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2011年研究生考试考研英语一模拟预测题

考研教育网   2011-01-13 09:56 【 】【我要纠错

  一、完形填空

  There is virtually no limit to how one can serve community interests, from spending a few hours a week with some charitable organization to practically full-time work for a social agency. Just as there are opportunities for voluntary service ___1___(VSO)for young people before they take up full-time employment, ___2___ there are opportunities for overseas service for ___3___ technicians in developing countries. Some people, ___4___ those who retire early, ___5___ their technical and business skills in countries ___6___ there is a special need.

  So in considering voluntary or ___7___ community service, there are more opportunities than there ___8___ were when one first began work. Most voluntary organizations have only a small full-time ___9___, and depend very much on volunteers and part-timers. This means that working relationships are different from those in commercial organizations, and values may be different. ___10___ some ways they may seem more casual and less efficient, but one should not ___11___ them by commercial criteria. The people who work with them do so for different reasons and with different ___12___, both personal and ___13___. One should not join them ___14___ to arm them with professional experience; they must be joined with commitment to the ___15___, not business efficiency. Because salaries are ___16___ or non-existent many voluntary bodies offer modest expense. But many retired people take part in community service for ___17___, simply because they enjoy the work.

  Many community activities possible ___18___ retirement were also possible during one's working life but they are to be undertaken ___19___ seriously for that. Retired people who are just looking for something different or unusual to do should not consider ___20___ community service.

  1).

  A. over the sea

  B. over sea

  C. over seas

  D. overseas

  正确答案: D

  答案解析:本题考查词汇知识。从此空所在句后半句“……there are opportunities for overseas service……”中的“overseas service”可知,此空应填“overseas”。D overseas可做形容词“外国的,海外的”;也可做副词“在海外”。本句前一个overseas是副词,后一个overseas是形容词。

  2).

  A. as

  B. so

  C. then

  D. that

  正确答案: B

  答案解析:本句意为:“正如年轻人在参加全职工作前有机会参加海外志愿服务一样,发展中国家的合格技术人员也有机会参加海外服务。”just as……so意为“正如……也。”可见B为正确答案。

  3).

  A. quantity

  B. qualifying

  C. quality

  D. qualified

  正确答案: D

  答案解析:本题考查词汇知识。根据句意,“合格的技术人员”,此处应选择D. qualified“有资格的,合格的”。

  4).

  A. partially

  B. partly

  C. particularly

  D. passionately

  正确答案: C

  答案解析:本题考查副词。根据句意,“一些人,尤其是那些退休早的人”,此处表示强调。故C. particularly“特别地,尤其地”为正确答案。

  5).

  A. order

  B. operate

  C. offer

  D. occupy

  正确答案: C

  答案解析:本题考查词动词的用法。本句意为“一些人,尤其是那些退休早的人,在有特殊需求的国家提供他们的技术和商业技能。”skills“技能”前面只能用 offer“提供”。

  6).

  A. before

  B. on

  C. in

  D. at

  正确答案: C

  答案解析:本题考查介词的用法。根据句意,所选词表示的含义应与后面during one's working life“在工作期间”相对。on retirement表示退休时;in retirement表示退休后。故C为最佳答案。

  7).

  A. much

  B. very much

  C. no more

  D. no less

  正确答案: D

  答案解析:本题考查固定短语的用法。根据句意“在工作期间的活动也要认真进行”。D no less意为“不少于,多达”,符合句意,是正确答案。

  8).

  A. to be taken

  B. to take

  C. taking

  D. being taken

  正确答案: C

  答案解析: 本题考查非谓语动词作动词宾语的用法。consider要求其后面动词用ing形式,作宾语。故C为正确答案。

  9).

  A. subjective

  B. subject

  C. objectives

  D. objects

  正确答案: C

  答案解析:本题考查词汇知识。根据句意,“为了不同的理由和目的”。C objective“目标,目的”符合句意。故C为正确答案。A subjective意为“主观的”;B subject意为“主题”;D objects意为“物件,对象”。

  10).

  A. organization

  B. organizational

  C. organized

  D. organizing

  正确答案: B

  答案解析:本题考查形容词的用法。根据both……and……结构,此处所选词应与前面personal“个人的”相对应,均为形容词,故B organizational“组织的”为正确答案。

  11).

  A. expecting

  B. to expect

  C. being expected

  D. expected

  正确答案: A

  答案解析:本题考查动词+ing作宾语补足语的用法。A expecting为宾语补足语,表示伴随状况;B to expect表示谓语的目的。根据句意,A更贴切。因此,A为正确答案。

  12).

  A. course

  B. cause

  C. case

  D. caution

  正确答案: B

  答案解析:本题考查词汇知识。本句意为“他们必须为这项事业承担义务,而不是为了商业效益。”故B cause“事业,事件”为答案。

  13).

