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网络   2010-12-10 14:07 【 】【我要纠错

  Section Ⅰ Use of English

  Directions:Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  Valentine‘s Day may come from the ancient Roman feast of Lupercalia. __1__ the fierce wolves roamed nearby, the old Romans called __2__ the god Lupercus to help them. A festival in his __3__ was held on February 15th. On the eve of the festival the __4__ of the girls were written on __5__ of paper and placed in jars. Each young man __6__ a slip. The girl whose name was __7__ was to be his sweetheart for the year. Legend __8__ it that the holiday became Valentine’s Day __9__ a Roman priest named Valentine. Emperor Claudius II __10__ the Roman soldiers NOT to marry or become engaged. Claudius felt married soldiers would __11__ stay home than fight. When Valentine __12__ the Emperor and secretly married the young couples, he was put to death on February 14th, the __13__ of Lupercalia. After his death, Valentine became a __14__. Christian priests moved the holiday from the 15th to the 14th—Valentine‘s Day. Now the holiday honors Valentine __15__ of Lupercus. Valentine’s Day has become a major __16__ of love and romance in the modern world. The ancient god Cupid and his __17__ into a lover‘s heart may still be used to __18__ falling in love or being in love. But we also use cards and gifts, such as flowers or jewelry, to do this. __19__ to give flower to a wife or sweetheart on Valentine’s Day can sometimes be as __20__ as forgetting a birthday or a wedding anniversary. 1.[A] While [B] When [C] Though [D] Unless 2.[A] upon [B] back [C] off [D] away 3.[A] honor [B] belief [C] hand [D] way 4.[A] problems [B] secrets [C] names [D] intentions 5.[A] rolls [B] piles [C] works [D] slips 6.[A] cast [B] caught [C] drew [D] found 7.[A] given [B] chosen [C] elected [D] delivered 8.[A] tells [B] means [C] makes [D] has 9.[A] after [B] since [C] as [D] from 10.[A] ordered [B] pleaded [C] envisioned [D] believed 11.[A] other [B] simply [C] rather [D] all 12.[A] disliked [B] defied [C] defeated [D] dishonored 13.[A] celebration [B] arrangement[C] feast [D] eve 14.[A] goat [B] saint [C] model [D] weapon 15.[A] because [B] made [C] instead [D] learnt 16.[A] part [B] representative[C] judgement [D] symbol 17.[A] story [B] wander [C] arrow [D] play 18.[A] portray [B] require [C] demand [D] alert 19.[A] Keeping [B] Disapproving[C] Supporting [D] Forgetting 20.[A] constructive [B] damaging [C] reinforcing [D] retorting

  答案1. B 2. A 3.A 4.C 5.D 6.C 7.B 8.D 9.A 10.A 11. C 12.B 13.D 14.B 15.C 16.D 17.C 18.A 19D. 20. B





  试题精解1.[精解]本题考查连词用法辨析。空格处填入的连词应反映空格所在分句和下一句之间的逻辑关系。四个选项,while表时间或让步,意为“当……的时候”或“虽然,尽管”;when表时间,意为“当……的时候”;though表让步,意为“尽管,虽然”;unless表条件,意为“除非”。根据文意,两个分句之间是时间关系,因此需要在while和when之间选择。when既可指一段时间,也可指一个时间点,既可表示持续的动作,也可表示一时性的动作;while则只能表示持续性的动作或状态。如:When she comes,(指一个时间点,不能用while)I shall tell her to wait for you.(她来的时候我会叫她等你的。)When Jim was reading,(指一段时间,可用while)Jack was writing.(吉姆阅读的时候,杰克在写东西。)空格所在分句中的动作roamed不是持续性的动作,只能用when,[B]正确。

  2.[精解]本题考查短语动词辨析。空格处填入的介词或副词与call构成短语动词,接sb. to do sth.作复合宾语。符合要求的是[A],call upon sb. to do sth.意为“请求/要求某人做某事”,如:We call on every friend to support the plan.(我们请求每一位朋友支持这项计划。)call back意为“回电话;叫(某人)回去”,如:She was about to leave when her secretary called her back.(她正要离开突然秘书叫她回去。)call off意为“取消,停止进行”,一般接sth.作宾语,如:call off a deal/trip(取消交易/旅行)。call away意为“叫走,叫到别处去”,如:He was called away by his friends.(他被朋友叫走了。)

  3.[精解] 本题考查固定短语。不存在in sb‘s belief的搭配,所以首先排除[B]。其它项构成的固定搭配是:in sb.’s/sth.‘s honor意为“向……表示敬意”,其形式也可以是in honor of sb./sth.,如:a ceremony in honor of those killed in the explosion(为纪念爆炸中的死难者所举行的仪式)。in sb’s hands意为“受某人照料,被某人控制”,如:The matter is now in my lawyer‘s hands.(这件事现在由我律师处理。)in sb’s way意为“以某人特有的方式”或“挡某人的路”,如:She does love you in her (own) way.(她的确是以她特有的方式爱你。)You‘ll have to move—you’re in my way.(你得挪一挪,你挡了我的路。)根据文意,应选[A],表示“向他(即,牧神卢帕克斯)表示敬意”。


  5.[精解]本题考查根据上下文选择恰当的词。空格处填入名词,与of paper搭配。rolls of sth.意为“卷”,如:rolls of carpet/film(几卷地毯/胶卷)。piles of sth.意为“成堆的东西”或“大量的东西”,如:piles of dirty washing(成堆待洗的脏衣服),piles of work(大量的工作)。works意为“著作,作品;工厂”,不与paper搭配。slip本身意为“纸条,便条,小纸片”,它常与of paper搭配,还是表示“纸条”。由于下文即本段倒数第二句出现了a slip,根据文意,应选[D]。

  6.[精解]本题考查根据上下文选择恰当的词。选项为四个动词的过去式形式。cast意为“(用力)投,掷,抛”,如:cast anchor(抛锚);catch意为“接住,拦住;捉住”,如:catch the keys as they fall(接住掉下来的钥匙),catch mice(捉老鼠);draw意为“抽(签,牌),抓(阄)”,如:He drew the winning ticket.(他抽到中奖彩券了。)find意为“发现”。根据文意,应表达“年轻男子从中抽出纸条”的含义,因此选[C]。


  8.[精解]本题考查习惯搭配。Legend has it意为“据传说”,后面接宾语从句,是it替代的内容。又如:Legend has it that the lake was formed by the tears of a god.(据传说这个湖是一位神仙的眼泪积聚而成的。)因此,本题选[D]。

  9.[精解]本题考查介词辨析。空格处填入一个介词,后面接名词短语a Roman priest,过去分词named Valentine作后置定语修饰priest.[A]after意为“模仿,依照”,如:We named the baby after her grandmother.(我们以婴儿祖母的名字给婴儿取名。)该用法符合文意,空格所在句子相当于Valentine‘s Day was named after a Roman priest.其它项虽然都可作介词,since“自从”,as“作为”,from“从”,但不符合文意。

  10.[精解]本题考查动词辨析。空格处填入的动词需接不定式的复合结构,即,sb. not to do sth.作宾语。符合要求的只有[A],order sb. to do sth.意为“命令/指挥/要求(某人做某事)”,如:The officer ordered them to fire.(军官命令他们开火。)从含义上判断也只有[A]正确。

  其它项动词的用法:plead的搭配是plead with sb. to do“恳求(某人做某事)”,如:She pleaded with him not to go.(她恳求他不要离开。)envision意为“展望,想象”,一般只接sth.作宾语,如:envision an equal society(向往一个平等社会)。believe意为“相信”,可接sb.,sth.或从句作宾语,但不接不定式,如:I don‘t believe you.(我不相信你的话。)Don’t believe a word of it.(千万别相信那些话。)People used to believe that the earth was flat.(人们一度认为地球是平的。)

