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2012年考研真题及答案解析  2012考研英语二答案完整版(网络版)

  Section1 Use of English


  Millions of Americans andforeigners see GI.Joe as a mindless war toy ,the symbol of American military adventurism, but that’s not how it used to be .To the men and women who 1 )in World War II and the people they liberated ,the GI.was the 2) man grown into hero ,the pool farm kid torn away from his home ,the guy who 3) all the burdens of battle ,who slept in cold foxholes,who went without the 4)of food and shelter ,who stuck it out and drove back the Nazi reign of murder.this was not a volunteer soldier ,not someone well paid ,5) an averageguy ,up 6 )the best trained ,best equipped ,fiercest ,most brutalenemies seen in centuries.

  His name is not much.GI. isjust a military abbreviation 7) Government Issue ,and it was on all of the article 8) to soldiers .AndJoe? A common name for a guy who never 9) it to the top .Joe Blow ,Joe Magrac …a workingclass name.The United States has 10)had a president or vicepresident or secretary of state Joe.

  GI .joe had a (11)career fighting German ,Japanese ,and Korean troops . He appers as acharacter ,or a (12 ) of american personalities, in the 1945 movie The Story ofGI. Joe, based on the last days of war correspondent Ernie Pyle. Some of thesoldiers Pyle(13)portrayde themselves in the film. Pyle was famous for coveringthe (14)side of the warl, writing about the dirt-snow –and-mud soldiers, nothow many miles were(15)or what towns were captured or liberated, Hisreports(16)the “willie” cartoons of famed Stars and Stripes artist BillMaulden. Both men(17)the dirt and exhaustion of war, the (18)of civilizationthat the soldiers shared with each other and the civilians: coffee, tobacco,whiskey, shelter, sleep. (19)Egypt, France, and a dozen more countries, G.I.Joe was any American soldier,(20)the most important person in their lives.

  1.[A]performed [B]served [C]rebelled [D]betrayed

  2.[A]actual [B]common [C]special [D]normal

  3.[A]bore [B]cased [C]removed [D]loaded

  4.[A]necessities [B]facilitice [C]commodities [D]propertoes

  5.[A]and [B]nor [C]but [D]hence

  6.[A]for [B]into [C] form [D]against

  7.[A]meaning [B]implying [C]symbolizing [D]claiming

  8.[A]handedout [B]turn over [C]brought back [D]passed down

  9.[A]pushed [B]got [C]made [D]managed

  10.[A]ever [B]never [C]either [D]neither

  11.[A]disguised [B]disturbed [C]disputed [D]distinguished

  12.[A]company [B]collection [C]community [D]colony

  13.[A]employed [B]appointed [C]interviewed [D]questioned

  14.[A]ethical [B]military [C]political [D]human15.[A]ruined [B]commuted [C]patrolled [D]gained

  16.[A]paralleled [B]counteracted [C]duplicated [D]contradicted

  17.[A]neglected [B]avoided [C]emphasized [D]admired

  18.[A]stages [B]illusions [C]fragments [D]advancea

  19.[A]With [B]To [C]Among [D]Beyond

  20.[A]onthe contrary [B] by this means [C]from the outset [D]at that point

  Section II Resdiong Comprehension

  Part A


  Read the following four texts. answer thequestion after each text by choosing A,B,C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWERSHEET 1.(40 points)

  Text 1

  Homework has never been terribly popular with students and even many parents, but in recent years it has been particularly scorned. School districts across the country, most recently Los Angeles Unified, are revising their thinking on his educational ritual. Unfortunately, L.A. Unified has produced an inflexible policy which mandates that with the exception of some advanced courses,homework may no longer count for more than 10% of a student’s academic grade.

  This rule is meant to address the difficulty that students from impoverished or chaotic homes might have in completing their homework. But the policy is unclear and contradictory. Certainly, no homework should be assigned that students cannot do without expensive equipment. But if the district is essentially giving a pass to students who do not do their homework because of complicated family lives, it is going riskily close to the implication that standards need to be lowered for poor children.