  A. little

  B. small

  C. large

  D. big

  正确答案: B

  答案解析:本题考查词汇的用法。salary“薪水”应当用大小来修饰。同时根据上下文,义务工作的报酬不可能高。故B small为正确答案。

  14).

  A. free

  B. freedom

  C. money

  D. something

  正确答案: A

  答案解析:本题考查词汇的固定搭配。for free表示“无偿的”。故A为正确答案。

  15).

  A. which

  B. where

  C. as

  D. that

  正确答案: B

  答案解析:本题考查关系副词where的用法。countries,表示地点,where用于表示地点的词语之后,意为“在那;该处”,故选择B where.

  16).

  A. paying

  B. paid

  C. to be paid

  D. pay

  正确答案: B

  答案解析:本题考查过去分词的用法。所选词应该与or前的voluntary对应,因此,B paid“付费的”为正确答案,做定语。

  17).

  A. before

  B. lately

  C. never

  D. ever

  正确答案: D

  答案解析:此处是一个more than的比较结构,现在和以前做比较。本句意为“所以在考虑义务或付费的社区服务时,现在比一个人刚开始工作时有更多的机会。”D ever“曾经”符合句意,故D为正确答案。

  18).

  A. team

  B. number

  C. staff

  D. crowd

  正确答案: C

  答案解析:本题考查词汇知识。根据句意,“大多数义务性的组织只有少数全职员工”。C staff“全体职工,全体人员”为最佳答案。

  19).

  A. In

  B. By

  C. With

  D. Through

  正确答案: A

  答案解析:本题考查介词。in some ways是固定搭配,意为“在某些地方”。故A为正确答案。

  20).

  A. look at

  B. comment

  C. enjoy

  D. judge

  正确答案: D

  答案解析:本题考查词汇知识。下文by commercial criteria(根据商业准则)提示此处选择D judge“判断,评价”。B comment意为“评论”,不合适。

  二、阅读理解

  1. Sport psychology research has documented the important rote of significant adults such as parents and coaches in youth participants' psychosocial development and achievement motivation. However, the situation concerning parents and coaches in youth sport is somewhat of a conundrum—the roles of coach and parent are often synonymous, suggesting not simply an independent relationship with the child participant.

  In recent years, a growing body of literature has emerged on parent influence in youth sport based on these and other theories. First, research shows that parents who are more supportive and less pressuring of their children are associated with youth participants who report higher perceived competence, enjoyment, and intrinsic motivation toward sport. Second, parents who encourage their child's participation and exhibit enjoyment of physical activity are related to children who report higher perceived competence and attraction toward physical activity. Finally, parents who hold stronger positive beliefs about their child's physical competence are associated with children who report higher self-perceptions, value toward sport, and physical activity levels.

  A prevalent phenomenon of North American culture is the parent-coach dual role. Most coaches in competitive youth sport are parents of one or more of their players. Brown estimated that about 90% of the volunteer coaches in a given community are a parent of one or more team members. Although one can forward several positive aspects of the parent-coach phenomenon, there is also the potential for youth to perceive stress from this parent-child relationship. Several researchers reported that adolescent athletes felt pressure from their coaches and parents to perform well, and desired that parents be sources of social support and leave skill and strategy instruction to the coach's domain. Collectively, anecdotal accounts and empirical data suggest that exploring the benefits and costs of parents coaching their children is a worthy topic from both theoretical and applied perspectives.

  Therefore, based on previous research on the role of parents and coaches in youth development, the purpose of the present study was to gain knowledge about the parent-coach phenomenon in competitive youth sport. We accomplished this purpose by interviewing youth soccer players who were coached by their parent, the child's teammates, and the parent-coach. We expect that child participants would identify both positive and negative aspects of having a parent as their coach, in line with previous research, but we were most curious to know if different issues would be raised about the unique parent-coach/child-athlete relationship.

  1). What does the word "conundrum" (Line 4, Para. 1) most probably mean?

  A. Contradictory; with many disagreement

  B. A difficult problem

  C. Indistinct or not clear in definition

  D. Not yet having been ascertained or determine

  正确答案: B

  答案解析:词义题;该词在原文的位置非常关键,所以要推断这个词的意思,我们需要对整个段落的含义有很好的把握。conundrum出现在这个以however引导的句子中,这个句子之前的句子表达的意思是“运动心理学的很多研究都记录了父母和教练在青少年的心理发展和成就动机中的作用”。而破折号之后的内容给我们的提示更加直接,说父母和教练的情况并没有那么简单。那我们需要的就是在选项中寻找一个“简单”的反义词,比较阅读4个选项,B选项所表示的“难题”符合上下文的要求,是我们需要的正确答案。

  2). What is the main idea of paragraph 2?

