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2012英语二英语解题方法解析

论坛   2012-01-13 08:56 【 】【我要纠错

  原文是衡量答案的唯一标准!

  ——2012年英语(二)第四篇英语阅读解题方法详细解析

  2012年的text4与这套试卷中的其他文章一样来自于国外的主流媒体。这篇文章是来自于美国《美国大西洋月刊》网站http://www.theatlantic.com的一篇文章,发表时间是2010年的3月。当时的美国处于次贷危机所带来的衰退的尾声,失业率居高不下。该文章作者Don Peck曾多次以衰退为题撰写文章,以通过自己的文章对于公众有所帮助。所以通读这篇以《How a New Jobless Era Will Transform America?》为题目的文章,我们并没有看到如普通美国民众的那种气馁和失望的情绪,反而作者客观的在分析着失业对于美国人的潜移默化。但是,我们也同样要注意的是,作者不是盲目的乐观,而是看到好的,也看到坏的,非常客观的分析着相关事实。

  在考场之中,考生们可能难以得到如此多的背景信息,但是,这并不妨碍我们按照我们的日常练习的方式来解答这篇阅读。

  我们的第一个步骤仍然是:读题划点。

  第36 题.,题干为:By saying “to find silver linings” (Line 1,Para.2)the author suggest that the jobless try to___.

  通过对于题干的分析,这是一道词组或者说是词义的推理题目。要求考生,通过划线的词组来推断作者的建议。

  我们注意的是该题的出题位置,是在第二段的第一行,这使得很多同学心里上放松了对于第一段落的重视。如果真的如此,则考生便陷入了出题人的陷阱。因为出题人之所以设计考点在此,便是通过对于第二段首句的考察来进行大纲所要求的对于上下文内在结构的理解的考察。即,第二段的内容是如何通过此句与文章的第一个段落联系在一起的。

  所以这道题的解题区域(相关解释详见同上)不仅包括该段落后续内容,也包含了上一段落的最后几个部分。

  在此,有一些同学基础很好,能够知道“to find silver linings”在英语中有着一个固定含义,即“寻找一线生机”。于是便开始积极的且急急的去对应答案选项解答题目。

  殊不知,考研的出题人本就是不想让你知道这词或是词组的意思的,这样你才能返回文章,通过阅读得到含义,实现考试的目的。于是,哪些同学有“可能反被聪明误”而错选答案而失去分数。

  故,在这里,作为一个从教多年的教师,提醒各位考生们:

  1. 考研阅读的原文是衡量答案的唯一标准!

  2. 一切与原文形同而意义不同的选项都是纸老虎!

  第37题,题干为“According to Paragraph 2,the recession has made people_____.”

  该题为:段落细节题。注意关键点“made people”。

  此题与第一题出题区域结合较为紧密,故在解题时,应避免与第一题相同的答案。如果答案相同,则意味着出题重复。这不符合考试大纲对于出题人的基本要求。

  第38题,题干为“Benjamin Friedman believed that economic recession may_____.”

  该题为:事实细节题,关键点在:BF。问的是他的相信。只要找到BF此人,研读其观点,便可解题。

  第39题,题干为“The research of Till Von Wachther suggests that in recession graduates from elite universities tend to _____.”可以翻译为:对于TVW的研究建议在衰退中的名牌大学的毕业生倾向于______。

  关键点在于:“TVW”和“elite universities ”。需要知道名牌大学生在衰退中的情况。

  第40题,题干为The author thinks that the influence of hard times on society is____.

  该题是作者观点题。该题可翻译为:作者认为艰难的时光对于社会的影响是______。

  作者观点态度题可以从全文来解决,也可以找到相关的定位点来解决,故不做过多分析。

  第二步骤:带点读文。

  第36 题,第37题,定位点较为清晰。

  第38题,BF的主张出现在第三段第二句,一直到该段落内容结束都是其观点:Benjamin Friedman argues that both inside and outside the U.S. , lengthy periods of economic stagnation or decline have almost always left society more mean-spirited and less inclusive, and have usually stopped or reversed the advance of rights and freedoms. Anti-immigrant sentiment typically increases, as does conflict between races and classes.

  第39题,“TVW”定位在第四段第二句,“elite universities”定位在同句,所以该句一直到最后都是解题区域:The research of Till Von Wachter, the economist in Columbia University, suggests that not all people graduating into a recession see their life chances dimmed: those with degrees from elite universities catch up fairly quickly to where they otherwise would have been if they had graduated in better times; it is the masses beneath them that are left behind.