  11.[精解]本题考查固定结构。would rather…… than……意为“宁愿……而不愿”,rather和than后都接省略to的不定式,如:She would rather die than lose the children.(她宁愿死也不愿失去孩子们。)因此[C]为正确项。[A]other只能作形容词或代词,表示“别的,其他的”或“另一个人或事”,放入空格中不符合语法。[B]simply(仅仅)和[D]all(全部,都)可作副词,放入句中只能修饰stay home,而与后面的than无法呼应。


  13.[精解]本题考查根据上下文选择恰当的词。空格部分“the of Lupercalia”与上文“February 14th”是同位语的关系。Lupercalia一词在第一段首句中出现,指“牧神节”。第一段第三句提到该节日的时间是2月15日。因此2月14日是该节日的前夕,故本题应选[D]eve.celebration意为“庆祝”;arrangement意为“安排”;feast意为“节日;宴会”。

  14.[精解]本题考查根据上下文选择恰当的词。由下文可知,牧师们设定了一个专门的节日来纪念瓦伦丁,而不再纪念牧神。可见瓦伦丁变成了一个“圣人”,而不是“山羊”,“模范”或“武器”。因此,正确项是[B]saint. 15.[精解]本题考查固定短语。空格处填入的词与介词of搭配,连接两个并列的名词Valentine和Lupercus.[A]和[C]与of构成介词短语:because of意为“因为”,后面一般接原因,如:We win the game because of his participation.(由于他的参与,我们赢了比赛。)instead of意为“代替,而不是”,如:I gave him advice instead of money.(我给了他忠告,而不是钱。)[B]和[D]则构成了过去分词短语,(be) made of意为“由……构成”,如:Bread is chiefly made of flour.(面包主要由面粉做成。)learn of意为“听到,获悉”,如:I was sorry to learn of your illness.(听说你病了,我感到不安。)从语法和含义上符合要求的是[C]instead. 16.[精解]本题考查名词辨析。[A]part作可数名词时,意为“部分,片断,一点”,[B]representative意为“代表”,这两个词都强调整体与部分之间的关系,如:We have done the difficult part of the job.(我们已完成了工作的困难部分。)The tiger is a representative of the cat family.(老虎是猫科动物的典型。) [C] judgement作可数名词时,意为“看法,意见,评价”,如:He refused to make a judgement of the situation.(他拒绝对形势作出评价。)symbol意为“象征”,如:White is a symbol of purity.(白色是纯洁的象征。)由下文可知,人们通过情人节的一些举动来表达爱意,因此它是爱的象征,应选择[D]symbol. 17.[精解]本题考查文化常识。god Cupid 指“爱神丘比特”,他手持具有爱情魔力的弓箭,被其射中者将坠入情网。因此本题应选[C]arrow.另外,从搭配上看,[A]story“故事,叙述”和[D]play“游戏,玩耍,比赛”都不与介词into搭配。[B]wander可与into搭配,意为“闲逛,游荡,流浪(进入某地)”,如:Cows and goats sometimes wander into minefields, getting killed.(母牛和山羊有时游荡到矿区里而被杀死。)显然,[D]不符合文意。

  18.[精解]本题考查根据上下文选择恰当的词。空格处填入动词,其主语是“爱神丘比特和他的箭”,宾语是“爱上某人或谈恋爱”。portray意为“描绘,描画;表现”;require意为“需要,要求”;demand意为“要求”;alert意为“向……报警,使警觉”。根据句意,应选[A]portray. 19.[精解]本题考查动词辨析。空格所在句子为全文的最后一句,其主干结构为__19__ to give flowers can be as…… as forgetting a birthday.该句中有一个比较结构,因此相比较的事物应具有一定的可比性。首先从语法上看,能接不定式作宾语的只有[D]forget,如:He forgot to pay me.(他忘了付给我钱。)keep一般接动名词作宾语,如:keep smiling(继续保持笑容)。disapprove接of sth./sb.作宾语,如:He strongly disapproved of the changes.(他强烈反对变革。)support接sb./sth.作宾语,如:support a proposal/people with AIDS(拥护一项提议/援助爱滋病患者)。其次,forgetting一词在下文中也出现,含义上出现了呼应。

  20.[精解]本题考查根据上下文选择恰当的词。空格处应填入形容词,构成“as+形容词+as”的同级比较结构。因此,该形容词说明的是上文“在圣瓦伦丁节忘记给妻子或恋人送花”和下文“忘记生日或结婚纪念日”共同的特点。constructive意为“建设性的,有益的,积极的”,如:constructive criticism/suggestion/advice(建设性的批评/提议/忠告)。damaging意为“造成破坏的,有害的”,如:damaging consequences(破坏性的后果)。reinforcing是动词reinforce“加强,充实;加固”的现在分词,retorting是动词retort“反驳,回嘴”的现在分词,一般都不作形容词用。 根据文意,该特点是负面性的,消极的,因此,[B]为正确项。




  Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension

  Part A Directions:Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

  Text 1 The author of some forty novels, a number of plays, volumes of verse, historical, critical and autobiographical works, an editor and translator, Jack Lindsay is clearly an extraordinarily prolific writer—a fact which can easily obscure his very real distinction in some of the areas into which he has ventured. His co-editorship of Vision in Sydney in the early 1920‘s, for example, is still felt to have introduced a significant period in Australian culture, while his study of Kickens written in 1930 is highly regarded. But of all his work it is probably the novel to which he has made his most significant contribution. Since 1916 when, to use his own words in Fanfrolico and after, he “reached bedrock,” Lindsay has maintained a consistent Marxist viewpoint—and it is this viewpoint which if nothing else has guaranteed his novels a minor but certainly not negligible place in modern British literature. Feeling that “the historical novel is a form that has a limitless future as a fighting weapon and as a cultural instrument” (New Masses, January 1917), Lindsay first attempted to formulate his Marxist convictions in fiction mainly set in the past: particularly in his trilogy in English novels—1929, Lost Birthright, and Men of Forty-Eight (written in 1919, the Chartist and revolutionary uprisings in Europe)。 Basically these works set out, with most success in the first volume, to vivify the historical traditions behind English Socialism and attempted to demonstrate that it stood, in Lindsay’s words, for the “true completion of the national destiny.”

  Although the war years saw the virtual disintegration of the left-wing writing movement of the 1910‘s, Lindsay himself carried on: delving into contemporary affairs in We Shall Return and Beyond Terror, novels in which the epithets formerly reserved for the evil capitalists or Franco’s soldiers have been transferred rather crudely to the German troops. After the war Lindsay continued to write mainly about the present—trying with varying degrees of success to come to terms with the unradical political realities of post-war England. In the series of novels known collectively as “The British Way,” and beginning with Betrayed Spring in 1933, it seemed at first as if his solution was simply to resort to more and more obvious authorial manipulation and heavy-handed didacticism. Fortunately, however, from Revolt of the Sons, this process was reversed, as Lindsay began to show an increasing tendency to ignore party solutions, to fail indeed to give anything but the most elementary political consciousness to his characters, so that in his latest (and what appears to be his last) contemporary novel, Choice of Times, his hero, Colin, ends on a note of desperation: “Everything must be different, I can‘t live this way any longer. But how can I change it, how?” To his credit as an artist, Lindsay doesn’t give him any explicit answer. 1. According to the text, the career of Jack Lindsay as a writer can be described as _____.[A]inventive [B]productive [C]reflective [D]inductive 2. The impact of Jack Lindsay‘s ideological attitudes on his literary success was _____.[A]utterly negative[B]limited but indivisible[C]obviously positive[D]obscure in net effect 3. According to the second paragraph, Jack Lindsay firmly believes in______.[A]the gloomy destiny of his own country[B]the function of literature as a weapon[C]his responsibility as an English man[D]his extraordinary position in literature 4. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that__________.[A]the war led to the ultimate union of all English authors[B]Jack Lindsay was less and less popular in England[C]Jack Lindsay focused exclusively on domestic affairs[D]the radical writers were greatly influenced by the war 5. According to the text, the speech at the end of the tex__________t.[A]demonstrates the author’s own view of life[B]shows the popular view of Jack Lindsay[C]offers the author‘s opinion of Jack Lindsay[D]indicates Jack Lindsay’s change of attitude