  A. The influences from parents to children's competence can be either positive or negative

  B. Parents' beliefs and behaviors are strongly related to children's psychological and behavioral outcome

  C. Parents who give less pressuring can raise more competitive athlete

  D. With the encouragement from parents, children can have inner motivations themselves

  正确答案: B

  答案解析:段落主旨题;提问方式很直接,我们通读第二段之后进行总结,段落中的3个层次非常清楚,考生在阅读中要首先关注“First Second和Finally”这样的结构标志词。在这样清楚的结构中,我们再比较阅读4个选项,A选项是不对的,原文的3个层次所论述的都是家长对孩子积极的影响,A选项所说的negative是原文没有的,排除A选项。B选项的概括是全面而正确的。C选项和D选项的错误类型一样,都是片面的选项,请考生比较全面的正确选项和片面的干扰选项,体会命题思路。

  3). What does the author mean when he talked about the "dual role" of parent-coach in North American?

  A. Some coaches are also parents of the young athlete

  B. The parent-coach can give the athletes both positive aspects and pressure

  C. The negative influence of a parent-coach can outweigh the positive one

  D. A parent-coach may have different influences on individual athletes and collective one

  正确答案: A

  答案解析:细节题;在考研的阅读理解命题中,越来越多的题目开始和主旨相关,以这个题目为例,我们将它归类为细节题,但实际上要正确解答这个题目,仍然需要我们对于段落的大意有清晰的把握。按照题目中的定位线索dual role我们找到原文的第三段,要理解这里所说的dual role究竟是怎样的角色,从段落中我们可以看到“Most coaches in competitive youth sport are parents of one or more of their players”,也就是说在北美,很多教练同时也是青少年运动员的父母,这就是双重角色在文章中的含义。比较阅读4个选项,我们可以知道A选项是正确答案。

  4). What are the researchers most interested to know about in their current study?

  A. To make sure about the positive or negative aspects of having a parent as a coach

  B. To interview young athletes face-to-face instead of just review the previous studies

  C. To find out some new perspectives to address the parent-coach/child-athlete relationship

  D. To include the teammates of the young athletes, not just their parents/coaches in the stud

  正确答案: C

  答案解析:细节题;我们在原文仅剩下的最后一段中寻找,看到倒数第二行这样一个表达“most curious to know”,和题目中要求我们回答的“most interested to know about”属于同义表达,所以原文中的“ if different issues would be raised about the unique parent-coach/child athlete relationship”就是我们需要寻找的答题信息,比较阅读4个选项,我们可以看到C选项的表达和这里的信息是符合的,是我们需要的正确答案。

  5). Which one of the following is the best title for the passage?

  A. Helping youth in understanding the meaning of sport

  B. The parent-coach/child-athlete relationship in youth sport

  C. Coaches' encouragement of athletes' imagery us

  D. The relationship between school education and sports coaching

  正确答案: B

  答案解析:标题选择题,是文章主旨的变形命题方式;回顾全文信息,尤其是我们在解答前面4个题目的过程中所重点阅读的部分,我们可以将全文的信息归纳为:对于同时为人父母并兼作教练对于孩子的心理发展和运动成绩等方面的影响。在4个选项之中,我们可以看到B选项的概括是切题并且正确的。

  2. According to comScore, Facebook is the leading social networking site based on monthly unique visitors, having overtaken main competitor MySpace in April 2008. According to Alexa, the website's ranking among all websites increased from 60th to 7th in terms of worldwide traffic, from September 2006 to September 2007, and is currently 5th. Quantcast ranks the website 15th in U.S. in terms of traffic, and Compete. com ranks it 14th in U.S.

  The Internet phenomenon, which boasts 80 million users worldwide, exploded in popularity over the past year as a convenient way for Web users to communicate and share personal details with selected groups of friends or acquaintances. But grammatical errors in the automated messages Facebook uses to personalize pronouns when members share information with their friends have proliferated since the site expanded from English-only into 15 new languages in recent months.

  And now, Facebook will press members to declare whether they are male or female, seeking to end the grammatical device that leads the site to refer to individual users as "they" or "themself." "We've gotten feedback from translators and users in other countries that translations wind up being too confusing when people have not specified a sex on their profiles," Facebook product manager Naomi Gleit said in a company statement.

  In English, when users fail to specify what gender they are, Facebook defaults to some form of the gender neutral, plural pronoun "they." That option is unavailable when the plural is always masculine or feminine in other languages. "People who haven't selected what sex they are frequently get defaulted to the wrong sex," Gleit wrote.

  Unless the gender of the user is clear, Facebook does not know which pronoun to use to notify other members add information to the site. This common English problem is multiplied in languages where masculine and feminine distinctions are grammatically ingrained.

  The site will now ask users to specify whether they are male or female on their basic member- ship profile. It will prompt existing users to define themselves. Facebook has an opt-out option for members who choose not to specify their gender or do not consider gender to be clear cut. Members can remove mention of gender from messages about their activities. "We've received pushback in the past from groups that find the male/female distinction too limiting," Gleit said.

  1). What does the word "traffic" (Line3, Paragraph1) most probably mean?

