相关方面应对这种情况所作出的努力。

    第一段:介绍了美国法院对大学中平等权利法案实施的限制及其带来的不利影响。

    第二段:指出多家公司与大学组成了反对这种限制的论坛及其原因。

    第三段:介绍论坛推行的具体策略。

    第四段:介绍论坛主张在公立大学中实施的10%规则的内容及其意义。

    试题精解1.美国法院对平等权利法案的限制意味着________.[A]少数民族不再拥有受优待的地位[B]美国大学的质量有所提高[C]种族照顾取代了种族歧视[D]少数民族与多数民族是平等的[精解] 本题考查推理引申。第一段首句提到美国法院对平等权利法案的限制。第二句指出其理论依据是种族照顾政策是违反宪法的。第三句指出这种做法意味着对学生的录取不再考虑其种族或民族背景。由此可推知,[A]是该做法的潜在含义。[B]文中未提,[C]明显错误,因为该举动恰恰是反对种族照顾政策。[D]表面上看似乎有点道理,但根据第一段的论述可知,“平等”并不是本文主要涉及的内容。

    2. 在整个美国范围内引起争议的事情是什么?

    [A]平等权利法案是否应该继续存在。

    [B]这项法律是在帮助少数民族还是白人多数民族。

    [C]美国大学招生中是否存在种族歧视。

    [D]种族不容忍行为是否应该受到惩罚。

    [精解] 本题考查句意理解。第一段第四句提到,“这在整个美国范围内引起了争议”,注意句中it指的是上文提到的“限制平等权利法案的做法”。该句中as引导的原因状语从句解释了引起争议的原因,即,教育者们认为它造成了少数民族录取率的降低。因此引起争议的是限制平等权利法案的影响,排除[A]。[B]虽然与文中论述不完全一样,但它其实就等于说“这种做法到底是有利于哪一方”,因此是正确项。第一段主要论述的是“种族照顾政策”,不是“种族歧视”或“不容忍行为”,排除[C]和[D]。

    3. 大公司的执行总裁们决定帮助大学招收更多的少数民族学生,是因为他们______.[A]认为剥夺少数民族接受教育的权利是错误的[B]想要保存美国民族的优良品质[C]想要其劳动群体能够反映客户的多元化[D]认为帮助发展国家的教育是他们的职责[精解] 本题考查推理引申。根据题干定位到第二段。该段最后一句通过引用一位电视公司总裁的话解释了原因:我们的观众越来越多元化,所以如果员工来自不同的种族和民族,那么我们服务的机构将会受益。由此可推知,[C]为正确项。其他项均未提及。

    4. 论坛使用的主要策略是_____.[A]与法庭上的种族照顾政策作斗争[B]支持牵涉到种族歧视诉讼的大学[C]努力解决这场全国性的政治争论[D]找到合法的途径来保证少数民族学生的录取[精解] 本题考查事实细节。论坛推行的策略在第三段第一句提到。其中第一种是找到通过新的录取政策增加少数民族录取人数的有创意且合法的办法。[D]符合这种策略,为正确项。[A]与论坛的宗旨相悖,因为论坛是要维护平等权利法案和少数民族利益的。[B]错在racism,第三段后半部分提到,论坛将援助那些由于尝试他们提出的策略而被起诉的大学。第二段首句只提到,一些公司总裁决定带头加入这场政治上很争议的辩论之中。因此,[C]“解决争论”无从推知。

    5. 如果实施10%规则,那么_______.[A]最好的白人高中生能上大学[B]公立大学就能招到优秀的学生。

    [C]来自贫困农村家庭的学生就能上大学[D]优秀的少数民族学生就能进入公立大学[精解] 本题考查事实细节。根据题干关键词the 10% rule定位到第四段。该段提到,该规则将使公立大学录取在高中毕业班排名前10%的学生。这种方法也使公立大学能招收到一般城市学校中名列前茅的少数民族学生。因此[D]正确。[A]和[B]本身表述并没有错,但都是泛泛而谈,没有具体提到“公立大学”或“少数民族学生”。[C]在文中根本没有涉及。

    核心词汇或超纲词汇(1)rationale (n.)基本原理,根本原因,如I do not understand the ~ behind the decision to sell the warehouse.(我不明白在出售仓库的决定后面有什么原由。)

    (2)divisive(a.)区分的,分裂的,有分歧的;divide(v.)

    (3)set forth公布,宣布,提出(4)plunge in/into sth.(用力地)投入,跳进;热情投入,贸然行动(5)statewide(a.)全州范围的

    全文翻译二十多年来,美国法院一直在限制大学及其他领域里平等权利法案(又称:肯定性行动法案)的实施。其法律依据是,种族照顾政策,甚至是那些打算对种族歧视或不容忍行为进行补偿的政策都是违反宪法的。对于很多大学来说,这意味着对学生只能被择优录取,而不考虑他们的种族或民族背景。这是在整个美国范围内引起争议的事情,因为教育者们指责说,对平等权利法案的这种长期的反对态度造成了少数民族录取率的下降。与此同时,一些积极分子在密西根州到北卡罗来那州的各个法庭上继续竭力反对种族照顾政策。

    如今,约24家公司的行政总裁已经决定带头加入这场政治上很具争议的辩论之中。他们和36所大学以及7家非赢利机构一起组成了一个论坛,该论坛宣布了一项主要为帮助大学逃避法庭对平等权利法案强加的限制的行动计划。这些总裁的理由正如一位拥有九家电视台的公司总裁所说:“我们的观众越来越多元化,所以如果我们的员工来自不同的种族和民族,那么我们服务的机构将会受益。”

    论坛推行的步骤如下:找到通过新的录取政策增加少数民族录取人数的有创意且合法的办法;提倡不仅仅取决于考试分数的录取原则;鼓励大学推进少数民族扩招政策及经济援助政策。为了反击评论家们在法庭上质疑这些策略的非难,这个组织声称它将给予那些由于尝试这些策略而被起诉的大学以法律援助。一位论坛成员说,“由于法庭造成的多样性的减少必须通过其他正当合法的手段予以补偿。”

    他们所主张的一项更具争议性的办法是所谓的10%规则。这项办法将用在培养了美国四分之三的大学毕业生的公立大学中,这些大学将录取在高中毕业班排名前10%的学生。即使在现行的全州范围的排名制度下,很多大学并不会减少招收的人数,但这种方法可以使大学招收到一般城市学校中名列前茅的少数民族学生。