  第40题,属于观点题,既可以全文总结,也可以有定位点解决。在此先放置不解决。

  第三步骤:以点解题。

  第36 题,结合文章研读选项:

  [A]seek subsidies from the government A选项,从政府寻求补助金。

  该选项在文章中没有提及,直接排除。

  [B]explore reasons for the unemployment B选项,探索失业的理由。

  该选项在文中有“Many said that unemployment”中有相同体现,但是与所谓原因没有关系,故排除。

  [C]make profits from the troubled economy C选项,从困窘的经济中得利。

  该选项看起来有原文呼应:“ while extremely painful, had improved them in some ways; they had become less materialistic and more financially prudent; they were more aware of the struggles of others.”但是,研读之下,发现,并没有选项中的“profit”“获利”一词,只是说人们有了一些积极的改变。所以不能选择,获利,盈利。

  故,综合分析,[D]look on the bright side of the recessionD选项,看到衰退中光明的一面。符合原文。

  第37题,结合文章研读选项:

  [A]realize the national dream,A选项,实现了民族的梦想(美国梦)。

  在文中,有相关的体现在于:awoken us from our national fever dream of easy riches and bigger houses,这与选项内容不符合,属于同形不同义,排除。

  [B]struggle against each other,B选项,彼此争斗。

  这在原文中有:they were more aware of the struggles of others体现,但是这只是说有了一种意识,而不是真的“each other”的与任何人都去“struggle against”,故属于同形不同义,排除。

  [C]challenge their lifestyle,C选项,挑战了他们的生活方式。

  该选项符合文章中的相关内容,与题干结合有歧义,即人们自己挑战自己的生活方式。实际上,原文所提及的一些题改变是人们迫不得已的重新思考的结果,而不是人们自主的挑战。所以,排除此选项。

  [D]reconsider their lifestyle ,D选项,重新思考他们的时候方式。

  文章中“had improved them in some ways;”;“they had become less materialistic and more financially prudent; they were more aware of the struggles of others.”;“At the very least, it has awoken us from our national fever dream of easy riches and bigger houses, and put a necessary end to an era of reckless personal spending”都是一种基于改变的思考,故选D选项。

  第38题,结合文章研读选项:

  [A]impose a heavier burden on immigrants,A选项,加重外来移民的负担。

  原文中表述如下:Anti-immigrant sentiment typically increases即反移民的情绪增加,但是这不是移民的负担,所以与上题的多干扰项一样,属于同形不同义,排除。

  [B]bring out more evils of human nature ,B选项,使显示出更多的人性的罪恶。

  通过对“engthy periods of economic stagnation or decline have almost always left society more mean-spirited and less inclusive, and have usually stopped or reversed the advance of rights and freedoms. Anti-immigrant sentiment typically increases, as does conflict between races and classes.”的综合,可以确定,此选项为正确选项。

  “[C]Promote the advance of rights and freedoms,C选项,推动权力和自由的进步”以及“[D]ease conflicts between races and classes,D选项,缓和各个种族与各个阶级之间的冲突”明显与原文“stopped or reversed the advance of rights and freedoms.”以及“does conflict between races and classes”不符合,所以排除。

  故,最终确认,答案为B选项。

  第39题,结合文章研读选项:

  Income inequality usually falls during a recession, but it has not shrunk in this one. Indeed, this period of economic weakness may reinforce class divides, and decrease opportunities to cross them--- especially for young people. The research of Till Von Wachter, the economist in Columbia University, suggests that not all people graduating into a recession see their life chances dimmed: those with degrees from elite universities catch up fairly quickly to where they otherwise would have been if they had graduated in better times; it is the masses beneath them that are left behind.

  [A]lag behind the others due to decreased opportunities,A选项,由于缺少机会而落后于其他人。

  文章中有“decrease opportunities to cross them”,但是此句,只是在讨论前面的核心点“class divides”,而不是有关于“elite universities”。

  而“left behind”所在“ it is the masses beneath them that are left behind.”这一句是一个明显的强调句型,还原为原句后是:the masses beneath them are left behind. 其中them指代前面的“those with degrees from elite universities”即题干中的名牌大学生。故该句翻译成:在名牌大学之后的大众们被抛在后面。

  所以,名牌大学生没有因为机会少而落后,故属于同形不同义,排除。

  [B]catch up quickly with experienced employees,B选项,以很快赶上了经验丰富的员工。

  原文中有:those with degrees from elite universities catch up fairly quickly to where they otherwise would have been if they had graduated in better times。其“catch up quickly with ”对象是“where they have been”,而非人,所以,排除不选。