  A. The number of visits to a certain website

  B. The change of website ranking

  C. The amount of profit a website able to generate annually

  D. The trend in communication industry

  正确答案: A

  答案解析:词义题;我们首先查看目标词汇在原文出现的语言环境,原文中“the website's ranking among all websites increased from 60th to 7th in terms of worldwide traffic”这样的表达以及整个段落所讨论的facebook这个网站越来越流行的种种迹象,我们知道这里的traffic是在讨论和网络有关的问题,结合上下文,这里的traffic作为访问量来解释是最符合要求的,而比较4个选项,A选项表达了这样的意思,是正确答案。

  2). Which one of the following is true about Facebook?

  A. The websites are losing their popularity in a gradual way

  B. Registered user's profiles are open to anyone on the internet

  C. Only friends and acquaintances of the users have access to their profiles

  D. The website is in English only since English is a universal language now

  正确答案: C

  答案解析:细节题;比较4个选项我们看到4个选项分别在论述这个网站的不同方面,所以我们需要结合每个选项,和原文的相关信息进行比对,来寻找正确答案。A选项的说法和原文的“exploded in popularity”冲突,需要排除。B选项和原文的“share personal details with selected groups of friends or acquaintances”相矛盾,也需要排除。而C选项则是对这一点的正确表述,是正确答案。D选项则和原文中“the site expanded from English-only into 15 new languages in recent months”的表述不一致,也需要排除。

  3). From the passage, we know that Facebook is now faced with the problem that ______.

  A. less and less people are paying visits to it

  B. people are cheating about their real gender on it

  C. it is difficult to tell whether an user is male or female

  D. users are using impropriate language there

  正确答案: C

  答案解析:归纳总结题;在原文的第二段,我们看到Facebook准备强制性地要求用户明确自己的性别,而作者更是通过引用语的方式“when people have not specified a sex on their profiles”来直接点明了网站面对的问题,也就是用户不明确自己的性别这样一个问题,在4个选项中,C选项的表述是正确的。

  4). From the passage, we know that in some other language than English, ______.

  A. there is no difference between male and female in pronouns

  B. it is very rude to ask about the gender question on internet

  C. even plural form of pronouns have gender tendencies

  D. the singular form and plural form is the same

  正确答案: C

  答案解析:细节题;要求我们选择的是在其他语言中存在的一个具体的情况,根据题目的要求我们确定原文中的“in other languages”这一点,而我们需要的答案就是对于“when the plural is always masculine or feminine”的正确解读。在4个选项中,C选项是这一表述的同义转述,是正确答案。

  5). Which one of the following is true under the new regulations of Facebook?

  A. The users are encouraged to include their gender information in their extended profiles

  B. Only the new registrations are influenced by this new regulation

  C. Users can still choose not to specify their gender

  D. Everyone is welcoming this new regulation since it brings about clarity and convenience

  正确答案: C

  答案解析:细节题;我们把4个选项和原文最后一段的相关信息进行比较阅读发现,A选项

  和原文的“on their basic membership profile”这样的表述不符合。B选项和原文的“It will prompt existing users to define themselves”相互冲突。而C选项可以在原文中找到“Facebook has an opt-out option for members who choose not to specify their gender”这样的信息来支持。而D选项则被原文中“We've received pushback in the past”这样的信息否定。

  3. The term massage therapy (also called massage, for short; massage also refers to an individual treatment session) covers a group of practices and techniques. There are over 80 types of massage therapy. In all of them, therapists press, rub, and otherwise manipulate the muscles and other soft tissues of the body, often varying pressure and movement. They most often use their hands and fingers, but may use their forearms, elbows, or feet. Typically, the intent is to relax the soft tissues, increase delivery of blood and oxygen to the massaged areas, warm them, and decrease pain.

  Massage therapy dates back thousands of years. References to massage have been found in ancient writings from many cultures, including those of Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, Japan, China, Egypt, and the Indian subcontinent. In the United States, massage therapy first became popular and was promoted for a variety of health purposes starting in the mid-1800s. In the 1930s and 1940s, however, massage fell out of favor, mostly because of scientific and technological advances in medical treatments. Interest in massage revived in the 1970s, especially among athletes.

  More recently, a 2002 national survey on Americans' use of CAM (published in 2004) found that 5 percent of the 31,000 participants had used massage therapy in the preceding 12 months, and 9.3 percent had ever used it. According to recent reviews, people use massage for a wide variety of health-related intents: for example, to relieve pain (often from musculoskeletal conditions, but from other conditions as well); rehabilitate sports injuries; reduce stress; increase relaxation; address feelings of anxiety and depression; and aid general wellness.

  Massage therapy appears to have few serious risks if appropriate cautions are followed. A very small number of serious injuries have been reported, and they appear to have occurred mostly because cautions were not followed or a massage was given by a person who was not properly trained. Health care providers recommend that patients not have massage therapy before they consult their doctors about their own health conditions.

