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考研英语写作高分秘诀:语言要生动

考研教育网   2009-05-18 09:11 【 】【我要纠错

  二、语言要生动

  考研英语写作时要吸引读者的兴趣,句子就需生动、充满活力。平淡无味的句子会使人生厌,注意力分散。但要写出生动的句子,我们建议大家必须注意做到:

  1.交错使用长短句

  长句和短句各有各的特点,各有各的用场。长句结构复杂、容量大,能表达比较复杂的内容,叙事具体、说理严密。短句结构简单、短小精悍、明白易懂。在写作中应当交错使用长句和短句,使句子的长短多样化,增加语言的表现力。请看下面的一段话:

  It is better to trust to valour than to luck.

  靠运气不如靠勇气。

  I returned to my room. There was a note under my door. It was from Bob. He said he was in the town looking for a job. He hadn't found anything yet. He added that he was sorry to have missed me.

  这里出现的是一连串的短句,读起来使人感到单调乏味,而且各句之间所固有的逻辑关系没能用句法手段表达出来。为了使文字更为生动,意义更加明确,可做如下改动:

  When I returned to my room, I found a note from Bob under the door. He said he was in the town looking for a job, but hadn't found anything yet. He added that he was sorry to have missed me.

  2.灵活使用多样句式

  要达到语言的生动性,写作时就要经常地变换句型和句子结构及表达思想的方式。切忌所有的句子都用相同的句型或句子结构,使文章读起来单调乏味。

  在考虑英语句式的变化时,我们一般从以下几个方面入手:

  (1)既可以用主动式也可以用被动式,例如:

  例1:Today, we use machines not only in industry but in other sectors of national economy as well.

  Today machines are widely used not only in industry but in other sectors of national economy as well.

  例2:Some people believe that it will be possible for automatic machines to replace completely in the future.

  It is believed by some people that it will be possible for automatic machines to replace completely in the future.

  (2)既可以用肯定式也可以用否定式,例如:

  例1:I shall go there unless it rains.

  I shall go there if it doesn't rain.

  例2:Their daily lives don't provide them with the exercise needed to keep them healthy.

  Their daily lives fail to provide them with the exercise needed to keep them healthy.

  (3)某些修饰成分既可以用在句子前面也可以用在后面,还可以用在中间,例如:

  例1:With a car, people can get around freely.

  People can get around freely with a car.

  例2:In fact, speaking is one of the most important means of communication.

  Speaking is in fact one of the most important means of communication.

  (4)既可以是正常语序也可以是倒装语序,例如:

  例1:A new type of TV sets was among the products on display.

  Among the products on display was a new type of TV sets.

  例2:We did not realize the problem of energy crisis until the end of last century.

  Not until the end of last century did we realize the problem of energy crisis.

  (5)既可以用简单句也可以用并列句或者主从复合句,例如:

  例1:Nowadays a lot of people work in office, spending most of their time indoors.

  Nowadays a lot of people work in office and they spend most of their time indoors.

  例2:There are many means of getting information and they enable us to keep up with what is going on in the world.

  There are many means of getting information which enable us to keep up with what is going on in the world.

  例3:Doonesbury cartoons satirize contemporary politics. The victims of political corruption pay no attention. They prefer to demand that newspapers not carry the strip.

  Doonesbury cartoons laugh at contemporary politics, but the victims of political corruption pay no attention and prefer to demand that newspapers not carry the strip.

  例4:The campus parking problem is getting worse. The university is not building any new garages.

  The campus parking problem is getting worse because the university is not building any new garages.

  Ignorance is the mother of impudence.——无知是鲁莽之源。

  3.善用形象化语言

  适当地使用一些修辞手法如比喻、夸张、排比、拟人等能更形象、更深刻地说明事理,增加文章的活力。例如:

  In the morning the dust hung like fog, and the sun was as red as ripe new blood. (明喻)

  His daughter is the apple of his eyes. (暗喻)

  An idea spoke within him, racing through his mind. (拟人)

  His voice was loud enough to wake the dead. (夸张)

  Many of us allow our children to eat junk, watch junk, listen to junk, talk junk, play with junk, and then we are surprised when they turn out to be social junkies. (排比)

  4.恰当使用英语习语

  写作时适当地使用习语、成语等也是使语言生动活泼的好办法。如:

  Once a man is dead, there is no helping; you can't rekindle the spark of life in him.

  本句中的there is no helping是汉语式的英语,不符合英语的习惯说法。这里虽然用了比喻,但更改了原来的主语,句子显得罗嗦、笨拙。如果改成下面的习惯表达,句子变得既简洁又生动。

  Once a man is dead, he can't be brought back to life.

  再如The committee refused to listen to our request.如果被改成The committee turned a deaf ear to our request.句子生动,增加了文采。

  考研教育网友情提示:句式多样化是英语作文取得高分的灵丹妙药,请你一定要勤学苦练,掌握这一招。另外,在使用一些修辞方法和英语习语的时候,要注意尽量避免老套的比喻或尽人皆知的习语。

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