    Text 3 Positive surprises from government reports on retail sales, industrial production, and housing in the past few months are leading economists to revise their real gross domestic product (GDP) forecasts upward supporting the notion that the recession ended in December or January. Bear in mind: This recovery won‘t have the vitality normally associated with an upturn. Economists now expect real GDP growth of about 1.5 in the first quarter. That’s better than the 0.4 the consensus projected in December, but much of the additional growth will come from a slower pace of inventory drawdowns, not from surging demand. Moreover, the economy won‘t grow fast enough to help the labor markets much. The only good news there is that jobless claims have fallen back from their spike after September 11 and that their current level suggests the pace of layoffs is easing. The recovery also does not mean the Federal Reserve will raise interest rates soon. The January price indexes show that inflation remains tame. Consequently, the Fed can take its time shifting monetary policy from extreme accommodation to relative neutrality. Perhaps the best news from the latest economic reports was the January data on industrial production. Total output fell only 0.1, its best showing since July. Factory output was flat, also the best performance in six months. Those numbers may not sound encouraging, but manufacturers have been in recession since late 2000. The data suggest that the factory sector is finding a bottom from which to start its recovery. Production of consumer goods, for instance, is almost back up to where it was a year ago. That’s because consumer demand for motor vehicles and other goods and the housing industry remained healthy during the recession, and they are still growing in early 2002. Besides, both the monthly homebuilding starts number and the housing market index for the past two months are running above the averages for all of 2001, suggesting that home-building is off to a good start and probably won‘t be big drag on GDP growth this year. Equally important to the outlook is how the solid housing market will help demand for home-related goods and services. Traditionally, consumers buy the bulk of their furniture, electronics, and textiles within a year of purchasing their homes. Thus, spending on such items will do well this year, even as car sales slip now that incentives are less attractive. Look for the output of consumer goods to top year-ago level in coming months. Even the business equipment sector seems to have bottomed out. Its output rose 0.4% in January, led by a 0.6% jump computer gear. A pickup in orders for capital goods in the fourth quarter suggests that production will keep increasing—although at a relaxed pace—in coming months. 1. American economists are surprised to see that______.[A]they have to revise the GDP forecasts so often[B]their government is announcing the end of a recession[C]US economy is showing some signs of an upturn[D]GDP growth reflects stronger domestic demand 2. The most encouraging fact about the US economy is that_____ .[A]employment rates have risen faster than expected[B]the Federal Reserve will raise interest rates soon[C]industrial production is reaching its lowest point[D]some economic sectors have become leading industries 3. Of which of the following did the author provide a guardedly optimistic view?

    [A]GDP growth.                    [B]The number of layoffs.[C]Price indexes.                  [D]Output of consumer goods. 4. Which of the following is the guarantee of a better future for US economy?

    [A]Motor vehicles.               [B]Housing market.[C]Business equipment.              [D]Computer gear. 5. Which of the following best summarizes the U. S. economic situation today?

    [A]American economists are painting a gloomy picture.[B]It is slowly warming up with moderate growth.[C]Recession may come back anytime in the coming months.[D]Most sectors are picking up at a surprisingly fast pace.

    答案1.C         2.C         3.A         4.B         5.B

    总体分析本文是一篇介绍美国经济复苏的文章。全文以经济学家将对国民生产总值的预测上调为引子,对美国经济形势进行了分析。

    第一段:指出政府报告带来的意外惊喜使经济学家对国民生产总值的预测上调。

    第二段至第四段:作者通过对GDP的增长原因、经济对劳动市场的影响、美联储提高利率的措施进行分析,指出目前经济形势不容过分乐观,因为它并没有飞速发展。

    第五段至第九段:作者通过介绍各个部门生产的发展,指出经济已经在缓慢复苏。

    试题精解1.美国经济学家很惊讶地发现______.[A]他们不得不频繁地修改生产预测[B]政府在宣告经济衰退期的结束[C]美国经济显示出好转的迹象[D]国民生产总值的增长反应了国内需求的增强[精解] 这是一道涉及对第一、二段理解的事实细节题。第一段是一句话段落,其主干结构是positive surprises…lead economists to… supporting the notion that…。该段提到政府报告带来的意外惊喜使经济学家将对国民生产总值的预测上调,从而支持了经济衰退期已在12月或1月终止的观点。由一段中的“意外惊喜”和“经济学家上调国民生产总值预测的举措”可知让他们吃惊的是经济状况好转的迹象,即[C]项为正确答案。

    第一、二段只提到经济学家对GDP预期的一次调整,无法推出他们频繁地修改。排除[A]项。由第一段可知,政府只报导了各个领域经济发展的好势头,而未宣布经济衰退期的终止。排除[B]项。第二段末句but转折后提到,但是(GDP)增长部分主要是因为存货提用的速度减缓,而不是需求的增长(surging demand),由此排除[D]项。

    2.美国经济方面最激励人心的事实是_____.[A]就业率的上升已经比预期的要快[B]美联储很快将提高利率[C]工业生产正在达到最低点[D]一些经济部门已经成为主导产业[精解] 本题考查了多处事实细节。第三段第二句提到,惟一的好消息是申请失业保险金人数在9.11事件后达到的高峰期开始回落,现在的水平表明失业的速度(the pace of layoffs)有所缓和(easing)。该句表明失业者还在增加,只是增加的速度低于先前。因此,[A]项与文意相反。[B]项与第四段首句“经济复苏并不意味着美联储将很快提高利率”含义相反。第五段首句是段落主题句:最近的经济报道中最好的消息来自1月份工业生产的数据。末句对主题予以说明:数据表明工业生产部门的产量正在达到底线,复苏即将开始。[C]项是对该句的改写,是正确选项。文中虽然提到很多经济部门,但没有比较谁是主导产业,排除[D]项。

    3.作者对什么方面持有相对保守的乐观态度?

    [A]国民生产总值的增长。                   [B]失业人数。

    [C]价格指数。                                     [D]消费品的产量。

    [精解] 本题实际考查了多处事实细节。第二段提到,GDP虽然有所增长,但其增长大多因为存货提用的速度减缓,而不是需求的增长。而且该段首句也提到:这次经济复苏不具有通常经济好转所具有的活力。因此作者对GDP的增长是持保守态度的。

    [B]项在第三段提到,即申请失业保险金人数的下降表明失业的速度有所缓和。[C]项在第四段第二句中出现,即1月的价格指数表明通货膨胀仍然很缓和(remained tame)。[D]项在第六段至第九段都有所涉及。因此作者对这三个方面抱有的是很明确的乐观态度。

    4.下面哪一个是美国经济更好未来的保障?