  Scientists are studying massage to understand what effects massage therapy has on patients, how it has those effects, and why. Some aspects of this are better understood than others. There are many more aspects that are not yet known or well understood scientifically. More well-designed studies are needed to understand and confirm these theories and other scientific aspects of massage.

  1). Which one of the following statements about massage is NOT correct according to the passage?

  A. Many different practices and techniques can all be called massage

  B. Soft tissues of the body are usually the target of massage

  C. Hands and fingers aide the only body parts that therapists use when practicing massage

  D. Massage can do much more than just providing relaxation

  正确答案: C

  答案解析:细节题;需要我们进行反向选择,A选项的意思在原文中有“…covers a group of practices and techniques”作为支持。B选项和原文的“…manipulate the muscles and other soft tissues of the body”所表达的意思一致。C选项和原文中“…but may use their forearms, elbows,or feet”有冲突,所以C选项是我们需要选择的。D选项中的“much more”有原文的“…increase delivery of blood and oxygen to the massaged areas,warm them,and decrease pain”作为佐证。

  2). Which one of the following statements is true about the history of massage?

  A. It has a history of about several hundred year

  B. It is only found in ancient Asia countries like China and Japan

  C. It lost its popularity after 1970s because of medical advance

  D. It had twists and turns in its development in

  正确答案: D

  答案解析:细节题;题目中的定位词history告诉我们解答这个题目需要的信息出现在原文的第二段。A选项和原文的“Massage therapy dates back thousands of years”有冲突。B选项和原文的“including those of Ancient Greece,Ancient Rome”表达的意思不一致。C选项的“lost its popularity”和原文的“fell out of favor”为同义表达,而其中的“1970s”却和原文的“In the 1930s and 1940s”不一致。D选项对于按摩疗法在美国发展给出的总结是正确的,为正确答案。

  3). In the survey mentioned in paragraph 3, we know that 9.3 percent of the participants ______.

  A. used massage therapy in 2002

  B. used massage therapy in 2004

  C. had used massage therapy at least once

  D. used massage therapy in 2001

  正确答案: C

  答案解析:细节题;定位词为“9.3 percent”,而题目也直接指向了原文的第三段。这里的“9.3 percent had ever used it”正是我们需要的答案,所以C选项是正确选项。其他几个选项均出自这个段落,所以对信息的准确定位对于我们辨别干扰选项会起到很好的铺垫作用。

  4). Paragraph 4 is mainly concerned about ______.

  A. side effects and risks of massage therapy

  B. safety of massage therapy

  C. cautions that the therapists need to follow

  D. the training processes of a qualified therapists

  正确答案: A

  答案解析:段落主旨题;第四段主要围绕的问题是在进行按摩疗法的时候可能会遇到的一些问题,比如“serious injuries have been reported”、“Health care providers recommend that patients not have massage therapy before they consult their doctors”,结合4个选项,A选项所说的“按摩疗法的副作用和风险”是对这一段落最好的概括,是我们需要的正确答案。

  5). From the passage, we know that the study of massage ______.

  A. have not got started yet

  B. needs more research on therapy practice

  C. cannot explain therapy practice at all

  D. can provide full explanations for therapy practice

  正确答案: B

  答案解析:细节题;结合前面4个题目对原文的分析,我们可以看到,这个题目很有可能对应着原文的最后一段,我们在最后一段中寻找关于对按摩疗法进行研究的相关信息。我们可以找到“There are many more aspects that are not yet known or well understood scientifically”这样的表达,也就是说尽管按摩疗法本身是很古老的,但是对它所进行的研究却是刚开始,还有很多不能解释的地方。所以比较4个选项,A、C和D选项的表述都过于绝对,不符合原文所表达的意思。B选项则符合原文的说法,是正确选项。

  4. It's never too early or too late for a parent to become a teacher. In this age of teacher accountability, endless school testing, increased pressure and competition, and the proliferation of "educational" toys, too many people forget that success begins at home.

  Freeman A. Hrabowski Ⅲ, president of the University of Maryland, Baltimore County, and co-author of Beating the Odds: Raising Academically Successful African American Males and Overcoming the Odds: Raising Academically Successful African American Young Women, says that in the interviews he and his co-authors conducted, the overwhelming factor in their children's academic achievement was that parents inspired and envisioned their children's success. They thought and talked about what would be required to have a .successful child.

  It just makes such a difference when there's someone in that house working to relate to that child and inspire that child," Hrabowski says. "These parents (of the high achievers discussed) are really inspirational in their commitment to their children."

  Professor Barbara T. Bowman, one of the faculty founders of Chicago's Erikson Institute, an independent institution of higher education that prepares child development professionals for leader- ship, says that Black children must learn in two different cultures-the African-American culture in which they live and the mainstream culture on which school and education are based.

  Bowman also says the relationship between children and their parents is critical. "It is the early responsiveness of the caregiver to the infant's behavior that creates a sense of well-being and optimism that affects the child's interest in learning," says Bowman, who served as president of the institute from 1994 to last year. "Children who like and want to please the adult learn better what the adult wants them to learn."