  District administrators say that homework will still be a pat of schooling: teachers areallowed to assign as much of it as they want. But with homework counting for nomore than 10% of their grades, students can easily skip half their homework andsee vey little difference on their report cards. Some students might do well onstate tests without completing their homework, but what about the students whoperformed well on the tests and did their homework? It is quite possible that the homework helped. Yet rather than empowering teachers to find what worksbest for their students, the policy imposes a flat, across-the-board rule.

  At the same time, the policy addresses none of the truly thorny questions abouthomework. If the district finds homework to be unimportant to its students’academic achievement, it should move to reduce or eliminate the assignments,not make them count for almost nothing. Conversely, if homework does nothing toensure that the homework students are not assigning more than they are willingto review and correct.

  The homework rules should be put on hold while the school board, which is responsiblefor setting educational policy, looks into the matter and conducts publichearings. It is not too late for L.A. Unified to do homework right.

  21.It is implied in paragraph 1 that nowadays homework_____.

  [A]is receiving more criticism

  [B]is no longer an educational ritual

  [C]is not required for advanced courses

  [D]is gaining more preferences

  22.L.A.Unified has made the rule about homework mainly because poor students_____.

  [A]tend to have moderate expectations for their education

  [B]have asked for a different educational standard

  [C]may have problems finishing their homework

  [D]have voiced their complaints about homework

  23.According to Paragraph 3,one problem with the policy is that it may____.

  [A]discourage students from doing homework

  [B]resultin students' indifference to their report cards

  [C]undermine the authority of state tests

  [D]restrict teachers' power in education

  24.As mentioned in Paragraph 4, a key question unanswered about homework is whether______.

  [A] it should be eliminated

  [B]it counts much in schooling

  [C]it places extra burdens on teachers

  [D]it is important for grades

  25.A suitable title for this text could be______.

  [A]Wrong Interpretation of an Educational Policy

  [B]A Welcomed Policy for Poor Students

  [C]Thorny Questions about Homework

  [D]A Faulty Approach to Homework


  Prettyin pink: adult women do not rememer being so obsessed with the colour, yet itis pervasive in our young girls’ lives. Tt is not that pink is intrinsicallybad, but it is such a tiny slice of the rainbow and, though it may celebrategirlhood in one way, it also repeatedly and firmly fuses girls’ identity toappearance. Then it presents that connection, even among two-year-olds, between girls as not only innocent but as evidence of innocence. Looking around, Idespaired at the singular lack of imagination about girls’ lives and interests.

  Girls’attraction to pink may seem unavoidable, somehow encoded in their DNA, butaccording to Jo Paoletti, an associate professor of American Studies, it isnot. Children were not colour-coded at all until the early 20th century: in theera before domestic washing machines all babies wore white as a practicalmatter, since the only way of getting clothes clean was to boil them. What’smore, both boys and girls wore what were thought of as gender-neutraldresses.When nursery colours were introduced, pink was actually considered themore masculine colour, a pastel version of red, which was associated withstrength. Blue, with its intimations of the Virgin Mary, constancy andfaithfulness, symbolised femininity. It was not until the mid-1980s, whenamplifying age and sex differences became a dominant children’s marketingstrategy, that pink fully came into its own, when it began to seem inherentlyattractive to girls, part of what defined them as female, at least for thefirst few critical years.

  I hadnot realised how profoundly marketing trends dictated our perception of what isnatural to kins, including our core beliefs about their psychologicaldevelopment. Take the toddler. I assumed that phase was something expertsdeveloped after years of research into children’s behaviour: wrong. Turns out,acdording to Daniel Cook, a historian of childhood consumerism, it waspopularised as a marketing trick by clothing manufacrurers in the 1930s.

  Tradepublications counselled department stores that, in order to increase sales,they should create a “third stepping stone” between infant wear and older kids’clothes. Tt was only after “toddler”became a common shoppers’ term that itevolved into a broadly accepted developmental stage. Splitting kids, oradults,into ever-tinier categories has proved a sure-fire way to boost profits.And one of the easiest ways to segment a market is to magnify genderdifferences – or invent them where they did not previously exist.

