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2009年考研英语翻译试题来源及答案

考研教育网论坛   2009-01-16 09:24 【 】【我要纠错

  一、试题来源

  John Dewey的专著Democracy and Education(麦克米兰公司1916年出版)

  2009年考研翻译试题截取了这本书第一章的部分内容,并做了修改。

  二、真题与原文的对比

  There is, accordingly, a marked difference between the education which every one gets from living with others, as long as he really lives instead of just continuing to subsist, and the deliberate educating of the young. In the former case the education is incidental; it is natural and important, but it is not the express reason of the association. While it may be said, without exaggeration, that the measure of the worth of any social institution, economic, domestic, political, legal, religious, is its effect in enlarging and improving experience; yet this effect is not a part of its original motive, which is limited and more immediately practical.

  命题专家把这个句子改写为:It may be said that the measure of the worth of any social institution is its effect in enlarging and improving experience, but this effect is not a part of its original motive

  翻译:可以说,要衡量任何社会制度价值,就要看它对扩大和改进经验方面的影响,但是这种影响并不是其原来动机的一部分。

   Religious associations began, for example, in the desire to secure the favor of overruling powers and to ward off evil influences; family life in the desire to gratify appetites and secure family perpetuity; systematic labor, for the most part, because of enslavement to others, etc. Only gradually was the by-product of the institution, its effect upon the quality and extent of conscious life, noted, and only more gradually still was this effect considered as a directive factor in the conduct of the institution.

  命题专家改为:Only gradually was the by-product of the institution noted. and only more gradually still was this effect considered as a directive factor in the conduct of the institution.

  这种制度的副产品(附带产生的影响)只有逐步得到认识;而在实施这种制度的过程中,认识到这种效果具有直接作用的时间则更加缓慢。

  Even today, in our industrial life, apart from certain values of industriousness and thrift, the intellectual and emotional reaction of the forms of human association under which the world's work is carried on receives little attention as compared with physical output.

  But in dealing with the young, the fact of association itself as an immediate human fact, gains in importance. While it is easy to ignore in our contact with them the effect of our acts upon their disposition, or to subordinate that educative effect to some external and tangible result, it is not so easy as in dealing with adults.

  命题专家改为:while it is easy to ignore in our contact with them the effect of our acts upon their disposition. it is not so easy as in dealing with adults.

  翻译:虽然在与年轻人接触的时候,我们容易忽略我们的行动对他们性格的影响;但这并不像与成年人打交道那么简单。

  The need of training is too evident; the pressure to accomplish a change in their attitude and habits is too urgent to leave these consequences wholly out of account. Since our chief business with them is to enable them to share in a common life we cannot help considering whether or not we are forming the powers which will secure this ability.

  翻译:既然我们的主要任务在于使年轻人参与共同生活,我们不能不考虑我们是否正在形成一种力量,这种力量可以确保我们获得能力。

  If humanity has made some headway in realizing that the ultimate value of every institution is its distinctively human effect —— its effect upon conscious experience —— we may well believe that this lesson has been learned largely through dealings with the young.

  We are thus led to distinguish, within the broad educational process which we have been so far considering, a more formal kind of education —— that of direct tuition or schooling.

  翻译:因此,在上述(目前为止已经考虑到的)宽泛的教育过程中,可以使我们区别出一种更正规的教育,即直接教导或学校教育。

  In undeveloped social groups, we find very little formal teaching and training. Savage groups mainly rely for instilling needed dispositions into the young upon the same sort of association which keeps adults loyal to their group. They have no special devices, material, or institutions for teaching save in connection with initiation ceremonies by which the youth are inducted into full social membership. For the most part, they depend upon children learning the customs of the adults, acquiring their emotional set and stock of ideas, by sharing in what the elders are doing. In part, this sharing is direct, taking part in the occupations of adults and thus serving an apprenticeship; in part, it is indirect, through the dramatic plays in which children reproduce the actions of grown-ups and thus learn to know what they are like. To savages it would seem preposterous to seek out a place where nothing but learning was going on in order that one might learn.

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