  In this day of highly competitive testing and the stress of getting high SAT or ACT scores, it's important also to avoid pressuring or overexposing your child. Your son or daughter is probably already facing stress at school and on the playground. Your role is to help him or her relieve and manage that stress. Help them to understand that life does not end or begin with a test. And while academic success is important, it's also important to keep everything in perspective. Failure is a relative term in the grand scheme of things. If your child did poorly on a test, but answered a particularly tough question correctly, stress the positive. On the other hand, if schoolwork comes too easily to your child, find other ways to challenge him or her so they understand that life won't always be that way.

  1). According to the author, the parents of high achievers are usually ______.

  A. successful themselves

  B. teachers

  C. inspirational

  D. working hard

  正确答案: C

  答案解析:细节题;本题的关键定位词是the high achievers,在原文的第二段我们可以找到相关信息,而阅读原文相关内容,我们可以找到“These parents(of the high achievers discussed) are really inspirational”这样的描述,也就是说C选项是正确选项。误选B选项的考生可能是对文章第一句话的理解出现了偏差。其实,结合全文来看,文章是在讲述家庭教育对于孩子在学术上取得成功的重大作用,所以文章第一句话所说的teacher其实是在强调家庭教育的重要作用,并不是说真的需要父母去做老师才能培养出成功的孩子。而A选项和D选项则在原文中找不到相应的信息,属于比较容易排除的干扰选项。

  2). It can be inferred from the passage that the African-American culture is ______.

  A. an important part of the mainstream culture

  B. the base of the mainstream culture

  C. different in many ways from the mainstream culture

  D. dependant on the mainstream culture

  正确答案: C

  答案解析:细节题;题目中的关键定位词是African-American culture,借助这个关键词我们可以在原文的第三段找到相关的信息。原文对于非裔美国人的文化和美国社会的主流文化使用了“two different cultures”这样的表达来定位。所以结合4个选项,C选项的表述符合原文的意思。A、B和D三个选项都把两者看作一种依赖关系,误选的考生很有可能是对原文中“the mainstream culture on which school and education are based”这句话的理解不够准确。提醒这些考生在备考的过程中要注意多分析真题和模拟题中的长难句,提高自己理解的准确度。

  3). Whether a child is interested in learning depends on ______.

  A. the content the adult wants the children to learn

  B. how pleased the parents are when the children are learning

  C. the feedback the parents give to children at an early age

  D. the physical health of the children

  正确答案: C

  答案解析:细节题;题目中的关键定位词是interested in learning,在原文中我们可以定位到原文的第四段。通过对原文的相关信息“It is the early responsiveness of the caregiver to the infant's behavior that creates a sense of well-being and optimism that affects the child's interest in learning”的分析,我们知道我们需要的答案就是这个强调句中被强调的部分,也就是responsiveness这个核心词,即父母在孩子早期对于孩子的行为所给予的反馈。在4个选项中,C选项所表述的feedback和原文的信息是一致的,是我们需要的正确答案。A选项来自原文第四段的最后一句话,B选项和D选项是对原文中的“please”和“well-being”两个词的曲解。

  4). The suggestion given in the last paragraph is ______.

  A. to emphasize the importance of success for children

  B. to avoid pressuring the children too much

  C. to challenge the children as much as possible

  D. to use the positive effect of pressure

  正确答案: B

  答案解析:段落主旨题;题目明确指向最后一段,要求我们对最后一段给出的建议进行归纳。在段落的第一句话就出现了对于建议的归纳,“avoid pressuring or overexposing your child”就是这个段落围绕的中心。误选B选项的考生对于“while academic success is important,it's also important to…”这样的表达的误解,这样的让步从句要表达的重点内容在后面,而不是while所带的部分。C选项把原文的“if schoolwork comes too easily to your child, find other ways to challenge him or her”这样的意思扩大了范围,选项中“as much as possible”的表述是不准确的。D选项对于原文“stress the positive”所表达的“要强调积极的一面”这样的含义进行了曲解。

  5). Which one of the following is the best title for the passage?

  A. How to raise a high-achieving child

  B. Successful students whose parents are teachers

  C. Key factors for children's success

  D. Motivation and challenge: what do children need most?

  正确答案: A

  答案解析:标题题,主旨题的一种变形的呈现方式;结合我们对文章的理解和前面4个问题的解答,我们已经基本可以确定,这篇文章主要讨论的是家庭教育对于孩子成功的影响及其重要作用。比较阅读4个选项,我们可以看到,A选项和原文的主旨是最贴切的,也就是我们需要的最佳标题。B选项的错误和第一个题目中一样是对原文第一句话的误解,同时也偏离了文章中心。C选项过于宽泛,这篇文章只是集中关注在促进孩子成功的因素构成中,家庭教育的重要作用,而C选项的key factors这样的表达对于文章来说是一种“大帽子,小身子”的标题,需要排除。D选项和C选项对应属于对于“大身子”的文章主体给出的“小帽子”的标题,也是需要排除的。

  三、新题型

  1. Animation is a kind of motion pictures created by recording a series of still images-of drawings, objects, or people in various positions of incremental movement-that when played back no longer appear individually as static images but combine to produce the illusion of unbroken motion. The term animation applies to creations on film, video, or computers, and even to motion toys, which usually consist of a series of drawings or photographs on paper that are viewed with a mechanical device or by flipping through a handheld sequence of images.