    [A]汽车          [B]房产市场    [C]办公设备    [D]电脑设备[精解] 本题考查了第六段至第九段的事实细节。这四个段落提到了备选项中四个经济生产部门。第六段提到,消费品的生产几乎回到了一年前的水平,因为对汽车及其他物品的消费需求以及房屋产业在经济衰退期间都保持了健康发展。第七段提到,过去两个月的月住宅建筑和房产市场相关数据都在整个2001年的平均数以上。这表明住宅建筑有了好的开始,可能不会成为今年GDP增长的累赘。第八段提到,稳固的房产市场可以刺激对房屋相关物品和服务的需求,如家具、电子产品和纺织品。期望消费商品的产量在未来的月份里超越年前的水平。第九段提到,甚至办公设备部门的生产似乎都要降至最低点。它的产量因电脑设备0.6%的涨幅在1月上升了0.4%.概括而言,汽车是消费者需求的对象,办公设备和电脑设备的产量只是小幅度的增长,只有房产市场不仅呈现良好发展势头,而且还带动其他生产领域的发展。因此[B]项正确。

    5.下面哪一个最好的概括了美国当前的经济形势?

    [A]美国经济学家正在描绘一幅令人沮丧的景象。

    [B]经济在温和的增长中热身。

    [C]衰退可能在未来几个月中的任何时候重现。

    [D]大部分部门都在以惊人的速度加快发展。

    [精解] 这是一道涉及对全文主旨理解的考题。综合全文,作者对美国经济进行了客观、全面的分析。从第二至四段的内容可知,作者对GDP的增长原因、经济对劳动市场的影响、美联储提高利率的措施都持有谨慎的乐观态度。但是作者也指出失业的速度有所缓和(三段末),美联储的货币政策相对中性化(四段末),工业生产部门的产量正在达到底线,复苏即将开始(第五段),办公设备部门将以比较缓和的速度继续增长(第九段末)。因此[B]项恰当地概括了美国的经济形势。

    文章开篇就提到,政府报告带来的意外惊喜使经济学家对国民生产总值的预测上调。排除[A]项。首段提到,有观点认为经济衰退期已在12月或1月终止。但下文只描述了经济的复苏趋势,因此[C]项不符合。[D]项错在surprisingly fast pace,文中大量出现表示“适中、温和”含义的关键词,如tame,neutrality,relaxed pace等,表明经济的发展速度是缓慢的。

    核心词汇或超纲词汇(1)recession(n.)撤回,退回;不景气,工商业衰退期(2)upturn(n.)好转;副词+动词=复合名词,如:output结果overthrow推翻upkeep保养(3)consensus(n.)一致同意;舆论(4)inventory(n.)存货;详细目录(5)drawdown(n.)水位降低;耗尽;动词+副词=复合名词,如:lookout留心layoff临时解雇(6)spike(n.)长钉;曲线的尖头部分,峰值(v.)用大钉钉;阻止,挫败(7)The bulk of大部分,大半(8)incentive(n.)刺激,鼓励;动机(a.)起刺激或鼓励作用的;incent(v.)刺激;激励

    全文翻译过去几个月里政府有关零售、工业生产和和房产的报告带来的意外惊喜使经济学家对国民生产总值(GDP)的预测上调,从而支持了经济衰退期已在12月或1月终止的观点。

    记住:这次经济复苏不具有通常经济好转所具有的活力。经济学家现在预计第一季度里真正的GDP增长率约为1.5%.这比11月一致估计的0.4%要好,但是GDP增长大多是因为存货提用的速度减缓,而不是需求的增长。

    而且,经济的增长没有快到可以很大程度上改善劳动力市场。惟一的好消息是申请失业保险金人数在9.11事件后达到的高峰期开始回落,现在的水平表明失业的速度有所缓和。

    经济复苏并不意味着美联储将很快提高利率。1月的价格指数表明通货膨胀仍然很缓和。这样,美联储可以从容不迫地将货币政策从极度宽松转向相对中性化。

    最近的经济报道中最好的消息也许来自1月份工业生产的数据。整个的生产量只下降了0.1%,是自7月以来最好的表现。工厂生产量平稳,也是六个月中最好的表现。这些数据也许听起来并不让人兴奋,但生产业自2000年后期一直处于衰退之中。这些数据表明工业生产部门的产量正在达到底线,复苏即将开始。

    比如,消费品的生产几乎回到了一年前的水平。这是因为对汽车及其他物品的消费需求以及房屋产业在经济衰退期间都保持了健康发展,而且在2002年初仍然在增长。

    此外,过去两个月中每月房屋建造和房产市场指数都在整个2001年的平均数以上。这表明房屋建造有了好的开始,可能不会成为今年GDP增长的累赘。

    对于经济前景同样重要的是稳固的房产市场将有利于刺激对房屋相关物品和服务的需求。传统消费者在置家后的一年内会购买大部分家具、电子产品和纺织品。因此,今年在这些物品上的消费将看好。甚至现在当汽车销售下滑时,这些商品刺激也没有失去吸引力。期望消费商品的产量在未来的月份里超越年前的水平。

    甚至办公设备部门的生产似乎也要降至最低点。它的产量因电脑设备0.6%的涨幅在1月上升了0.4%.第四季度里资本物品订购的上升表明未来的月份里生产的速度虽然缓慢但仍将继续上升。