  26.Bysaying "it is...the rainbow"(Line 3, Para.1),the author meanspink______.

  [A]should not be the sole representation of girlhood

  [B]should not be associated with girls' innocence

  [C]cannot explain girls' lack of imagination

  [D]cannot influence girls' lives and interests

  27.According to Paragraph 2, which of the following is true of colours?

  [A]Colours are encoded in girls' DNA.

  [B]Blue used to be regarded as the colour for girls.

  [C]Pink used to be a neutral colour in symbolising genders.

  [D]White is prefered by babies.

  28.The author suggests that our perception of children's psychological development wasmuch influenced by_____.

  [A]the marketing of products for children

  [B]the observation of children's nature

  [C]researches into children's behavior

  [D]studies of childhood consumption

  29.Wemay learn from Paragraph 4 that department stores were advised to_____.

  [A]focuson infant wear and older kids' clothes

  [B]attach equal importance to different genders

  [C]classify consumers into smaller groups

  [D]create some common shoppers' terms

  30.It can be concluded that girls' attraction to pink seems to be____.

  [A]clearly explained by their inborn tendency

  [B]fully understood by clothing manufacturers

  [C]mainly imposed by profit-driven businessmen

  [D]well interpreted by psychological experts

  Text 3

  In 2010. a federal judge shook America's biotech industry to its core. Companies had won patents for isolated DNA for decades-by 2005 some 20% of human genes were parented. But in March 2010 a judge ruled that genes were unpatentable. Executives were violently agitated. The Biotechnology Industry Organisation (BIO), a trade group, assured members that this was just a “preliminary step” in a longer battle.

  On July 29th they were relieved, at least temporarily. A federal appeals court overturned the prior decision, ruling that Myriad Genetics could indeed holb patents to two genss that help forecast a woman's risk of breast cancer. The chief executive of Myriad, a company in Utah,said the ruling was a blessing to firms and patients alike.

  But as companies continue their attempts at personalised medicine, the courts will remain rather busy. The Myriad case itself is probably not over Critics make three main arguments against gene patents: a gene is a product of nature, so it may not be patented; gene patents suppress innovation rather than reward it; and patents' monopolies restrict access to genetic tests such as Myriad's. A growing number seem to agree.Last year a federal task-force urged reform for patents related to genetic tests. In October the Department of Justice filed a brief in the Myriad case, arguing that an isolated DNA molecule “is no less a product of nature... than are cotton fibres that have been separated from cotton seeds. ”

  Despite the appeals court's decision, big questions remain unanswered. For example, it is unclear whether the sequencing of a whole genome violates the patents of indivi dual genes within it. The case may yet reach the Supreme Court.

  ASthe industry advances ,however,other suits may have an even greaterimpact.companies are unlikely to file many more patents for human DNAmolecules-most are already patented or in the public domain .firms are now studying how genes intcract,looking forcorrelations that might be used to determine the causes of disease or predict adrug’s efficacy,companies are eager to win patents for ‘connecting thedits’,expaains hans sauer,alawyer for the BIO.

  Their success may be determined by a suitrelated to this issue, brought by the Mayo Clinic, which the Supreme Court willhear in its next term. The BIO rtcently held a convention which includedseddions to coach lawyers on the shifting landscape for patents. Each meetingwas packed.

  31.it canbe learned from paragraph I that the biotech companies would like-----

  A.their executives to be active

  B.judges to rule out gene patenting

  C.genes to be patcntablc

  D.the BIO to issue a warning

  32.those who are against gene patents believe that----

  A.genetic tests are not reliable

  B.only man-made products are patentable

  C.patents on genes depend much on innovatiaon

  D.courts should restrict access to gene tic tests

  33.according to hans sauer ,companies are eager to win patents for----

  A.establishing disease comelations

  B.discovering gene interactions

  C.drawing pictures of genes

  D.identifying human DNA

  34.By saying “each meeting waspacked”(line4,para6)the author means that -----

  A.the supreme court was authoritative

  B.the BIO was a powerful organization

  C.gene patenting was a great concern

  D.lawyer swere keen to attend conventiongs

  35.generallyspeaking ,the author’s attitude toward gene patenting is----





  Text 4

  The great recession may be over, but thisera of high joblessness is probably beginning. Before it ends,

  itwill likely change the life course and character of a generation of youngadults. And ultimately, it is likely to reshape our politics,our culture, andthe character of our society for years.