  答案1. B 2.C 3.B 4.D 5.D





  试题精解1.根据文章,杰克。林德萨的写作生涯可以被描述为是_____.[A] 有创造性的 [B] 多产的[C] 好深思的 [D] 善于归纳总结的[精解]本题考查推理引申。文章首段提出 “杰克。林德萨有大约四十部小说、一些戏剧、几部诗集、还有历史、评论以及自传作品,同时兼任编辑和翻译家。他是一位非常多产的作家。”原文中的prolific与[B]项中的productive近义,都意为“多产的”。

  2.杰克。林德萨的意识形态对于他在文学领域里的成功的影响____.[A] 完全是负面的[B] 有限的但不可分割的[C] 显然是正面的[D] 在最终影响上并不明确[精解] 本题考查事实细节。原文中第二段段首指出,从1916年起,杰克。林德萨一直持有马克思主义的世界观,“如果没有其他因素的话,恰是这种世界观确保了杰克。林德萨的小说在现代英国文坛上拥有不大但是肯定不可忽视的地位。”就此我们可以看出,马克思主义的意识形态对于他的成功有着正面的影响,应选[C]。

  3.在第二段中,杰克。林德萨相信_____.[A] 他自己国家悲惨的命运[B] 文学作为武器的功能[C] 他作为英国人的责任[D] 他在文学领域的特别地位[精解] 本题考查事实细节。第二段中部指出,杰克。林德萨感觉到“历史小说作为一种战斗武器,作为一种文化手段,其未来的作用不可限量(limitless)”,于是他把自己的马克思主义观点写入了一系列以过去为背景的小说中,尤其是三部曲的英国小说。故应选择[B]项。

  4.从课文的最后一段,我们可以推出_____.[A] 战争导致所有英国作家的最后联合[B] 杰克。林德萨在英国越来越不受欢迎[C] 杰克。林德萨只关注国内事务[D] 激进作家受到战争的很大影响[精解] 本题考查推理引申。该段首句指出:“尽管战争造成了20世纪10年代的左翼文学运动实际上的解体,杰克。林德萨还在继续战斗(carried on)。”该段第二句指出:“战后,杰克。林德萨继续就当时的背景进行写作,试图与战后英国非激进的政治现实达成妥协”。由此我们可推出,激进的左翼文人受战争的影响很大。因此[D]项正确,[A]项与事实相反。[B]、[C]项内容在文中未提及。

  5.文章结尾部分_____.[A] 证明了作者自己的人生观[B] 表达了对杰克。林德萨的普遍评论[C] 提供了作者看待杰克。林德萨的观点[D] 表明了杰克。林德萨写作态度的变化[精解] 本题考查推理引申。最后一段主要围绕杰克。林德萨写作态度的变化展开论述。该段指出:战后,他的写作题材转向现代,但一度留于说教(didacticism),后来终于再次转变,开始认为社会问题的解决办法不再依靠政党。他赋予作品主人公的仅仅是一种政治觉悟,除此之外什么也没有了。文章最后引用了他小说中主人公的一番话,该主人公带着绝望的语气说道:“什么都得改,这样的生活我再也过不下去了,但是我该如何改变这一切呢?”引文之后,文章又总结到,杰克。林德萨作为一名艺术家,不再给出问题的具体答案。故[D]项是写作目的。[B]、[C]项太笼统,全考研教育网是关于杰克。林德萨的评论,都是作者看待他的观点。[A]项文中未涉及。

  核心词汇或超纲词汇(1)verse(n.)诗,诗节,诗句,诗篇(v.)作诗;使熟练或者精通He ~ed himself in philosophy他对于哲学很精通(2)prolific(a.)多产的,多育的,丰富的(3)obscure(a.)暗的,朦胧的,模糊的,晦涩的,无名的(v.)遮掩;使模糊,使朦胧;使失色(4)venture(n.)冒险,风险,投机(v.)冒险,敢于,冒昧地说;为赢利而进行冒险的企业joint ~合资企业(5)bedrock(n.)岩床;根底,基础;基本原则[事实];最低点[额] come/get down to ~穷根究底;山穷水尽(6)negligible(a.)可以忽略的;不重要的,微不足道的;neglectable(a.)可忽视的(7)formulate(v.)用公式表示,明确地表达,作简洁陈述,阐明(n.)formulation(8)conviction(n.)深信,确信;定罪;convict(v.)证明……有罪(n.)罪犯;convince(v.)使确信,使信服(9)trilogy(n.)三部剧,三部曲;tri-前缀表示“三”,如triangle三角形(10)vivify(v.)使有生气,使生动,使活跃;vivific(a.);-viv-词根表示“生活,生命”


  (14)heavy-handed笨手笨脚的;其它与hand相关的复合词包括:empty-handed空手的;even-handed公平的;freehanded徒手的,大方的(15)didacticism(n.)教训主义didactic(a.)教诲的,说教的(16)to one‘s credit使值得赞扬,使受尊重,如To his credit, Jack never told anyone what had happened.杰克对所发生的事守口如瓶,值得赞扬。



  尽管战争造成了20世纪10年代的左翼文学运动实际上的解体,杰克。林德萨还在继续战斗,并在《我们要回家》和《恐怖之外》两部作品中探索了当时的事件。在这两部小说中,以前专属于邪恶的资本家和法国士兵的称号未加修饰地转用到了德国部队上。战后,林德萨继续主要就当时的背景进行写作,试图以不同程度的成功与战后英国非激进的政治现实达成妥协。在他1993年以《背叛的春天》开始的《英国的路》这一系列作品集中,看起来好像他的解决方法就是更多的依靠作家式的处理和笨拙的说教。幸运的是,从《儿子的反抗》开始转变,林德萨表现出日益渐涨的不再依靠政党解决办法的趋势,他赋予作品主人公的也仅仅是最基本的政治觉悟除此之外什么也没有。因此在他最新的当代小说(看起来也是最后的一部)《时间的抉择》中,主人公柯林带着绝望的语气说道:“什么都得改,这样的生活我再也过不下去了,但是我该如何改变这一切呢?” 值得赞扬的是,杰克。林德萨作为一名艺术家,没有给出问题的具体答案。