    Text 4 Timothy Berners-Lee might be giving Bill Gates a run for the money, but he passed up his shot at fabulous wealth—intentionally—in 1990. That‘s when he decided not to patent the technology used to create the most important software innovation in the final decade of the 20th century: the World Wide Web. Berners-Lee wanted to make the world a richer place, not a mass personal wealth. So he gave his brainchild to us all. Berners-Lee regards today’s Web as a rebellious adolescent that can never fulfill his original expectations. By 2005, he hopes to begin replacing it with the Semantic Web—a smart network that will finally understand human languages and make computers virtually as easy to work with as other humans. As envisioned by Berners-Lee, the new Web would understand not only the meaning of words and concepts but also the logical relationships among them. That has awesome potential. Most knowledge is built on two pillars: semantics and mathematics. In number-crunching, computers already outclass people. Machines that are equally adroit at dealing with language and reason won‘t just help people uncover new insights; they could blaze new trails on their own. Even with a fairly crude version of this future Web, mining online repositories for nuggets of knowledge would no longer force people to wade through screen after screen of extraneous data. Instead, computers would dispatch intelligent agents, or software messengers, to explore Web sites by the thousands and logically sift out just what’s relevant. That alone would provide a major boost in productivity at work and at home. But there‘s far more. Software agents could also take on many routine business chores, such as helping manufacturers find and negotiate with lowest-cost parts suppliers and handling help-desk questions. The Semantic Web would also be a bottomless trove of eureka insights. Most inventions and scientific breakthroughs, including today’s Web, spring from novel combinations of existing knowledge. The Semantic Web would make it possible to evaluate more combinations overnight than a person could juggle in a lifetime. Sure scientists and other people can post ideas on the Web today for others to read. But with machines doing the reading and translating technical terms, related ideas from millions of Web pages could be distilled and summarized. That will lift the ability to assess and integrate information to new heights. The Semantic Web, Berners-Lee predicts, will help more people become more intuitive as well as more analytical. It will foster global collaborations among people with diverse cultural perspectives, so we have a better chance of finding the right solutions to the really big issues—like the environment and climate warming. 1. Had he liked, Berners-Lee could have _____.[A]created the most important innovation in the 1990s[B]accumulated as much personal wealth as Bill Gates[C]patented the technology of Microsoft software[D]given his brainchild to us all 2. The Semantic Web will be superior to today‘s web in that it _____.[A]surpasses people in processing numbers[B]fulfills user’s original expectations[C]deals with language and reason as well as number[D]responds like a rebellious adult 3. To search for any information needed on tomorrow‘s Web, one only has to _____.[A]wade through screen after screen of extraneous data[B]ask the Web to dispatch some messenger to his door[C]use smart software programs called “agents”

    [D]explore Web sites by the thousands and pick out what‘s relevant 4. Thanks to the Web of the future, _____.[A]millions of web pages can be translated overnight[B]one can find most inventions and breakthroughs online[C]software manufacturers can lower the cost of computer parts[D]scientists using different specialty terms can collaborate much better 5. The most appropriate title for this text is.[A]Differences bet,ween Two Webs[B]The Humanization of Computer Software[C]A New Solution to World Problems[D]The Creator and His Next Creation

    答案1. B        2.C         3.C         4.D         5.D

    总体分析本文是一篇介绍著名网络科学家伯纳斯。李及其发明创造的文章。文章先以伯纳斯。李对万维网的贡献及态度为例,赞扬了他的伟大人格,而后又详细介绍了伯纳斯。李的下一个研究目标——语义万维网——的优点及将给人们带来的好处。

    第一段:讲述了20世纪90年代,伯纳斯。李主动放弃自己积累个人财富的机会,把用来发明万维网的技术与世界分享的例子,表明了他的伟大人格。

    第二段:通过指出伯纳斯。李对当今网络的不满,引入他的新研究项目——语义万维网。

    第三、四、五段:通过新旧对比的方式,介绍了语义万维网的优点及将给人们带来的好处。第三段介绍新的网络不止能处理数字,还能理解人类的语言和推理。第四段介绍了查询信息时新网络的快捷方便。第五段指出软件代理商可以帮人们处理很多常规事物,还可以整合归纳大量相关信息,促进不同文化背景的人之间的交流,促进新的发明创造,提高人们解决问题的能力。

    试题精解1.如果伯纳斯。李愿意的话,他原本可能已经____.[A]在20世纪90年代创造最重要的发明[B]积累了像比尔。盖茨一样多的个人资产[C]申请了微软软件技术的专利权[D]把他的创意给了我们所有的人[精解] 本题考查考生根据上下文进行推理的能力。文章一开始就提到,“伯纳斯。李原本可以在财富上与比尔。盖茨一比高低,但是1990年他主动放弃了获得巨额财富的机会。give sb a (good) run for their money”不让……轻易取胜,与……进行激烈竟争“,pass up ”放弃,不要(机会等)“。第一段倒数第二句又接着提到,”他想让世界变得更加富有,而不是积累个人财富,所以他把互联网这个他个人智慧的结晶无偿给了我们“。由此我们可以推出[B]项表述了他有能力却不愿意做的事情。

    文章第一段中间部分说到:伯纳斯。李决定不为用来创造20世纪90年代最重要的软件发明(万维网)的技术申请专利。[A]、[C]项是对文意的曲解。[D]项在首段末句提到,是伯纳斯。李已经做到的事情。

    2.语义万维网将比今天的网络优越,因为它____.[A]在处理数据方面超越人类[B]达到使用者的最初期望[C]既处理数据也处理语言和推理[D]反应得像个反叛的成年人[精解] 本题考查事实细节。由文章的第三段首句可知:新的万维网将不止能理解词语和概念的意思,还能理解它们之间的逻辑关系。[C]项的language对应原文中的the meaning of words and concepts, reason对应the logic relationships among them,因此是正确项。

    第三段第四句提到:现在的计算机(即今天的网络)在处理数据方面已超过了人类,因此[A]项不是语义万维网比现在网络优越的理由。第二段首句提到伯纳斯。李认为今天的网络像一个反叛的青少年,永远达不到他(发明者)最初的期望。[B]、[D]项替换词汇为“使用者”和“成年人”,是对该句的歪曲引申。

    3.在未来的网络中搜索任何需要的信息,一个人只须_____.[A]在一屏一屏的无关信息中艰难搜索[B]让网络派遣某个使者到他的门前[C]使用叫“代理商”的智能软件程序[D]查询上千个网站,然后找出相关信息[精解] 本题考查事实细节。可用排除法。文章第四段提到,“即使使用未来网络的一个很原始版本,在巨大的网络资源库中寻找所需信息时,人们也不必在一屏一屏的无关信息中艰难搜索了。相反,电脑将派出智能代理商或软件使者(代替你)查询上千个网站,并按逻辑滤出相关信息。”[A]、[D]项是在未来网络中人不用做的,与题目要求不符。[B]项是对文章望文生义,本身错误。只有[C]项正确,第四段中所述未来网络的优势,都是你使用它的智能程序这个前提下的结果。

    4.多亏了未来的网络____.[A]上百万的网页可在一夜之间翻译出来[B]人们可以在网上找到很多发明和突破[C]软件制造商可降低电脑配件的成本[D]使用不同专业术语的科学家们可以更好地合作[精解] 本题考查事实细节题。题干要求选出未来网络带来的好处。第五段最后三句提到:语义万维网可以阅读并翻译专业术语,从上百万的网站提取总结相关信息;促进全球不同文化背景的人之间的合作。[D]项scientists是不同文化背景的人的一个特例,所以是正确项。

    [A]项错误,因为该段第四句提到overnight时,是说语义万维网可以在一夜之间比一个人一辈子评估的知识的联合还要多,而不是翻译网页。[B]项的内容是现在的网络就能做到的,不能作为未来网络的好处。[C]项文章没有提及,文中只是说到软件代理商能帮助制造商找到成本最低的零件供应商,并和他们洽谈。