  (41) Techniques

  There are many ways to create animation, depending on whether the materials used are flat (such as drawings, paintings, or cut-out pieces of paper) or dimensional (such as clay, puppets, household objects, or even people).

  (42) Production process

  After choosing an idea for a film, an animator must think about a concept in terms of individual actions.

  (43) History

  Animation has been a part of cinema history from the time the first motion pictures were made in the late 1800s.

  (44) Walt Disney

  The company's founder, Walt Disney, was born in Chicago, but grew up in Kansas City, Missouri, where he met animator Ub Iwerks and composer Carl Stalling, who were to be important to his future success.

  (45) Japanese animation

  Japanese animation, known as anime, blossomed after World War II ended in 1945 and today is immensely popular both within Japan and worldwide.

  Current trends

  Two trends in the animation industry are likely to have a profound influence on its future: a significant increase in production and exhibition opportunities, and the growing importance of new technologies.

  [A] Some early live-action films, known as trick films, used the animation technique of stop action, whereby the camera is stopped and an object is removed or added to a shot before filming is resumed.

  [B] Disney (with his then-partner Iwerks) created a character that was to become the most famous animated figure in history: Mickey Mouse.

  [C] Aside from television, perhaps the largest influence on the style of recent animation worldwide has come from computer technologies. Experiments with electronic animation began in the 1930s, but it was not until the late 1970s that computer animation became viable beyond scientific and government applications, particularly for use by the entertainment industry.

  [D] In each case, an animator must keep in mind the basic principle of frames per second (the number of images needed to produce one second of film). Because sound film runs at twentyfour frames per second, a film animator must make twenty-four images for each second of animation that he or she wishes to create.

  [E] The most important figure in Japanese animation, Osamu Tezuka, created in 1963 the first animated made-for-television series in Japan, "Tetsuwan Atom" (Astro Boy).

  [F] For instance, if an animator decides on an action that will take 3 seconds of animation to complete, the animator will have to create images to fill 72 frames of film (3 seconds of movement multiplied by a running speed of 24 frames per second).

  正确答案: D;F;A;B;E

  答案解析:41. 选D。因为41题所在段落提出“制作动画的方法取决于材料是平面的还是立体的两种情况”,D段首句的“In each case”从词汇上对“平面和立体两种情况”加以衔接,是典型的提示语。A段因为有“technique”一词和标题词汇重复,是一个干扰项,但仔细阅读就能发现,A段所讲的只是某一历史时期的一种“止动动画技术”,是特指而不是泛指,应排除掉。

  42. 选F。F段除了词汇上有“animator”和“action”与原文照应,在意思上也与原文相连贯,举例说明制作人如何考虑每一个画面。

  43. 选A。A段讲的是早期电影制作使用的一种“止动动画技术”,其首句中“Some early films”及全段过去时态的使用,帮助我们确定该段是有关动画的发展历史的。c段中因为出现了几处过去时间,如“l930s”,“1970s”,容易被误选。其实,C段讲的是电脑科技对现代动画制作的影响,主要是在讲“现在”而不是“历史发展”;而且,C段首句的“Aside from television”显得比较突兀,因为原文根本没有提及“television”,由此判断,也不应选C。

  44. 选B。这一题比较简单,B段首句的“Disney”就是明白的提示。

  45. 选E。E段中明确出现了“Japanese animation”和“Japan”等词汇提示。

  四、翻译

  1. If sustainable competitive advantage depends on work force skills, American firms have a problem. Human resource management is not traditionally seen as central to the competitive survival of the firm the United States. (46) Skill acquisition is considered as an individual responsibility. Labor is simply another factor of production to be hired—rented at the lowest possible cost—much as one buys raw materials or equipment.

  The lack of importance attached to human-resource management call be seen in the corporation hierarchy. In an American firm the chief officer is almost always second in command. (47) The post of head of human-resource management is usually a specialized job, off at the edge of the corporate hierarchy. The executive who holds it is never consulted on major strategic decisions and has no chances to move up to Chief Executive Officer (CEO). By way of contrast, in Japan the head of human-resource management is central—usually the second most important executive, after the CEO, in the firm hierarchy.

  (48) While American firms often talk about the vast amounts spent on training their work forces, in fact they invest less in the skills of their employees than do the Japanese or German firms. The money they do invest is also more highly concentrated on professional and managerial employees. And the limited investments that are made in training workers are also much more narrowly focused on the specific skills necessary to do the next job rather than on the basic background skills that make it possible to absorb new technologies.