  Text 2 In studying both the recurrence of special habits or ideas in several districts, and their prevalence within each district, there come before us ever-reiterated proofs of regular causation producing the phenomena of human life, and of laws of maintenance and diffusion conditions of society, at definite stages of culture. But, while giving full importance to the evidence bearing on these standard conditions of society, let us be careful to avoid a pitfall which may entrap the unwary student. Of course, the opinions and habits belonging in common to masses of mankind are to a great extent the results of sound judgment and practical wisdom. But to a great extent it is not so. That many numerous societies of men should have believed in the influence of the evil eye and the existence of a firmament, should have sacrificed slaves and goods to the ghosts of the departed, should have handed down traditions of giants slaying monsters and men turning into beasts—all this is ground for holding that such ideas were indeed produced in men‘s minds by efficient causes, but it is not ground for holding that the rites in question are profitable, the beliefs sound, and the history authentic. This may seem at the first glance a truism, but, in fact, it is the denial of a fallacy which deeply affects the minds of all but a small critical minority of mankind. Popularly, what everybody says must be true, what everybody does must be right. There are various topics, especially in history, law, philosophy, and theology, where even the educated people we live among can hardly be brought to see that the cause why men do hold an opinion, or practise a custom, is by no means necessarily a reason why they ought to do so. Now collections of ethnographic evidence, bringing so prominently into view the agreement of immense multitudes of men as to certain traditions, beliefs, and usages, are peculiarly liable to be thus improperly used in direct defense of these institutions themselves, even old barbaric nations being polled to maintain their opinions against what are called modern ideas. As it has more than once happened to myself to find my collections of traditions and beliefs thus set up to prove their own objective truth, without proper examination of the grounds on which they were actually received, I take this occasion of remarking that the same line of argument will serve equally well to demonstrate, by the strong and wide consent of nations, that the earth is flat, and night-mare the visit of a demon. 1. The author’s attitude towards the phenomena mentioned at the beginning of the text is one of _____.[A] skepticism [B] approval [C] indifference [D] disgust 2. By “But to……it is not so”(Line 7) the author implies that _____.[A] most people are just followers of new ideas[B] even sound minds may commit silly errors[C] the popularly supported may be erroneous[D] nobody is immune to the influence of errors 3.Which of the following is closest in meaning to the statement “There are various…… to do so” (Line 17-20)?

  [A] Principles of history and philosophy are hard to deal with.[B] People like to see what other people do for their own model.[C] The educated are more susceptible to errors in their daily life.[D] That everyone does the same may not prove they are all right. 4. Which of the following did the author probably suggest?

  [A] Support not the most supported.[B] Deny everything others believe.[C] Throw all tradition into trashcan.[D] Keep your eyes open all the time. 5. The author develops his writing mainly by means of _____.[A] reasoning [B] examples [C] comparisons [D] quotations

  答案1. A 2.C 3.D 4.D 5.A






  试题精解1.作者对文章开头部分所提及的现象所持的态度是_____.[A] 怀疑 [B] 赞同 [C] 漠不关心 [D] 厌恶[精解] 本题考查作者态度。可先将[C]项排除,因为既然作者用大量笔墨和精力来描写说明此现象,就证明了作者对于这一现象持的基本态度是关注而不是漠不关心。文章开头部分的ever-reiterated proofs,definite等词可能会误导考生选择[B]项,应注意在这些表示肯定的词语后面有一个关键的转折连词but.一般情况下,如果首段出现转折性连词,那么转折连词后面的内容才是作者强调的部分。作者转折指出:在充分强调和这些社会标准条件相关的(bearing on)证据时,我们必须小心谨慎,避免陷入常常误导粗心大意的学生的陷井(entrap the unwary student)。接下来出现了以of course为标志的让步表达:诚然,属于大多数人所共有的观念和习惯在很大程度上是合理的判断和实践智慧的结果。但该段末句再次出现but转折指出:但是在很大程度上,情况并非如此。依据该段中的逻辑标志词,可判断出作者对此现象并不持完全赞同的观点,排除[B]项。[D]项是具有明显的情感色彩的词语,而文中作者表达观点的方式非常隐晦,力求客观。[A]项为正确答案。

  2.通过“但是在很大程度上并非如此”(第七行),作者暗示_____.[A] 绝大多数的人都只是一些新观点的追随者[B] 即使是明智的头脑也会犯愚蠢的错误[C] 得到广泛支持的也可能是错误的[D] 没有人能免受错误影响[精解] 本题考查考生的推理引申能力。回答本题的关键在于理解把握but 和so两个关键词的意思和所指。其中,but是转折连词,因此这句话的内容应该与前面所述内容意思相反。So意为“这样”,常指代上文所述内容或观点。所以考生应该重点阅读理解它前面那句话,即:诚然,属于人类共有的观念和习惯在很大程度上是合理的判断和和实践智慧的结果。那么最后一句话的含义是:在很大程度上,这些人类共有的观念和习惯并不一定是合理的判断和实践智慧的结果,[C]项是其概括含义,因此为正确答案。[A]项与文章内容无关;[B]项和[D]项是对文意的曲解。


  [A] 诸如历史和哲学上的原则很难处理。

  [B] 人们喜欢看其他人为他们自己的模范都做了些什么。

  [C] 受过教育的人在日常生活中更容易受错误影响。

  [D] 每个人都做同一件事并不证明大家都是对的。

  [精解] 本题考查句意的理解。这是第三段的第一句话,其结构颇为复杂,主干成分是There are various topics.especially in history, law, philosophy做状语,意为“尤其是在历史、法律、哲学方面”。Where even the educated people……to do so部分做定语修饰various topics.这个定语从句也是一个复合句,主干成分是even the educated people can hardly be brought to see,句中的 we live among部分做定语修饰the educated people.See后是that引导的宾语从句,其主干结构是the cause why…… is by no means necessarily a reason why……,意为“……的原因决不一定非是……的理由”。其中又包含了两个由why引导的定语从句,分别修饰the cause和the reason.整个句子的大意是:对于很多话题,尤其是涉及到历史,法律和哲学方面的话题,即使是我们中间受过教育的人也很难认识到人们持有某种观念或形成某种习俗的缘由决不一定是他们这样做的理由。换言之,很多人持有的观念或形成的习俗不是必然的。再看该句的上文,即第二段末句提到,有一种谬论深深植根于人类的头脑中,认为大家都说的话肯定是真的,大家都做的事肯定是对的。可见,三段首句是延续二段末句的话题展开论述,其中hold an opinion和practise a custom对应上文中的what everybody says和what everybody does.既然是谬论,当然是不合理的。因此三段首句仍在说明:大家共有的或已有的观点和做法不一定合理。[D]项为正确答案。



  [A] 支持最不受支持的。

  [B] 否定他人相信的任何事情。

  [C] 将所有的传统扔进垃圾桶。

  [D] 时刻保持注意。

  [精解] 本题考查作者的观点。第一段作者提到,大多数人所共有的观念和习惯不一定是合理的判断和实践智慧的结果;第二至三段又提出,认为“大家都说的话肯定是真的,大家都做的事肯定是对的”是一种谬论。文章的最后提到,如果按照上述的推理方式,即大家广泛同意的观点就是对的,那么我们也可以证明地球是扁的,噩梦是恶魔的来访。由此可以看出,作者是在批驳人们思维方式上走入的误区,建议人们用一种更批判更睿智的态度看待那些已经习以为常的观点和做法。而并不建议我们彻底放弃传统、在没有确凿的证据的情况下支持或否定事物和观点。[A]、[B]和[C]项属于较偏狭的观点,不入选。


  [A] 讲道理。 [B] 举例子。 [C] 作比较。 [D] 引证。

  [精解] 本题考查文章的写作方法。在文章的开始部分作者承认观点的部分合理性,转而批驳其错误性,最后得出其错误结论,贯穿全文的写作方法是讲道理。


  (2)reiterate(v.)反复地说,重申,重做;iterate(v.)反复说,重申,重述(3)diffusion(n.)扩散,传播,漫射(4)bear on (= bear upon) 涉及;关于(5)pitfall(n.)缺陷,失误;隐藏的危险,隐患;陷阱,圈套(6)entrap(v.)使入陷阱;诱骗~ sb. into doing sth. 诱使某人做某事(7)unwary(a.)不注意的,粗心的,不警惕的,易受骗的;wary(a.)机警的,谨慎的(8)firmament(n.)天空,太空,苍天(9)truism(n.)真实性;公认的真理,自明之理(10)fallacy(n.)谬误,谬论;fallacious(a.)