  Noone tries harder than the jobless to find silver linings in this nationaleconomic disaster. Many said that unemployment, while extremely painful, hadimproved them in some ways; they had become less materialistic and morefinancially prudent; they were more aware of the struggles of others. Inlimited respects, perhaps the recession will leave society better off. At thevery least, it has awoken us from our national fever dream of easy riches andbigger houses, and put a necessary end to an era of reckless personal spending.

  Butfor the most part, these benefits seem thin, uncertain, and far off. In TheMoral Consequences of Economic Growth, the economic historian Benjamin Friedmanargues that both inside and outside the U.S. ,lengthy periods of economicstagnation or decline have almost always left society more mean-spirited andless inclusive, and have usually stopped or reversed the advance of rights andfreedoms. Anti-immigrant sentiment typically increases, as does conflictbetween races and classes.

  Incomeinequality usually falls during a recession, but it has not shrunk in thisone,. Indeed, this period of economic weakness may reinforce class divides, anddecrease opportunities to cross them--- especially for young people. Theresearch of Till Von Wachter, the economist in Columbia University, suggeststhat not all people graduating into a recession see their life chances dimmed:those with degrees from elite universities catch up fairly quickly to wherethey otherwise would have been if they had graduated in better times; it is themasses beneath them that are left behind.

  In the internet age, it is particularlyeasy to see the resentment that has always been hidden winthin Americansociety. More difficult, in the moment , is discerning precisely how these leantimes are affecting society’s character. In many respects, the U.S. was moresocially tolerant entering this resession than at any time in its history, anda variety of national polls on social conflict since then have shown mixedresults. We will have to wait and see exactly how these hard times will reshapeour social fabric. But they certainly it, and all the more so the longer theyextend.

  36.Bysaying “to find silver linings”(Line 1,Para.2)the author suggest that thejobless try to___.

  [A]seek subsidies from the govemment

  [B]explore reasons for the unermployment

  [C]make profits from the troubled economy

  [D]look on the bright side of the recession

  37.Accordingto Paragraph 2,the recession has made people_____.

  [A]realize the national dream

  [B]struggle against each other

  [C]challenge their lifestyle

  [D]reconsider their lifestyle

  38.BenjaminFriedman believe that economic recessions may_____.

  [A]impose a heavier burden on immigrants

  [B]bring out more evils of human nature

  [C]Promote the advance of rights and freedoms

  [D]ease conflicts between races and classes

  39.Theresearch of Till Von Wachther suggests that in recession graduates from eliteuniversities tend to _____.

  [A]lag behind the others due to decreased opportunities

  [B]catch up quickly with experienced employees

  [C]see their life chances as dimmed as the others’

  [D]recover more quickly than the others

  40.Theauthor thinks that the influence of hard times on society is____.





  Part B


  Readthe following text and answer the questions by finding information from theleft column that corresponds to each of the marked details given in the rightcolumn. There are two extra choices in the right column. Mark your answers onANSWER SHEERT 1.(10 points)

  “Universal history, the history of what man has accomplishedin this world, is at bottom the History of the Great Men who have worked here,”wrote the Victorian sage Thomas Carlyle. Well, not any more it is not.

  Suddenly,Britain looks to have fallen out with its favourite historical form. This couldbe no more than a passing literary craze, but it also points to a broader truthabout how we now approach the past: less concerned with learning fromforefathers and more interested in feeling their pain. Today, we want empathy,not inspiration.