  As a result, problems emerge when new breakthrough technologies arrive. (49) If American workers, for example, take much longer to learn how to operate new flexible manufacturing stations than workers in Germany (as they do), the effective cost of those is lower in Germany than it is the United States. (50) More time is required before equipment is up and running at capacity, and the need for extensive retraining generates costs and creates bottlenecks that limit the speed with which new equipment can be employed. The result is slower pace of technological change. And in the end the skills of the bottom half of the population affect the wages of the top half. If the bottom half can't effectively staff the processes that have to be operated, the management and professional jobs that go with these processes will disappear.

  46). Skill acquisition is considered as an individual responsibility. Labor is simply another factor of production to be hired—rented at the lowest possible cost—much as one buys raw materials or equipment.

  正确答案: 技能的获得被认为是个人的责任。劳动力不过是为了生产而雇来的另一个因素—以尽可能低的成本租用—就像购买原材料或者设备。

  47). The post of head of human-resource management is usually a specialized job, off at the edge of the corporate hierarchy. The executive who holds it is never consulted on major strategic decisions and has no chances to move up to Chief Executive Officer (CEO).

  正确答案: 人力资源管理经理的职位通常是一项专门的工作,被划在公司等级边缘之外。坐在这个位子上的经理主管人员从来不会在主要战略性决策下受到咨询,并且没有机会上升到执行总裁的位子上。

  48). While American firms often talk about the vast amounts spent on training their work forces, in fact they invest less in the skills of their employees than do the Japanese or German firms.

  正确答案: 美国公司经常谈到他们在培训他们的工作队伍上所花费的大笔的钱,然而,事实上他们比日本或德国公司在公司员工的培训上投资要少。

  49). If American workers, for example, take much longer to learn how to operate new flexible manufacturing stations than workers in Germany (as they do), the effective cost of those is lower in Germany than it is the United States.

  正确答案: 举例说,如果美国的工人比德国工人(他们正是这样做的)花费更多的时间学习如何操作新型灵活的生产设备,那么那些设备能够产生效果的成本在德国就会比在美国低。

  50). More time is required before equipment is up and running at capacity, and the need for extensive retraining generates costs and creates bottlenecks that limit the speed with which new equipment can be employed.

  正确答案: (在美国)设备装配完毕并以最大的生产能力运行需要更长的时间,大范围的再度培训的需要会增加成本并且形成瓶颈,这就限制了新设备可以达到的速度。

  五、作文

  1. You are going to write a letter to your university newspaper editor. And your letter should include the following points.

  1) Introduce the activities of volunteers in your university,

  2) State its importance,

  3) Your own practice

  You should write about 100 words on ANSWER SHEET 2. Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use “Li Ming” instead. You do not need to write the address.

  正确答案:

  Dear Editor,

  As the growingly important role played by the Volunteers' Association in the university is concerned, I sincerely suggest that your newspaper should cover more on it.

  The Volunteers’ Association has been organizing various activities, which provide opportunities for the students to know more about the society out of campus. For instance, it organizes some students to teach English in some village schools; it holds meetings and forums for students to talk about serious social problems, such as Aids and poverty. In short, the volunteer activities have become a part of the campus life.

  However, the significance of the Volunteer activities lies more in enabling the college students to get accustomed to the real social life than just making their lives colorful. It has been commonly agreed that college students should get access to the society instead of studying inside the university only. As a result, the Volunteers' Association and its activities appear as a bridge between campus and the society.

  As far as I am concerned, volunteer activities are just as important as study in my university life. I have joined the Volunteers' Association of my department and have taken part in various activities organized by it. What I have learnt during my work in these activities is not what I could learn in the textbooks. And I am sure I will benefit from these experiences.

  Yours,

  Li Ming

  52. Directions:

  Study the following charts carefully and write an article. In your article, you should cover the following points:

  1) describe the phenomenon;

  2) analyze the phenomenon and give your comment it.

  You should write about 160-200 words neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2.

  As is described in the picture, the boy and the girl who are in love are sitting on green ground or on long benches on campus. It is shown that love among college students has become increasingly common.

  What has made campus romance so popular? There may be several possible reasons for the increasing popularity of campus love. First, with the development of society, young boys and girls become more independent than before. They believe that they are mature enough to pursue their own love. Second, stress from study and competition among peers make quite a number of students try to seek relief from love. Moreover, peer influence may also be a contributing factor. If a student sees his classmates or friends with girlfriends, he may want to try himself. If he is left alone, he may feel ashamed.

  As far as I am concerned, there is nothing wrong with campus romance and no one can really ban it. What really counts is that college students should hold a reasonable attitude towards it. They should be aware that their personal relationships should not get in the way Of their study. They should keep their eyes wide open while trying to find a lifelong companion, otherwise the love will not last for long.

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