    5.这篇文章最合适的标题是______.[A]两种网络的区别[B]电脑软件的人格化[C]全球问题的新解决方案[D]发明者和他的下一个发明[精解]本题通过选标题的形式考查了文章的主旨。文章主要介绍了著名科学家伯纳斯。李以及他将要研究出的语义万维网,所以[D]项正确。在分析中,为了说明将来的网络,把它和现在的万维网进行了比较,但这仅仅是为了更好说明语义万维网的优点。所以不选[A]项。[B]项是未来万维网的一个目标,只是文章所述内容的一个方面,不能作为文章主旨。[C]项在文章最后点到,也不是主旨。

    核心词汇或超纲词汇(1)shot(n.)机会;努力;试图a fair ~ at the part in the play出演剧中角色的公平的机会(2)fabulous(a.)神话般的;惊人的,难以置信的,巨大的(3)mass(a.)大规模的,集中的;群众的(n.)质量;群众;大量(v.)聚集(4)brainchild(n.)脑力劳动成果(指计划、发明等)

    (5)rebellious(a.)反叛的;难于对付的;rebel(v.)造反(者);反叛(者);rebellion(n.)叛乱;反抗,不服从(6)adolescent(n.)青少年(a.)青春期的(7)envision(v.)想象,预想(8)awesome(a.)引起敬畏的,可怕的(9)crunch(v.)嘎扎嘎扎的咬嚼;处理(数字或数学数据)

    (10)outclass(v.)远高于;远胜过;out-为前缀,意为“超出”,如outlive比……长命outgo走得比……远或快,优于(11)adroit(a.)熟练的;灵巧的be ~ in/at善于(12)blaze(v.)燃烧,照耀;领导,开拓~ a trail/path/way闯出新路,开辟路径(13)repository(n.)n. 仓库,贮藏室;知识库;智囊团(14)nugget(n.)贵金属块(尤指天然金块);有价值的小东西或想法a useful ~ of information一条有用的宝贵信息(15)trove(n.)被发现或收藏的东西(16)eureka在希腊语里的意思是“我找到了”或“我发现了”,这个词借入英语是纪念阿基米德在洗澡时发现浮力定律,现在一般指“因发现某物或某问题的答案而高心”

    全文翻译伯纳斯。李本可以与比尔。盖茨在财富上一较高低,但是他在1990年(主动)放弃了取得巨额财富的机会。当时伯纳斯。李决定不为那项用来创造20世纪90年代最重要的软件发明——万维网——的技术申请专利。伯纳斯。李想使全世界更加富有,而不是个人的巨额财富。因此,他把自己的创意给了我们所有的人。

    伯纳斯。李认为今天的网络像一个反叛的青少年,永远达不到他最初的期望。到2005年,他希望开始用语义万维网取而代之,这是一种将最终理解人类语言并使电脑在事实上像其他人类一样容易合作的智能网络。

    据伯纳斯。李设想,新的万维网将不止能理解词语和概念的意思还能理解它们之间的逻辑关系。它的潜能是可怕的。多数知识都建立在两大支柱之上:语义学和数学。在处理数字方面,电脑已超过了人类。在处理语言和逻辑方面同样熟练的机器将不止帮助人们洞察到新的知识,还可能为它们自己开辟新的道路。

    即使使用未来网络的一个很粗糙的版本,人们在网上知识的宝库中淘金时,也不必再艰难地翻阅一屏又一屏的无关数据了。相反,电脑将派出智能代理商或软件使者(代替你)去查询数以千计的网站,并按逻辑选出相关信息。只这一点就会给工作和家庭中的生产力带来巨大的推动。但是还远不止这些。

    软件代理商还能承担许多日常商务,如帮助制造商找到价格最低的零件供应商,并与其谈判、帮助解决问讯台的问题。语义万维网也会是新发现的无底宝库。多数发明和科学突破,包括今天的万维网,都来自已有知识的新组合。语义万维网将可以在一夜之间比一个人一辈子评估的知识的组合还要多。当然,今天科学家和其他人能够把想法贴到万维网上供别人阅读。但有了可以阅读和翻译专用术语的机器,成百万的网页上的相关信息就可以得到分析和总结。这将把评定和整合信息的能力提高到新的水平。伯纳斯。李预言,语义万维网“将帮助更多的人更加有直觉和分析能力。它将促进不同文化背景的人之间的全球性合作,因此我们有更好的机会找到那些真正的大问题的正确解决方案,如环境和气候变暖问题。”

    Part B Directions:In the following article, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41-45, choose the most suitable one from the lish A-G to fit into each of the numbered blank. There are two extra choices that do not fit in any of the gaps. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

    The making of weathervanes (devices fixed on the top of buildings to show directions of the wind) is an ancient skill, going back to early Egyptian times. Today the craft is still very much alive in the workshop that Graham Smith has set up. He is one of the few people in the country who make hand-cut weathervanes. Graham‘s designs are individually created and tailored to the specific requirements of his customers. “That way I can produce a unique personalized item,” he explains, “A lot of my customers are women buying presents for their husbands. They want a distinctive gift that represents the man’s business or leisure interests.”

    It‘s all a far cry from the traditional cock, the most common design for weathervanes. It was not a cock but a witch on a broomstick that featured on the first weathervane Graham ever made. Friends admired his surprise present for his wife and began asking him to make vanes for them. “I realized that when it came to subjects that could be made into them, the possibilities were limitless,” he says.(41)_____________. That was five years ago and he has no regrets about his new direction. “My previous work didn’t have an artistic element to it, whereas this is exciting and creative,” he says. “I really enjoy the design side.”

    (42) _____________. Graham also keeps plenty of traditional designs in stock, since they prove as popular as the one-offs. “It seems that people are attracted to handcrafting,” Graham says. “They welcome the opportunity to acquire something a little bit different.”