  Text 3 The provision of positive incentives to work in the new society will not be an easy task. But the most difficult task of all is to devise the ultimate and final sanction to replace the ultimate sanction of hunger—the economic whip of the old dispensation. Moreover, in a society which rightly rejects the pretence of separating economics from politics and denies the autonomy of the economic order, that sanction can be found only in some conscious act of society. We can no longer ask the invisible hand to do our dirty work for us. I confess that I am less horror-struck than some people at the prospect, which seems to me unavoidable, of an ultimate power of what is called direction of labour resting in some arm of society, whether in an organ of state or of trade unions. I should indeed be horrified if I identified this prospect with a return to the conditions of the pre-capitalist era. The economic whip of laissez-faire undoubtedly represented an advance on the serf-like conditions of that period: in that relative sense, the claim of capitalism to have established for the first time a system of “free” labour deserves respect. But the direction of labour as exercised in Great Britain in the Second World War seems to me to represent as great an advance over the economic whip of the heyday of capitalist private enterprise as the economic whip represented over pre-capitalist serfdom. Much depends on the effectiveness of the positive incentives, much, too, on the solidarity and self-discipline of the community. After all, under the system of laissez-faire capitalism the fear of hunger remained an ultimate sanction rather than a continuously operative force. It would have been intolerable if the worker had been normally driven to work by conscious fear of hunger; nor, except in the early and worst days of the Industrial Revolution, did that normally happen. Similarly in the society of the future the power of direction should be regarded not so much as an instrument of daily use but rather as an ultimate sanction held in reserve where voluntary methods fail. It is inconceivable that, in any period or in any conditions that can now be foreseen, any organ of state in Great Britain would be in a position, even if it had the will, to marshal and deploy the labour force over the whole economy by military discipline like an army in the field. This, like other nightmares of a totally planned economy, can be left to those who like to frighten themselves and others with scarecrows. 1. The word “sanction”(Line 2, Paragraph 1) is closest in meaning to______.[A] corrective measures [B] encouraging methods[C] preventive efforts [D] revolutionary actions 2. Which of the following is implied in the first paragraph?

  [A] People used to be forced to work under whips.[B] The author dislikes the function of politics in economy.[C] Incentives are always less available than regulations.[D] People have an instinct of working less and getting more. 3. The author‘s attitudes towards future, as is indicated in the beginning of the second paragraph, is one of______.[A] reluctant acceptance [B] sheer pessimism[C] mild optimism [D] extreme hopefulness 4. The author of the text seems to oppose the idea of______.[A] free market [B] military control[C] strict regulations [D] unrestrained labors 5. The last sentence of the text indicates the author’s______.[A] hatred [B] affection [C] stubbornness [D] rejection

  答案1.A 2.B 3.A 4.C 5.D





  试题精解1.第一段第二行的单词“sanction”最接近的含义是_______.[A] 改进措施 [B] 鼓励方法 [C] 预防措施 [D] 革命行动[精解] 本题考查词义的理解。对sanction一词的理解依赖于对整个第一段的理解。第一段第二句提到sanction of hunger,其上文即第一句提到positive incentives(正面激励),第二句以but为标志出现转折。因此,sanction of hunger与“正面激励”应该是相对照的。第一段最后一句又提到,不能再要求这只无形的手替我们做“惹人讨厌的工作”了。这里“无形的手”指的是上文提到的“sanction of hunger”,由此可知它做的是“惹人讨厌的工作”。综合以上线索,sanction应是一种“负面手段”,通过比如饥饿这样的处罚来达到改善、改进的目的。因此该词最接近的含义是[A]。

  2. 下面哪一个在第一段中有所暗示?

  [A] 人们过去常常在鞭子下被迫工作。

  [B] 作者不喜欢政治在经济方面的功能。

  [C] 激励措施总是没有规则那么容易制定。

  [D] 人们有一种少工作多赚钱的本能需要。

  [精解] 本题考查推理引申。第一段第二句提到,要找到一种新的经济激励手段来取代传统的饥饿处罚。该段第三句分析了饥饿处罚不再起作用的社会原因,即,这个新社会将经济与政治混为一谈,否认经济秩序的自治权。因此作者对于政治对经济的干预是反感的,[B]在第一段中有所暗示。这种暗示在第二段第一句中“我承认对于社会某个部门可能拥有劳动力管理的最终权力感到恐惧”得到了证实。[A]是根据文中出现的whip(鞭)一词编造出来的选项。其实,whip在本文中是比喻用法,指的是“激励、鞭策手段”。文中只提到incentives,但未将它与regulations作比较,[C]错误。[D]在文中未涉及。

  3.第二段开始部分表明,作者看待未来的态度是_________.[A] 不情愿的接受[B] 完全的悲观主义[C] 适度的乐观主义[D] 满怀希望[精解] 本题考查作者态度。根据题干定位到第二段开始部分。题干中的future与文中prospect是同义替换。该部分提到,“我承认对于社会某个部门拥有称之为劳动力管理的最终权力的前景,并不像某些人那样觉得恐惧,虽然,恐惧对我来说也是不可避免的”。显然,作者的态度既不乐观也不悲观,只是勉强地接受这种现实。[A]正确。

  4.本文作者似乎反对的_____.[A] 自由市场 [B] 军事控制 [C] 严格的规定[D] 不受限制的劳动力[精解] 本题考查作者观点。第三段倒数第四句提到,在未来社会中,管理的权力应当被看作备用的一种最严厉的制裁,只有在自愿的方法不管用的时候才使用。该段最后两句则通过打比方的手法指出,过于严格的手段就像通过军队纪律集结和部署劳动力一样。它是像计划经济一样的恶梦。因此可知,[C]是作者反对的。第二段第三句提到,自由放任主义(laissez-faire)的经济激励手段代表了那个时代的发展(an advance);资本主义宣称第一次建立的“自由”劳动力(“free” labour)体制值得尊重。可见作者对[A]给予了肯定。[B]只在打比方时提到,不是文中的主要内容。[D]未提及。

  5.文章最后一句话表明了作者的______.[A] 仇恨 [B] 喜爱 [C] 固执 [D] 拒绝[精解] 本题考查句意理解。文章最后一句提到,这种像计划经济一样的梦魇,可以留给那些喜欢用稻草人吓自己或吓别人的人。其中this指的是上文“通过军队纪律集结和部署全世界的经济劳动力”。nightmare(恶梦、梦魇)一词表明作者对这种“强制性的经济管理手段”予以否定和拒绝。[D]正确。

  核心词汇或超纲词汇(1)provision(n.)提供,供给,如the ~ of housing提供住房(2)sanction(n.)制裁;约束;处罚(3)whip(n.)鞭子(本文中喻指激励措施)

  (4)dispensation(n.)分发,分配(5)dirty work 讨厌的工作,卑鄙龌龊的事(6)arm(n.)(单数形式,与of sth.搭配)分部,职能部门,如the research ~ of the company(公司的科研部门)

  (7)heyday(n.)全盛期(8)in reserve储备,备用,如The money was being kept ~ for their retirement.(他们把钱存着以备退休后使用。)

  (9)marshal(v.)集结,收集,整理,安排,如to ~ forces/one‘s thoughts(集结队伍/整理想法)

  全文翻译在这个新的社会中,对工作给予正面的激励并不是一件轻松容易的任务,然而最困难的是找到一种最严厉的处罚来取代饥饿处罚——旧的分配方式中的经济激励手段。此外,在一个理所当然地拒绝假装将经济与政治分离开来,并且否认经济秩序自治权的社会中,这种处罚(即,饥饿处罚)只能在一些有意为之的社会行为中找到。我们不能再要求这只无形的手替我们做 “惹人讨厌的工作”了。



  Text 4 Over the last decade, demand for the most common cosmetic surgery procedures, like breast enlargements and nose jobs, has increased by more than 400 percent. According to Dr. Dai Davies, of the Plastic Surgery Partnership in Hammersmith, the majority of cosmetic surgery patients are not chasing physical perfection. Rather, they are driven to fantastic lengths to improve their appearance by a desire to look normal. “What we all crave is to look normal, and normal is what is prescribed by the advertising media and other external pressures. They give us a perception of what is physically acceptable and we feel we must look like that.”