  Fromthe earliest days of the Renaissance, the writing of history meant recountingthe exemplary lives of great men. In 1337, Petrarch began work on his ramblingwriting De Viris Illustribus – On Famous Men, highlighting the virtus (orvirtue) of classical heroes. Petrarch celebrated their greatness in conqueringfortune and rising to the top. This was the biographical tradition whichNiccolo Machiavelli turned on its head. In The Prince, the championed cunning,ruthlessness, and boldness, rather than virtue, mercy and justice, as theskills of successful leaders.

  Over time, the attributes ofgreatness shifted. The Romantics commemorated the leading painters and authorsof their day, stressing the uniqueness of the artist's personal experiencerather than public glory. By contrast, the Victorian author Samual Smiles wroteSelf-Help as a catalogue of the worthy lives of engineers , industrialists andexplores . "The valuable examples which they furnish of the power ofself-help, if patient purpose, resolute working and steadfast integrity,issuing in the formulation of truly noble and many character,exhibit,"wrote Smiles."what it is in the power of each to accomplishfor himself"His biographies of James Walt, Richard Arkwright and Josiah Wedgwood were held up as beaconsto guide the working man through his difficult life.

  Thiswas all a bit bourgeois for Thomas Carlyle, who focused his biographies on thetruly heroic lives of Martin Luther, Oliver Cromwell and Napoleon Bonaparte.These epochal figures represented lives hard to imitate, but to be acknowledgedas possessing higher authority than mere mortals.

  Communist Manifesto. For them,history did nothing, it possessed no immense wealth nor waged battles:“It isman, real, living man who does all that.” And history should be the story ofthe masses and their record of struggle. As such, it needed to appreciate theeconomic realities, the social contexts and power relations in which each epochstood. For:“Men make their own history, but they do not make it just as theyplease; they do not make it under circumstances chosen by themselves, but undercircumstances directly found, given and transmitted from the past.”

  Thiswas the tradition which revolutionized our appreciation of the past. In placeof Thomas Carlyle, Britain nurtured Christopher Hill, EP Thompson and EricHobsbawm. History from below stood alongside biographies of great men. Wholenew realms of understanding — from gender to race to cultural studies — wereopened up as scholars unpicked the multiplicity of lost societies. And ittransformed public history too: downstairs became just as fascinating asupstairs.

  [A] emphasized the virtue of classical heroes.

  41. Petrarch

  [B] highlighted the public glory of the leading artists.

  42. Niccolo Machiavellli

  [C] focused on epochal figures whose lives were hard to imitate.

  43. Samuel Smiles

  [D] opened up new realms of understanding the great men in history.

  44. Thomas Carlyle

  [E] held that history should be the story of the masses and their record of struggle.

  45. Marx and Engels

  [F] dismissed virtue as unnecessary for successful leaders.

  [G] depicted the worthy lives of engineer industrialists and explorers

  Section III Translation


  Translate the following text from Englishinto Chinese.Write your translationon ANSWER SHEET2.(15 points)

  When people in developing countries worryabout migration,they are usually concerned at the prospect of ther best and brightest departure toSilicon Valley or to hospitals anduniversities in the developed world ,These are the kind of workers that countries like Britian ,Canada and Australia try to attract byusing immigration rules that privilegecollege graduates .

  Lots of studies have found thatwell-educated people from developing countries are particularly likely to emigrate .A big survey of Indian householdsin 2004 found that nearly 40%ofemigrants had more than a high-school education,compared with around 3.3%of all Indians over the age of25.This "brain drain "has longbothered policymakers in poor countries ,They fear that it hurts their economies ,depriving them ofmuch-needed skilled workers who could have taught at their universities ,worked in their hospitals and come up withclever new products for their factoriesto make .


  Section IV Writing

  Part A


  Supposeyou have found something wrong with the electronic dictionary that you bought from an onlin store the other day ,Write an email to the customerservice center to

  1)makea complaint and

  2)demanda prompt solution

  Youshould write about 100words on ANSERE SHEET 2

  Donot sign your own name at the end of the letter ,Use "zhang wei"instead .

  48 、 write an essay based on the followingtable .In your writing you should

  1)describe the table ,and

  2)give your comments

  You should write at least 150words(15points)



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