Write down your answers to all the questions in this test in separate blank answer sheets provided at your test center.
Part One Reading Comprehension 70 points
Directions: Each passage is followed by questions based on its content. After reading the passage, choose the best answer to each question. Answer all questions following the passage on the basis of what is stated or implied in that passage.
The recent change to all-volunteer armed forces in the United States will eventually produce a gradual increase in the proportion of women in the armed forces and in the variety of women's assignments, but probably not the dramatic gains for women that might have been expected. This is so even though the armed forces operate in an ethos of institutional change oriented toward occupational equality and under the federal sanction of equal pay for equal work. The difficulty is that women are unlikely to be trained for any direct combat operations. A significant portion of the larger society remains uncomfortable as yet with extending equality in this direction. Therefore, for women in the military, the search for equality will still be based on functional equivalence, not identity or even similarity of task. Opportunities seem certain to arise. The growing emphasis on deterrence is bound to offer increasing scope for women to become involved in novel types of non-combat military assignments.
1.The primary purpose of the passage is to
(A) present an overview of the different types of assignments available to women in the new United States all-volunteer armed forces
(B) present a reasoned prognosis of the status of women in the new United States all-volunteer armed forces
(C) present the new United States all-volunteer armed forces as a model case of equal employment policies in action
(D) analyze the use of functional equivalence as a substitute for occupational equality in the new United States all-volunteer armed forces
2.According to the passage, despite the United States armed forces' commitment to occupational equality for women in the military, certain other factors preclude women's
(A) receiving equal pay for equal work
(B) having access to positions of responsibility at most levels
(C) drawing assignments from a wider range of assignments than before
(D) benefiting from opportunities arising from new non-combat functions
3.The passage implies that which of the following is a factor conducive to a more equitable representation of women in the United States armed forces than has existed in the past？
(A) The all-volunteer character of the present armed forces
(B) The past service records of women who had assignments functionally equivalent to men's assignments
(C) The level of awareness on the part of the larger society of military issues
(D) A decline in the proportion of deterrence oriented non-combat assignments
4.The "dramatic gains for women" (line 2) and the attitude, as described in lines 11-12, of a "significant portion of the larger society" are logically related to each other inasmuch as the author puts forward the latter as
(A) a public response to achievement of the former
(B) the major reason for absence of the former
(C) a precondition for any prospect of achieving the former
(D) a catalyst for a further extension of the former
Of the thousands of specimens of meteorites found on Earth and known to science, only about 100 are igneous; that is, they have undergone melting by volcanic action at some time since the planets were first formed. These igneous meteorites are known as achondrites because they lack chondrules-small stony spherules found in the thousands of meteorites (called "chondrites") composed primarily of unaltered minerals
that condensed from dust and gas at the origin of the solar system. Achondrites are the only known samples of volcanic rocks originating outside the Earth-Moon system. Most are thought to have been dislodged by interbody impact from asteroids, with diameters of from 10 to 500 kilometers, in solar orbit between Mars and Jupiter.
Shergottites, the name given to three anomalous achondrites so far discovered on Earth, present scientists with a genuine enigma. Shergottites crystallized from molten rock less than 1.1 billion years ago (some 3.5 billion years later than typical achondrites) and were presumably ejected into space when an object impacted on a body similar in chemical composition to Earth.
While most meteorites appear to derive from comparatively small bodies, shergottites exhibit properties that indicate that their source was a large planet, conceivably Mars. In order to account for such an unlikely source, some unusual factor must be invoked, because the impact needed to accelerate a fragment of rock to escape the gravitational field of a body even as small as the Moon is so great that no meteorites of lunar origin have been discovered.
While some scientists speculate that shergottites derive from Io (a volcanically active moon of Jupiter), recent measurements suggest that since Io's surface is rich in sulfur and sodium, the chemical composition of its volcanic products would probably be unlike that of the shergottites. Moreover, any fragments dislodged from Io by interbody impact would be unlikely to escape the gravitational pull of Jupiter.
The only other logical source of shergottites is Mars. Space-probe photographs indicate the existence of giant volcanoes on the Martian surface. From the small number of impact craters that appear on Martian lava flows, one can estimate that the planet was volcanically active as recently as a half-billion years ago-and may be active today. The great objection to the Martian origin of shergottites is the absence of lunar meteorites on Earth. An impact capable of ejecting a fragment of the Martian surface into an Earth-intersecting orbit is even less probable than such an event on the Moon, in view of the Moon's smaller size and closer proximity to Earth. A recent study suggests, however, that permafrost ices below the surface of Mars may have altered the effects of impact on it. If the ices had been rapidly vaporized by an impacting object, the expanding gases might have helped the ejected fragments reach escape velocity. Finally, analyses performed by space probes show a
remarkable chemical similarity between Martian soil and the shergottites.
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