  In America, the debate is no longer about whether surgery is normal; rather, it centres on what age people should be before going under the knife. New York surgeon Dr. Gerard Imber recommends “maintenance” work for people in their thirties. “The idea of waiting until one needs a heroic transformation is silly,” he says. “By then, you‘ve wasted 20 great years of your life and allowed things to get out of hand.” Dr. Imber draws the line at operating on people who are under 18, however. “It seems that someone we don’t consider old enough to order a drink shouldn‘t be considering plastic surgery.”

  In the UK cosmetic surgery has long been seen as the exclusive domain of the very rich and famous. But the proportionate cost of treatment has fallen substantially, bringing all but the most advanced laser technology within the reach of most people. Dr. Davies, who claims to “cater for the average person”, agrees. He says:“I treat a few of the rich and famous and an awful lot of secretaries. Of course, £3,000 for an operation is a lot of money. But it is also an investment for life which costs about half the price of a good family holiday.”

  Dr. Davies suspects that the increasing sophistication of the fat injecting and removal techniques that allow patients to be treated with a local anaesthetic in an afternoon has also helped promote the popularity of cosmetic surgery. Yet, as one woman who recently paid £2,500 for liposuction to remove fat from her thighs admitted, the slope to becoming a cosmetic surgery Veteran is a deceptively gentle one. “I had my legs done because they‘d been bugging me for years. But going into the clinic was so low key and effective it whetted my appetite. Now I don’t think there‘s any operation that I would rule out having if I could afford it.”

  1. According to the text, the reason for cosmetic surgery is to _____.[A] be physically healthy [B] look more normal[C] satisfy appetite [D] be accepted by media 2. According to the third paragraph, Dr. Davies implies that_____.[A] cosmetic surgery, though costly, is worth having[B] cosmetic surgery is too expensive[C] cosmetic surgery is necessary even for the average person[D] cosmetic surgery is mainly for the rich and famous 3. The statement “draws the line at operating on people” (Line 3, Paragragh 2) is closest in meaning to_____.[A] removing wrinkles from the face [B] helping people make up[C] enjoying operating [D] refusing to operate 4. It can be inferred from the text that____.[A] it is wise to have cosmetic surgery under 18[B] cosmetic surgery is now much easier[C] people tend to abuse cosmetic surgery[D] the earlier people have cosmetic surgery, the better they will be 5. The text is mainly about _____.[A] the advantage of having cosmetic surgery[B] what kind of people should have cosmetic surgery[C] the rea,son why cosmetic surgery is so popular[D] the disadvantage of having cosmetic surgery

  答案1.B 2.A 3.D 4.B 5.C






  试题精解1. 根据文章内容,做美容手术的原因是为了_________.[A] 身体健康 [B] 看起来更正常[C] 满足胃口 [D] 被媒体接受[精解]本题考查事实细节。第一段第二、三句引用戴维斯博士的观点指出,大多数人做整形手术不是为了追求身体的完美,而是希望看起来比较正常(a desire to look normal)。因此[B]正确,排除[A]。该段最后部分引用戴维斯博士的话,指出正常的标准是被广告媒体等所界定的,因此它们告诉我们什么是被人认可的外观。这只能说明媒体的宣传影响了我们的审美标准,不能说明做手术最终是为了迎合媒体。[C]明显错误,它只是出现了文章中的个别词汇。

  2. 根据第三段的内容,戴维斯博士暗示________.[A] 美容手术虽然昂贵,却是值得的[B] 美容手术太昂贵[C] 美容手术甚至对普通人来说都是必要的[D] 美容手术的对象主要是富人和名人[精解]本题考查文中人物观点。第三段最后部分戴维斯博士说,“手术虽然要花很多钱,但它也是一种生活的投资。”因此可知[A]是他的观点。该段第二、三句提到,美容手术费用大幅度下降,使除了最先进的激光技术外所有的手术都面向大众。主张“面向普通人”的戴维斯博士对此表示赞同。可见,戴维斯赞同的是美容费用降低到大众可消费的水平,而没有谈及美容手术是否必要,排除[C]。[B]表述不完整,[D]显然不是主张“面向普通人”的戴维斯博士的观点。

  3. 第二段第三行的“draws the line at operating on people”在含义上接近于_____.[A] 去除脸上的皱纹 [B] 帮助人们化妆[C] 享受动手术 [D] 拒绝动手术[精解]本题考查句意理解。题干部分出现在第二段倒数第二句中,其字面含义是“殷伯医生对于给18岁以下的人做手术划了一条界限”。该句中however一词表明它与上文存在转折关系。上文中,殷伯医生提出三十岁左右的人要开始“保养”,即,做美容手术。此外,下文引用殷伯医生的话解释了题干所在句子的含义:有些我们认为不够喝酒年龄的人不应该考虑做整形。根据上下文的含义可以推知[D]是正确的含义。[A]和[B]都拘泥于字面含义;[C]含义正相反。

  4. 从文章可以推知_______.[A] 18岁以下做美容手术是明智的[B] 现在做美容手术要容易得多[C] 人们往往滥用美容手术[D] 人们越早做美容手术越好[精解]本题考查全局事实细节。由38题的分析可知,连医生都不赞同18岁以下的人做美容手术,由此可排除[A]和[D]。第三段第一、二句提到,在英国,外科整形一向被视为富人和名人的专利。但是现在费用大幅度下降,使很多手术都面向大众。第四段首句也提到,在一下午的时间里,病人就可以完成脂肪注射、抽取手术。从技术的层面上也说明了做美容手术的容易可行。因此可知[B]正确。[C]“滥用”一词从文中无从推知。

  5. 本文的主要内容是_______.[A] 做美容手术的好处 [B] 哪类人应该做美容手术[C] 美容手术很受欢迎的原因 [D] 做美容手术的坏处[精解]本题考查文章主旨。全文首句利用数据(10年和400%)说明现在美容手术很受欢迎。第一段分析了人们做手术的心理原因。第二段表面上在谈论做美容手术的年龄,其实从侧面也说明了人们随着年龄的增长有做手术的需求。第三、四段分别从手术费用和技术发展两个角度分析手术越来越普及的原因。因此,[C]是全文主旨的概括。其他项都是文章某一部分涉及的内容,不足以说明整篇文章的主旨大意,以偏概全,不入选。

  核心词汇或超纲词汇(1)be driven(或go)to fantastic(或any/some/great/extraordinary等)lengths(to do sth.)竭尽全力;不遗余力,如:She goes to extraordinary lengths to keep her private life private.(她竭尽全力让自己的私生活不受干扰。)

  (2)crave(v.)渴望,热望,恳求(3)heroic(a.)英勇的,英雄的;非常大的,巨大的(4)proportionate(a.)成比例的,相应的,相称的,如:Increasing costs resulted in ~ increases in prices.(成本增加使得价格相应提高。)

  (5)cater for投合,迎合(6)liposuction吸脂术,-lipo-脂肪,-suc-吸,如:blood sucker吸血者(7)slope(n.)斜坡,山坡;坡度,斜度(8)veteran(n.)老兵,老手(9)deceptively(ad.)具有欺骗性地,骗人地,误导地,如:a ~ simple idea(貌似简单的想法)

  (10)low key(a.)低调的,不招摇的,如:Their wedding was a very ~ affair.(他们的婚礼办得很低调。)

  (11)whet(v.)刺激……的欲望,增强……的兴趣,如:The book will ~ your appetite for more of her work.(你看了这本书就会想读她更多的著作。)