    (43) _____________.“I have found my place in the market. People love the individuality and I get a lot of satisfaction from seeing a nondescript shape turn into something almost lifelike,” he says.(44) _____________.“And nowadays, with more and more people moving to the country, individuals want to put an exclusive finishing touch to their properties. It has been a boost to crafts like mines,”

    (45) _____________. American and Danish buyers in particular are showing interest. “Pricing,” he explains, “depends on the intricacy of the design.”His most recent request was for a curly-coated dog. Whatever the occasion, Graham can create a gift with a difference.[A]Graham has become increasingly busy, supplying flat-packed weathervanes to clients worldwide.[B]Graham decided to concentrate his efforts on a weathervane business. He had served an apprenticeship as a precision engineer and had worked in that trade for 15 years when he and his wife, Liz, agreed to swap roles—she went out to work as an architectural assistant and he stayed at home to look after the children and build up the business.[C]Last month, a local school was opened with his galleon ship weathervane hoisted above it.[D]“For centuries, weathervanes have kept communities in touch with the elements, signaling those shifts in wind direction that bring about changes in the weather,” he explains.[E]Graham has no plans for expansion, as he wants to keep the business as a rural craft.[F]Graham has now perfected over 100 original designs. He works to very fine detail, always seeking approval for the design of the silhouette from the customer before proceeding with the hand-cutting.

    答案41. B             42.F        43.E              44.D              45.A

    总体分析本文通过介绍格雷汉姆的个人经历说明制作风向标这种传统手工艺在现代社会又焕发了生机。

    [A] 格雷汉姆忙着给世界各地的顾客供应风向标。

    [B] 格雷汉姆过去的工作经历以及如何开始从事风向标生意的。

    [C] 上个月开办的一所地方学校就升起了他制作的大型帆船风向标。

    [D] 风向标过去的作用是使人类与天气保持联系。

    [E] 格雷汉姆只想把风向标保持为一种乡村手工艺。

    [F] 格雷汉姆设计得非常精细,并总是设法先让顾客对设计满意。

    试题精解41.[精解] 本题考查的知识点是:上下文的衔接本题空格上文是文章的前三段。前两段介绍了主人公格雷汉姆是制作风向标的手工艺者,他为顾客特制不同于传统设计的风向标。第三段提到,格雷汉姆做的第一个风向标引起了朋友的兴趣,也让他自己意识到了商机的存在。空格下文即第五段第一句提到,“那是五年前的事了”。与上文衔接,空格处应继续围绕格雷汉姆从事风向标的制作展开论述。与下文衔接,空格处应论述五年前的情况。因此[B]正确。其中第一句话“格雷汉姆决定把精力投入到风向标生意上”与上文论述的“发现商机”衔接紧密,后面部分出现的“15 years”与下文“five years ago”相呼应。

    42.[精解] 本题考查的知识点是:上下文的衔接+段群的主题本题空格上文即第五段,论述了格雷汉姆对设计风向标工作的喜爱。空格下文即第七段提到,格雷汉姆也保留了很多传统设计。可见,上下文主要围绕“设计”这个主题展开论述。而且,下文出现的特征词“also”表明空格部分与下文存在递进关系。[F]中“original designs”与下文“traditional designs”对照呼应,因此是正确项。

    43.[精解] 本题考查的知识点是:上下文的衔接空格上文即第七段后半部分提到,人们对手工制作很感兴趣。空格下文即第九段开始提到,格雷汉姆已经在市场上占有了一席之地。涉及“市场”的是[E],其中“格雷汉姆想把它保持为一种乡村手工艺”与下文“占有了一定的市场”含义衔接。此外,[E]中“craft”与上文“handcrafting”是词汇重复。

    44.[精解] 本题考查的知识点是:上下文内容上的呼应空格下文即第十一段主要论述了现在像风向标制作这样的手工艺发展的原因。其中关键词是“and nowadays”,它表明了与空格处逻辑上存在并列关系。与“现在”形成对比的是“过去”,[D]论述了风向标过去传统的功能,即过去存在的原因。

    45.[精解] 本题考查的知识点是:上下文的衔接+词语的复现空格下文即全文最后一段论述了格雷汉姆销售风向标的情况,其中“buyers”为关键词。[A]和[F]分别出现了同义词“clients”和“customer”。但[F]主要谈论的是设计方面的问题,[A]才是有关销售的内容,而且“worldwide”一词与下文“American and Danish”呼应。因此[A]正确。

    核心词汇或超纲词汇(1)a far(或long) cry from习惯用语,相当于very different from(与……相差甚远,与……大相径庭),如The published book is far cry from the early manuscript.(印刷出来的书与当初的手稿相差甚远。)

    (2)swap(v./n.)交换,交易,如They swapped stories about their army days.(他们互相讲述了在军队中的经历。)

    (3)one-off (n.) 一次性的事物,绝无仅有的事物;(a.)一次性的,非经常的,如a ~ payment(一次性付款)

    (4)nondescript(a.)莫可名状的,难以区别的,无特征的(5)the elements(尤指恶劣的)天气(6)touch(n.)修饰,润色,装点,如to put the finishing ~es to the report(给报告做最后的润色)。

    (7)flat-packed平整包装的,即,购买者需要自己组装产品。

    全文翻译风向标(固定在建筑物顶端用来指示风向的设备)的制作是一门古老的工艺,可以追溯到古埃及时代。如今这项工艺在格雷汉姆。史密斯建立的工作室里依然散发着生机。他是这个国家里仅有的几个从事手工制作风向标的人之一。格雷汉姆的设计是为个人制作的,他按照顾客的具体要求量身订做。“这样我就能生产出独特的个性化的产品”,他解释说,“我的许多顾客都是女性,她们在为丈夫买礼物。她们想要能代表男人事业或业余兴趣的特制的礼物。”

    它们与风向标最普通的设计,即传统公鸡形状的风向标相差甚远。

    格雷汉姆做的第一个风向标不是公鸡形状的,而是一个在长柄扫帚上的女巫。朋友们都羡慕他这份给妻子带来惊喜的礼物,开始纷纷要求为他们也制作风向标。他说,“我意识到当涉及用风向标可以表现的题材时,其可能性是无穷无尽的。”

    格雷汉姆决定把精力投入到风向标生意上。他曾经当过精密度工程师学徒,并在这个行业中工作了15年,然后他和妻子同意交换一下角色——妻子外出工作,当助理建筑工程师,而丈夫留在家中照顾孩子并建立自己的事业。[B]那是五年前的事了,格雷汉姆对自己选择的新方向没有后悔。他说,“我以前的工作没有任何艺术性,而现在这种工作充满了刺激与创造性,我真的喜欢设计。”

    格雷汉姆现在已经完善了100多个原创设计。他精工细作,总是在动手制作前先让顾客对轮廓的设计满意。[F]格雷汉姆也保留了很多传统设计,因为它们被证实与偶然的创造一样受欢迎。他说,“看上去人们对手工制作很感兴趣,他们想有机会获得一些与众不同的东西”。