  [C]see their life chances as dimmed as the others’,C选项,和其他人一样把他们的生活机会看的很暗淡。

  根据原文,同样可以知道,他们不会如同其他人一样,所以排除。

  [D]recover more quickly than the others,D选项,比其他人回复的更快速。

  在原文中的“those with degrees from elite universities catch up fairly quickly to where they otherwise would have been if they had graduated in better times; it is the masses beneath them that are left behind.”说明,第一名牌大学生会去到在较好的时代不能去到的高度,其次他们可以超过其他人,所以,答案为,他们恢复的更快。

  第30题,在文章中不好确定,故进入第四步骤解题。

  第四步骤:全文解题。

  全文前四个段落都已出题,唯独最后一个段落没有出题,根据出题区域不重复的原则(相见同上),所以研读选项后,重点研读最后一个段落。

  [A]certain ,A选项,确定的。

  [B]positive,B选项,积极地。

  [C]trivial,C选项,琐碎的。

  [D]destructive,D选项,毁灭的。

  C选项与D选项,属于负面选项,纵观全文,内容较为可观且积极,所以负面的选项,应该排除,其实这也好理解,就是如果真的是全负面的影响,美国人民可能就是去活下去的勇气了……

  而,很多同学会被B选项,积极地,所迷惑,原因是文中提及了很多好一点的内容,但是,在文章中的最后一段有原文:We will have to wait and see exactly how these hard times will reshape our social fabric. But they certainly it, and all the more so the longer they extend.

  所以,答案为A选项,确定的。即作者认为是有影响的,但是影响的最终结果,仍需等待。

  所以结合上面的真题解析,我们可以知道,在阅读之时不要为相同但是却不同意义的选项所迷惑,原文才是检验真题的唯一途径!

  希望该文章能对各位同学的复习有所帮助。

  附录:2012年考研英语(二)第四篇文章

  Text 4

  The great recession may be over, but this era of high joblessness is probably beginning. Before it ends, it will likely change the life course and character of a generation of young adults. And ultimately, it is likely to reshape our politics, our culture, and the character of our society for years.

  No one tries harder than the jobless to find silver linings in this national economic disaster. Many said that unemployment, while extremely painful, had improved them in some ways; they had become less materialistic and more financially prudent; they were more aware of the struggles of others. In limited respects, perhaps the recession will leave society better off. At the very least, it has awoken us from our national fever dream of easy riches and bigger houses, and put a necessary end to an era of reckless personal spending.

  But for the most part, these benefits seem thin, uncertain, and far off. In The Moral Consequences of Economic Growth, the economic historian Benjamin Friedman argues that both inside and outside the U.S. , lengthy periods of economic stagnation or decline have almost always left society more mean-spirited and less inclusive, and have usually stopped or reversed the advance of rights and freedoms. Anti-immigrant sentiment typically increases, as does conflict between races and classes.

  Income inequality usually falls during a recession, but it has not shrunk in this one. Indeed, this period of economic weakness may reinforce class divides, and decrease opportunities to cross them--- especially for young people. The research of Till Von Wachter, the economist in Columbia University, suggests that not all people graduating into a recession see their life chances dimmed: those with degrees from elite universities catch up fairly quickly to where they otherwise would have been if they had graduated in better times; it is the masses beneath them that are left behind.

  In the internet age, it is particularly easy to see the resentment that has always been hidden within American society. More difficult, in the moment, is discerning precisely how these lean times are affecting society’s character. In many respects, the U.S. was more socially tolerant entering this recession than at any time in its history, and a variety of national polls on social conflict since then have shown mixed results. We will have to wait and see exactly how these hard times will reshape our social fabric. But they certainly it, and all the more so the longer they extend.

  36.By saying “to find silver linings”(Line 1,Para.2)the author suggest that the jobless try to___.

  [A]seek subsidies from the government

  [B]explore reasons for the unemployment

  [C]make profits from the troubled economy

  [D]look on the bright side of the recession

  37. According to Paragraph 2,the recession has made people_____.

  [A]realize the national dream

  [B]struggle against each other

  [C]challenge their lifestyle

  [D]reconsider their lifestyle

  38. Benjamin Friedman believed that economic recession may_____.

  [A]impose a heavier burden on immigrants

  [B]bring out more evils of human nature

  [C]Promote the advance of rights and freedoms

  [D]ease conflicts between races and classes

  39. The research of Till Von Wachther suggests that in recession graduates from elite universities tend to _____.

  [A]lag behind the others due to decreased opportunities

  [B]catch up quickly with experienced employees

  [C]see their life chances as dimmed as the others’

  [D]recover more quickly than the others

  40. The author thinks that the influence of hard times on society is____.

  [A]certain

  [B]positive

  [C]trivial

  [D]destructive

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