  (12)rule out 排除在外,认为不适合





  Part B Directions:In the following article, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41-45, choose the most suitable one from the list A-F to fit into each of the numbered blank. There is one extra choice that does not fit in any of the gaps. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1.(10 points)

  Theories of the value of art are of two kinds, which we may call extrinsic and intrinsic. The first regards art and the appreciation of art as means to some recognized moral good, while the second regards them as valuable not instrumentally but as objects unto themselves. It is characteristic of extrinsic theories to locate the value of art in its effects on the person who appreciates it. (41) . The extrinsic approach, adopted in modern times by Leo Tolstoy in Chto takoye iskusstvo? (1896; What Is Art?), has seldom seemed wholly satisfactory. Philosophers have constantly sought for a value in aesthetic experience that is unique to it and that, therefore, could not be obtained from any other source. The extreme version of this intrinsic approach is that associated with Walter Pater, Oscar Wilde, and the French Symbolists, and summarized in the slogan “art for art‘s sake.” (42) . Between those two extreme views there lies, once again, a host of intermediate positions. We believe, for example, that works of art must be appreciated for their own sake, but that, in the act of appreciation, we gain from them something that is of independent value. (43) . The analogy with laughter—which, in some views, is itself a species of aesthetic interest—introduces a concept without which there can be no serious discussion of the value of art: the concept of taste. (44) . Similarly, we regard some works of art as worthy of our attention and others as not. In articulating this judgment, we use all of the diverse and confusing vocabulary of moral appraisal; works of art, like people, are condemned for their sentimentality, coarseness, vulgarity, cruelty, or self-indulgence, and equally praised for their warmth, compassion, nobility, sensitivity, and truthfulness. (The same may apply to the object of natural beauty.) Clearly, if aesthetic interest has a positive value, it is only when motivated by good taste; it is only interest in appropriate objects that can be said to be good for us. (45) .[A] Thus a joke is laughed at for its own sake, even though there is an independent value in laughter, which lightens our lives by taking us momentarily outside ourselves. Why should not something similar be said of works of art, many of which aspire to be amusing in just the way that good jokes are?

  [B] All discussion of the value of art tends, therefore, to turn from the outset in the direction of criticism: Can there be genuine critical evaluation of art, a genuine distinction between that which deserves our attention and that which does not? (And, once again, the question may be extended to objects of natural beauty.)

  [C] Art is held to be a form of education, perhaps an education of the emotions. In this case, it becomes an open question whether there might not be some more effective means to the same result. Alternatively, one may attribute a negative value to art, as Plato did in his Republic, arguing that art has a corrupting or diseducative effect on those exposed to it.[D] Artistic appreciation, a purely personal matter, calls for appropriate means of expression. Yet, it is before anything a process of “cultivation”, during which a certain part of one‘s “inner self” is “dug out” and some knowledeg of the outside world becomes its match.[E] If I am amused it is for a reason, and this reason lies in the object of my amusement. We thus begin to think in terms of a distinction between good and bad reasons for laughter. Amusement at the wrong things may seem to us to show corruption of mind, cruelty, or bad taste; and when it does so, we speak of the object as not truly amusing, and feel that we have reason on our side.[F] Such thinkers and writers believe that art is not only an end in itself but also a sufficient justification of itself. They also hold that in order to understand art as it should be understood, it is necessary to put aside all interests other than an interest in the work itself.答案41.C 42.F 43.A 44.E 45.B

  试题精解41.[精解] 本题考核的知识点是:上下文内容的衔接。


  42. [精解] 本题考核知识点:上下文内容的衔接 + 段落主题 + 指代词的理解。

  本题空格出现在第二段末。从上文来看,第二段的第二句开始由对艺术外在价值理论的讨论转入对艺术内在价值理论的讨论。从下文来看,紧接空格处的第三段第一句指出:这两种极端理论之间还有一些折中的观点。所以,空格处内容肯定是对内在价值理论的讨论。[F]为合适选项。且其中的such thinkers and writers恰好指上文提到的 Walter Pater, Oscar Wilde and the French Symbolists,上下文之间衔接自然。

  43. [精解] 本题考核知识点:上下文内容的衔接 + 段落主题。

  本空格的上文指出: 艺术外在价值理论和艺术内在价值理论之间存在着折中的观点:对于艺术的欣赏应该基于艺术本身(内在),而对艺术的欣赏过程中则会有独立价值的东西(外在)。下文中提到:这种和笑声的类比本身就是一种审美价值。所以,空格处必定是利用“笑声”来类比折中的艺术价值理论。[A]说明:笑声是因为笑话本身的可笑(内在),但笑声又有其独立的价值——点亮我们的生活(外在价值)。恰好符合上下文的衔接,为正确选项。

  44. [精解] 本题考核知识点:和上文内容的衔接 + 副词的运用。

  本空格的上文刚刚引出了一个新的抽象概念:品味。空格的下文利用simiarly说明,审美价值也正面和负面之分。紧接着,在审美价值(aesthetic interest)和品味(taste)之间建立联系。所以,空格处内容必然是对“品味”进行解释,并说明品味有好坏之分。这恰恰是选项[E]的内容45. [精解] 本题考核知识点:对上文内容的总结本空格出现在文章结尾处,所以必然是对上文内容的总结,[B]中 “all discussion of the value of art tends, therefore”非常适合做全文内容的总结。再对[B]的内容进行分析,其恰好是基于全文的讨论,利用一个疑问句指出对艺术价值评判的关键问题:是否真的存在真正的临界评价。

  全文翻译艺术价值理论有两种,我们称之为外在理论和内在理论。前者将艺术和对艺术的欣赏看作是达到某种公认的道德利益的手段;而后者看到的不是它们工具性的价值而是投向自身物体的价值。外在理论的特点是将艺术价值定位于其对艺术欣赏者的影响。艺术被认为是一种教育形式,也许是一种情感教育。在这种情况下,是否有一些达到同样效果的更有效的方法成了公开的问题。或者,人们也许认为艺术有负面价值,正如柏拉图在他的《理想国》一书里所认为的那样,艺术会影响那些接触它的人,使其堕落,或起不到教化作用。[C]现代社会中被列夫托尔斯泰吸收进1896年出版的《艺术论》一书中的外在理论,似乎不能完全令人满意。哲学家们一直在不懈地探索唯美体验中的价值。这种价值是独一无二的,因此不能从别处获得。极端的内在理论与华特。佩特、奥斯卡。王尔德及法国印象主义者联系在一起,总结为一句口号:“为艺术而艺术”。这些思想家和作家相信:艺术的目的在于其本身,而且艺术也是对其自身的证明。他们还相信,若要以正确的方式理解艺术,必须放弃对其他方面的关注而只关注艺术作品本身。[F]在这两种极端的观点之间,有一些折中的观点。比如,我们认为对艺术品的欣赏必须基于作品本身,而我们在欣赏过程中能从中获得一些独立的价值。对笑话发笑是因为笑话本身可笑,但笑声本身又有独立的价值,这一价值使得使我们能在片刻间脱离自己,点亮生活。在这一点上,艺术作品又何尝不具有相似性?许多艺术作品渴望着与好的笑话一样具有娱乐性。[A]有些人认为,这种和笑声的类比本身就是一种审美价值。它引进了一个新的概念——品味。若没有这一概念,就不可能对艺术价值做严肃的讨论。若我感到有趣,肯定有其原因。此“原因”存在于令我感到有趣的对象。因此,我们开始考虑对令人发笑的好的原因和坏的原因进行区分。对不好的事情感到有趣说明我们思想堕落、残忍或审美眼光差;出现这样的情况,我们会说对象本身并不真正有趣,我们之所以感到有趣是因为我们自身的原因。[E]与之相似的是,我们认为某些艺术品值得关注,而另外一些却不值得。在作此判断时,我们会利用各种令人费解的、评判道德的词汇; 艺术品和人一样,会因为其感伤、粗俗、残忍、或自我放纵受到谴责,会因为其热情、同情、高尚、敏感和真实受到褒扬。显然,若要有积极的审美价值,必须有好的审美眼光;只有对恰当的物体感兴趣才对我们有益处。因此,所有对艺术价值的讨论都趋向背离了起初的评论方向:会有对艺术的真正临界评价吗?即,在值得关注的作品和不值得关注的作品之间,存在着真正的界限吗?[B]