    格雷汉姆没有扩展(工作室)规模的计划,因为他想把它保持为一种乡村手工艺。[E]他说,“我已经在市场上占有了一席之地。人们喜爱个性化的东西,而当我看到一个没有任何特色的形状变得栩栩如生时,感到非常满足。”

    他解释到,“几个世纪以来,风向标发送引起天气变化的风向转变的信号,从而使人类社会与天气保持联系。”[D]“然而现在,随着越来越多的人迁入乡村,很多人想给自己的财产做最后的独特的修饰。这促进了我这样的手工艺的发展。”

    格雷汉姆越来越忙,忙着给世界各地的顾客供应平整包装的风向标。[A]美国和丹麦顾客特别感兴趣。他解释说,“价格的制定取决于设计的复杂性。”他最近的定单是一只卷毛狗。无论什么情况下,格雷汉姆都可以制作出与众不同的礼物。

    Part C Directions:Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points)

    The value which society places on work has traditionally been closely associated with the value of individualism and as a result it has had negative effects on the development of social security. (46) It has meant that in the first place the amount of benefits must be small lest people‘s willingness to work and support themselves suffers. Even today with flat rate and earnings-related benefits, the total amount of the benefit must always be smaller than the person’s wages for fear of malingering. “The purpose of social security,” said Huntford referring to Sweden‘s comparatively generous benefits, “is to dispel need without crossing the threshold of prosperity.” Second, social security benefits are granted under conditions designed to reduce the likelihood of even the boldest of spirits attempting to live on the State rather than work. Many of the rules surrounding the payment of unemployment or supplementary benefit are for this purpose. Third, the value placed on work is manifested in a more positive way as in the case of disability. (47) People suffering from accidents incurred at work or from occupational diseases receive preferential treatment by the social security service compared with those suffering from civil accidents and ordinary illnesses. Yet, the stranglehold which work has had on the social security service has been increasingly loosened over the years. The provision of family allowances, family income supplements, the slight liberalization of the wages stop are some of the manifestations of this trend. (48) Similarly, the preferential treatment given to occupational disability by the social security service has been increasingly questioned with the demands for the upgrading of benefits for the other types of disability. It is felt that in contemporary industrial societies the distinction between occupational and non-occupational disability is artificial for many non-occupational forms of disability have an industrial origin even if they do not occur directly in the workplace. (49) There is also the additional reason which we mentioned in the argument for one benefit for all one-parent families, that a modern social security service must concentrate on meeting needs irrespective of the cause behind such needs. The relationship between social security and work is not all a one-way affair. (50) It is true that until very recently the general view was that social security “represented a type of luxury and was essentially anti-economic.” It was seen as merely government expenditure for the needy. As we saw, however, redundancy payments and earnings-related unemployment benefits have been used with some success by employers and the government to reduce workers’ opposition towards loss of their jobs.

    总体分析这是一篇关于社会保障的文章,主要论述社会赋予工作的价值这种观点所带来的后果,并指出虽然社会保障存在一些问题,但是仍有成效可见。

    第一段:先提出社会赋予工作的价值在传统上一直与个人主义紧密联系在一起,因此对社会保障的发展产生了负面的影响。接着具体论述了三点影响。

    第二段:转折指出,近年来工作对社会保障的束缚日益松解。接着作者又提到现代工业社会中工伤和非工伤的区别是虚假的,最后提到单亲家庭的救济理由,即一个现代的社会保障体系必须专注于满足需求,不管这些需求的背后有何原因。

    第三段:综述社会保障和工作之间的关系。并指出看待社会保障的几种观点。

    文章是有关社会生活的评论性文章,所用词汇绝大多数为书面用语,句子结构也比较复杂,长句较多。此外,这篇文章的主题“社会保障”是社会生活中比较常见的话题,所以考生可以结合常识理解。由此可见,考生平时应该注意一些有关社会文化生活的中英文报道,一方面熟悉常用词汇,一方面积累常识性知识。

    文章考核的知识点:(一)状语,包括目的状语从句,分词作状语,介词短语作状语。(二)定语,包括定语从句,过去分词作定语等。(三)it为形式主语的主语从句。(四)同位语。

    试题精解46.[精解] 本题考核知识点:目的状语从句的翻译该句是一个含有lest引导的目的状语从句的复合句。主句部分又包含了一个that引导的宾语从句。主句的主语为代词it,考生翻译时应联系上下文找出它所指代的对象,避免产生歧义。在此句中,it指代的是前文整个句子,可以译为“这种观念”。Mean字面含义是“表示……的意思”,在这里因为主语译成观念,所以可将mean活译成“认为”与之相搭配。连词lest引导目的状语从句,按字面意思直译是“以免人们的积极性受到损害”,但是考虑到要突出主语以及具体动作,可依照汉语习惯译成主动句。

    词汇:benefit常见含义是“好处,利益”,因为整个文章谈论的是社会保障问题,所以应译成“救济金,保障金”。in the first place字面意思是“在第一的位置上”,一般译为“首先”。Willingness原意为“甘愿,自愿”,Suffer意为“受损害,受痛苦”,两个词搭配在一起,译为“积极性受到损害”或“损害积极性”。

    译文:首先,这种观念认为,救济金的数额必须小,以免损害人们主动工作,自食其力的积极性。

    47.[精解] 本题考核知识点:现在分词作定语、过去分词作定语、过去分词作状语的译法该句的主干是people … receive preferential treatment.其中suffering from accidents …or from occupational diseases是现在分词作定语修饰主语people,考生在翻译时可以按照汉语的习惯,将定语放到名词前面。incurred at work是过去分词作定语,修饰这一词组前的accidents,可意译为“因工受伤”。compared with those suffering … 是过去分词结构作状语,翻译时,状语部分可放在句首,译为“与……相比”。此外,考生应将该部分中those一词所指代的对象译出,以免产生歧义。联系上下文可得,它是泛指代词,可译为“人们”。Those 后面的现在分词词组仍然充当定语。

    词汇:Occupational diseases“职业病”;preferential treatment“优待”;incur“招致”;social security service社会保障服务;civil“市民的,公民的”,这里与work 相对,译为“个人的”。

    译文:与那些遭受个人意外和忍受普通疾病折磨的人相比,因公受伤或者患有职业病的人在社会保障服务方面享有优待。

    48.[精解] 本题考核知识点:被动语态、过去分词作定语、介词短语作状语的译法该句子的主句是被动语态结构the preferential treatment has been questioned.对被动语态的翻译,可以将其译为“遭受,受到”等。文章中given to occupational disability by the social security service部分是过去分词短语作定语的结构,修饰主语the treatment.With引导的介词短语作状语,翻译时既可以按照汉语习惯放到句首,也可以独立译成一个分句,突出强调这一事件。