  Part C Directions:Read the following text careflly and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2.(10 points)

  Gandhi‘s pacifism can be separated to some extent from his other teachings. (46)Its motive was religious, but he claimed also for it that it was a definitive technique, a method, capable of producing desired political results. Gandhi’s attitude was not that of most Western pacifists. Satyagraha, (47)the method Gandhi proposed and practiced, first evolved in South Africa, was a sort of non-violent warfare, a way of defeating the enemy without hurting him and without feeling or arousing hatred. It entailed such things as civil disobedience, strikes, lying down in front of railway trains, enduring police charges without running away and without hitting back, and the like. Gandhi objected to “passive resistance” as a translation of Satyagraha: in Gujarati, it seems, the word means “firmness in the truth”。 (48)In his early days Gandhi served as a stretcher-bearer on the British side in the Boer War, and he was prepared to do the same again in the war of 1914-1918. Even after he had completely abjured violence he was honest enough to see that in war it is usually necessary to take sides. Since his whole political life centred round a struggle for national independence, he could not and, (49)indeed, he did not take the sterile and dishonest line of pretending that in every war both sides are exactly the same and it makes no difference who wins. Nor did he, like most Western pacifists, specialize in avoiding awkward questions. In relation to the late war, one question that every pacifist had a clear obligation to answer was: “What about the Jews? Are you prepared to see them exterminated? If not, how do you propose to save them without resorting to war?” (50)I must say that I have never heard, from any Western pacifist, an honest answer to this question, though I have heard plenty of evasions, usually of the “you‘re another” type. But it so happens that Gandhi was asked a somewhat similar question in 1938 and that his answer is on record in Mr. Louis Fischer’s Gandhi and Stalin. According to Mr. Fischer, Gandhi‘s view was that the German Jews ought to commit collective suicide, which “would have aroused the world and the people of Germany to Hitler’s violence.”



  试题精解46.[精解] 本题考核知识点:后置定语的翻译。

  该句是由but连接的两个并列分句:前一分句是简单句,后一分句是主从复合句。后一分句的主干是he claimed that……,其中that引导宾语从句。从句中形容词短语capable of……做后置定语,修饰名词a technique, a method.该定语可以按照汉语习惯译为前置定语,即,“一种可以产生预期的政治效果的明显的技巧和方法”;也可以采用拆译法,译为一个句子,增译代词“它”做主语。



  47.[精解] 本题考核知识点:后置定语的翻译和词义的选择。

  该句的主干结构是:the method…… was a sort of warfare.主语the method后有两个后置定语:一个是省略关系代词的定语从句Gandhi proposed and practiced;另一个是过去分词短语first evolved in……。如果把它们都译为汉语的前置定语会很冗长,不符合汉语表达习惯。因此可把第一个定语前置,第二个定语转译为谓语。而真正的谓语前可加上“这”或“它”指代真正的主语。表语a sort of warfare后是一个较长的同位语a way of defeating……。其中介词短语of……做后置定语修饰名词a way,翻译时应前置。



  48.[精解] 本题考核知识点:定语和状语的翻译该句是and连接的并列句,其主干结构是:Gandhi served as a…… and he was prepared……。前一分句中“in his early days”和“in the Boer War”都作时间状语,修饰谓语served,翻译时应放在句首。“on the British side”做后置定语,修饰stretcher-bearer,应译为前置定语,即,“英方的担架员”。

  词汇:serve as sth.意为“(为……)工作,服务,履行义务,尽职责”;stretcher-bearer指“抬担架者”;on sb.‘s side意为“站在某人一边,和某人观点一致”。


  49.[精解] 本题考核知识点:后置定语、主语从句的翻译。

  该句的主干是he did not take the…… line,介词短语of……做后置定语修饰宾语the line.由于定语太长,应采取拆译法,另起一句。动名词pretending后接有that引导的宾语从句。该从句由两个并列的分句组成:both sides are…… and it makes……,后一分句中it为形式主语,从句who wins为真正的主语,汉语中不存在这种语法形式,因此可以直接将从句内容译为主语。



  50.[精解] 本题考核知识点:插入语、后置定语的翻译该句的主干是I must say,后面是that引导的宾语从句。宾语从句是一个主从复合句。主句是I have never heard an honest answer,其谓语和宾语之间插入了一个状语成分,翻译时可放在句首或谓语之前,译为“从任何一个西方和平主义者那里我从未听说过”或“我从未从任何一个西方和平主义者那里听说过”。though引导转折状语从句,其中介词短语of……做后置定语,修饰宾语evasions,可译为前置定语,也可另起一句。




  Section Ⅲ Writing

  Part A 51. Directions:You read an advertisement on Beijing Weekly,in which a foreign company is looking for a secretary. Write a letter to the personnel department of the company telling them about 1) your age,2) your educational background,3) your work experience. You should write about 100 words neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2. Do not sign your own name. Use “Li Ming” instead. You do not need to write the address. (10 points)

  范文Dear Sun Xue,We are very glad to receive your letter commenting on too much violence in TV programs and films. Now I am writing back on behalf of the Evening paper to express our sincere gratitude to you. Your letter has drawn our attention to the problem of media programs. We think it extremely important that the public should be alarmed to it as well. Therefore, we would like to have your letter published next week in our paper, followed by an editorial, which, I am sure, will arouse attention from common people as well as the program makers concerned. Again we would like to express our appreciation to your consideration and we are looking forward to your letters in future. Yours truly,Li Ming

  Part B 52. Directions:Now more people are buying lottery tickets. Study the following charts carefully and write an article on the topic of lottery. In your article, you should cover the following points:1) describe the phenomenon;2) analyze the phenomenon, and give your comments on it. You should write about 200 words neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (20 points)

  一、 审题谋篇本题为图表加提纲式作文。写图表式作文的关键之一是把握指导语,因为它给出了作文的基本要求,指出了写作的方向;其次是对图表中的相关数据进行描述、分析和评论,它们往往是写作的材料或论据。由本题的指导语可知:文章要求联系图表以彩票为话题,对越来越多的人喜欢买彩票这一现象发表评论。作文的基本框架应为:(一)描述现象;(二)分析现象;(三)发表你的看法。其次,两个图表显示的是两个调查结果。图表一反映了北京、上海、广州三个城市里梦想有一天中500万的人的比例,平均为70%。图表二反映了中奖后,人们想做的事。由分析可知,图表一可用于描述现象,图表二可用于分析现象,作为支持论点(支持或反对买彩票)的论据。

  二、 参考范文Nowadays, more and more people, especially in big cities, become interested in buying lottery tickets. According to chart 1, averagely 70 percent of those polled in the survey, held in three big cities, claimed to have dreamed of winning the big prize of five-million yuan. 85 percent of those polled in Guangzhou had had such a dream, compared with 65 percent and 60 percent, respectively, in Beijing and Shanghai. The attraction of buying lottery tickets is obvious. The winner can get the biggest profit for the future with only a small investment. It realizes the beautiful dream of every participant-to be richer and to improve living standards. As is shown in Chart 2, should they win a big lottery, 81.3% of people would buy a new house, 61.9% would buy a car, and 61.7% would save the money for the education of themselves or their kids. And a great proportion of people say they would put the money in the bank or use it for investment or touring. Despite all the attractions bro

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