    词汇:increasingly字面意思是“渐渐地,逐渐地”,在文中译为“越来越多地”;question作动词时译为“质疑”。Upgrade“上升,上涨,提高”。

    译文:同样,社会保障服务给予职业伤残的优惠待遇越来越多地受到了质疑,人们要求提高对其他类型伤残的救济。

    49.[精解] 本题考核知识点:同位语、定语从句的翻译该句子的主干成分是there be 结构there is also the reason,可直接译为“还有一个理由”。that引导的句子为reason的同位语,翻译时可以直接用一个“即”字引导,紧跟在reason后面。which 引导定语从句,修饰reason一词,翻译时按照汉语习惯置于名词的前面。

    词汇:additional“额外的,附加的”,one-parent family“单亲家庭”,concentrate on“集中于,专注于”,irrespective of“不顾……的;不考虑……的;不论……的”。

    译文:此外,还有一个我们在讨论单亲家庭救济问题时所提及的理由,即一个现代的社会保障服务必须专注于满足需求,不管这些需求的背后有何原因。

    50.[精解] 本题考核知识点:主语从句的翻译第一个句子的主干成分是it is true,其中it为形式主语,that引导的从句为真正的主语。由于主语太长,可以将谓语部分提前译为“诚然”。主语从句的主干是the general view was that…,until very recently突出强调了所述现象存在的时间,在翻译时,可以单独译成“直到最近”。主语从句中又包含了that引导的表语从句。后一句是一个简单的被动语态结构It was seen as …,考生注意翻译时应将主语代词it 指代的对象译出,在句中它指代的是“社会保障”。

    词汇:represented“代表”;luxury“奢侈,享受”。Essentially“基本的,本质的”。Expenditure“开支,费用”。Needy“贫困的”,在句中与定冠词the搭配,特指一类人,可以译为“贫困群体”。

    译文 :诚然,直到最近,普遍的观点依然认为社会保障“体现的是一种享受,从本质上讲是反经济的”。它仅仅被看作是政府用于贫困群体的开支。

    全文翻译传统上,社会赋予工作的价值一直与个人主义价值紧密相连。这对社会保障的发展产生了负面的影响。首先,这种观念认为,救济金的数额必须小,以免损害人们主动工作,自食其力的积极性。尽管目前的救济金一直保持固定的比率,而且与收入挂钩,但是为了防止有人装病以逃避职责,救济金的总数额总是必须小于人们的周薪。在谈到瑞典相对较多的救济金时,亨特。福德说:“社会保障满足需要,却不能跨越富裕的界限。”其次,社会保障金的发放是有条件的,设计这些条件的目的是为了减少那些胆大妄为者企图依赖国家而非自食其力的可能性。许多关于失业救济金或补充救济金的规则都是为了这一目的而设置的。第三,对残疾的福利政策更明确地体现了赋予工作的价值。与那些遭受个人意外和忍受普通疾病折磨的人相比,因公受伤或者患有职业病的人在社会保障服务方面享有优待。

    然而,近年来工作对社会保障的束缚日益松解。在家庭补贴、家庭收入增补、对停薪限制宽松化等方面的规定都能体现出这种趋势。同样,社会保障服务给予职业伤残的优惠待遇越来越多地受到了质疑,人们要求提高对其他类型伤残的救济。可以感觉到,在当代工业社会中,职业伤残和非职业伤残的不同是过于武断的,因为许多非职业伤残尽管不是直接发生在工作场所,仍然有着工业根源。此外,还有一个我们在讨论单亲家庭救济问题时所提及的理由,即一个现代的社会保障服务必须专注于满足需求,不管这些需求的背后有何原因。

    社会保障和工作之间的关系,并不完全是单向的。诚然,直到最近,普遍的观点依然认为社会保障“体现的是一种享受,从本质上讲是反经济的”。它仅仅被看作是政府用于贫困群体的开支。但是,正如我们所见,雇主和政府运用解雇费和与收入相挂钩的的失业福利,较为成功地降低了工人对于失业的反对。

    Section Ⅲ Writing

    Part A 51. Directions:You have received an invitation to the birthday party of your friend, Tom. But you can‘t attend it. Write a note to Tom to 1) thank him for the invitation,2) give reasons why you can’t go, and 3) apologize and express your wishes. You should write about 100 words neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2. Do not sign your own name. Use “Li Ming” instead. You do not need to write the address. (10 points)

    一、审题与谋篇本题要求写一封道歉信。写道歉信一般是因为写信人不能完成所要求或许诺的事情,或不能按时或很好地完成某件事情。道歉一般和解释同时存在,解释是出于礼貌、希望消除可能的误解。道歉要真诚,解释要充分并且切题,写信的语气要温和而富于策略。

    指导语中给出的情景是接到朋友生日会的邀请但不能参加,信的内容包括:(1)表示感谢;(2)说明你不能参加生日会的理由;(3)道歉并表达祝愿。

    二、 参考范文Dear Tom,Thank you very much for inviting me to your birthday party tomorrow and I have been longing for giving my sincere wishes to you on that special day. However, I am terribly sorry that I cannot be there because of a matter of some urgency. This afternoon I got a call from my parents telling me that my sister had been hospitalized. Both of my parents are busy at work, so I have to go home in a hurry to take care of her. I am sure you can understand this. I would like to say sorry again and wish you a happy birthday as well as a successful party. Yours Li Ming

    Part B 52. Directions:Look at the flowing picture and write an article on advertisement. Your article should cover the points below:1)  The omnipresence (无所不在,普遍)of advertisements 2)  Their advantages 3)  Their disadvantages You should write 160-200 words neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2 (20 points)

    参考范文Advertisements come into our lives in a variety of forms. Newspapers carry advertisements. Billboards carry advertisements. More conspicuously, TV advertisements are incessantly influencing people‘s life from various aspects. Advertisements have many advantages. Firstly, advertising is informative, which provides us with a quick access to the product needed. Secondly, many advertisements, especially TV advertisemnts are so beautifully made that they themselves can bring us great enjoyment. Maybe that’s why the daughter in the picture is so attracted by them. However, advertising involves some defects. Firstly, the cost of adverting will definitely be passed on to the customers, which makes the products be sold at much higher prices. Thirdly, Secondly, The advertisers often mispresent the truth by exaggerating the benefits of the merchandise they want to sell. Thirdly, advertisements often interrupt audiences‘ appreciation of their favorite programs, which may lead to diasspointment

 

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