您的位置:考研教育网>  > 考研英语 > 复习指导 正文

历年考研英语阅读理解难点及长句解析(一)

考研教育网论坛   2008-09-28 08:52 【 】【我要纠错

  由于考研本身所具有的局限性,以及西方的语言习惯(简单、直接、重心突出),这就决定了文章中结构非常复杂的长句出现的机率很小。即使有,也只占极小部分,用于区分选拔出那些英语非常优秀的考生。对于普通考生来说,如在考试中由于这种难度而有一两道题目做不出来的话是很正常的。考生首先要做的,就是拿下那些绝大部分属于常规性试题的分数,拿下自己该得到的分数。对于大多数考生来说,考研英语阅读文章中有些语句较长,但结构并不复杂,考生对这类句子的理解,关键在于掌握一定的技巧,形成连贯的语义理解。其基本应对策略是先抓句子的主干,把握句子的重心,再对插入成分或并列结构进行理解。

  这类句子可分为两类:一类是由一些固定的词组搭配所构成的长句,如 so(such)……that(如此……以致……,not only……but also(不仅……-而且……-),not……but(不是……而是……),so as……to(如此……以致……),transform……from……into……(把……从……改变为……),not so much……as……(不是……而是……)as……as……(像……一样)等;另一类是由多个插入成分或并列结构过多构成的长句。对于前者我们只需抓住固定搭配所连接的主干,分步理解;后者则直接抓住句子的主干,分步理解。

  下面就近23年来阅读真题文章中所出现的“长难句”逐一进行分析(“/” 表示断句标示,适当的断句可以帮考生很好地理解句意)。

  The Olympian athletic festival/held every four years/in honor of Zeus, king of the Olympian Gods, /eventually lost its local character, became first a national event and then, after the rules against foreign competitors had been abolished, international.(1987年真题)

  分析:本句实际是由几个简单的并列句组成的一个长句,省略了共同的主语The Olympian athletic festival.补充省略部分,该句可理解为以下简单句的句意组合:

  The Olympian athletic festival held every four years in honor of Zeus, king of the Olympian Gods.

  The Olympian athletic festival eventually lost its local character.

  After the rules against foreign competitors had been abolished, the Olympian athletic festival became first a national event and then, international.

  翻译:奥林匹克运动会最初是为了纪念Zeus(奥林匹亚的一个神),每四年主办一次,最终它丧失了原-有的地方色彩,逐渐成为一种国家级体育盛事。而后,在一些反对国外竞技者参与的规则被废除之后,逐渐变成了一种国际性的体育盛事。

  Aristotle, for example, whose natural science /dominated the Western thought for two thousand years, believed that/man could arrive at an understanding of reality/ by reasoning from self-evident principle/that everything in the universe has its proper place, hence one can deduce that/objects fall to the ground because that''s where it belongs.(1987年真题)

  分析:首先抓住句子主干,对于插入部分我们可以暂时忽略掉。本句主干为:Aristotle believed that man could arrive at an understanding of reality by reasoning from self-evident principle,然后再逐步理解其他成分。whose natural science dominated Western thought for two thousand years是对Aristotle的补充说明。everything in the universe has its proper place, hence one can deduce that objects fall to the ground because that's where it belongs是对self-evident principle的同步解释。该句可理解为以下简单句的句意组合:

  Aristotle believed that man could arrive at an understanding of reality by reasoning from self-evident principle.

  Aristotle's natural science dominated the Western thought for two thousand years.

  Self-evident principle is that everything in the universe has its proper place, hence one can deduce that objects fall to the ground because that's where it belongs.

  翻译:举个例子吧,亚里士多德,他的自然科学理论统治了整个西方思想长达两千年之久。他认为,人们可以通过一些显而易见的法则推断来达到对现实的理解。这种不证自明的法则就是,任何事件在宇宙中总有其合适的位置。因而人们可以推断出,物体掉到地上是因为物体本身就属于大地的。

  Both you and she know that/if you are not sure what you want, you are not likely to find it.(1988年真题)

  分析:that if属于常考结构,对于这种结构的理解关键在于学会对that if结构进行断句。在理解的时候,that if间语义应稍作停顿,把if与后面引导的状语从句语义连贯起来。

  翻译:你和她都知道,如果你不能确定你所想要的东西,那么你就没有可能找到它。

  The mineral elements from the soil/that are usable by the plant/must be dissolved in the soil solution/before they can be taken into the root. (1991年真题)

  分析:句子主干为:The mineral elements must be dissolved in the soil solution before they can be taken into the root.定语从句“that are usable by the plan”是修饰“The mineral elements”:“from the soil”是介词短语作状语。该句可理解为以下简单句的句意组合:

  The mineral elements from the soil must be dissolved in the soil solution before they can be taken into the root.

  The mineral elements are usable by the plan.

  翻译:土地里被植物所用到的矿物质元素只有在土地里先期溶解,才能被植物的根吸收。

  C.R.Darnes has suggested that/it is as proper to term the plant a water structure/as to call a house composed mainly of brick/a brick building. (1991年真题)

  分析:这里是由as……as……(像……-一样,正如……-一样)连接两个并列成分构成的长句。该句的主干为:C.R.Darnes has suggested that/it is as proper to term the plant a water structure/as to call a house a brick building.“composed mainly of brick”是分词作状语修饰“a house”。这里把“砖与房子的关系比做水与植物的关系说明水对于植物的重要性”。

  翻译:C.R.Darnes认为,正如把一栋主要由砖建造的建筑称为砖瓦建筑一样,我们可以把植物看作一种水体结构。

  To be promoted or to fall behind/is not a matter of salary but /even more a matter of self-respect. This constant need to prove/that one is as good as or better than one''s fellow-competitor/creates constant anxiety and stress, the very causes of unhappiness and illness. (1993年真题)

  分析:第一句主要是not……but……(不是……而是……)的理解。第二句主干:This constant need to prove creates constant anxiety and stress.句子主干中“This constant need to prove”是不定式短语作主语。“that one is as good as or better than one's fellow-competitor”是对This constant need to prove的同步说明。“the very causes of unhappiness and illness”是对“constant anxiety and stress”的同步说明。

  翻译:晋升与贬职不仅仅是薪水的改变,更多的是有关自尊的事情。这种不断地证明一个人和自己的对手一样优秀或者比其更优秀的需要,使人产生了一种长久的焦虑和压力,正是这种焦虑和压力导致了人的不快乐和疾病。

  I suggest/transforming our social system from a bureaucratically managed industrialism /in which maximal production and consumption are ends in themselves into/a humanist industrialism/in which/man and full development of his potentialities——those of love and of reason——are the aims of all social arrangements.(1993年真题)

  分析:本句是由transform……from……into……(把……从……改变为……)固定词组搭配所构成的长句。transform……from……into……连接的短语作“suggest”后面所接的宾语从句的主语,主语较长妨碍了对句意的理解。句子主干为:I suggest transforming our social system from a bureaucratically managed industrialism into a humanist industrialism are the aims of all social arrangements.句中“in which maximal production and consumption are ends in themselves”是对a bureaucratically managed industrialism的描述。“in which man and full development of his potentialities——those of love and of reason”是对a humanist industrialism的描述。

  翻译:我建议,把我们的社会体系从一种以追求最大产值和消费的官僚工业化体系转变成为一种人性化的工业体系。在这种人性化工业体系当中,人及人潜能(情感和理性)的充分发展才是我们社会组织的目标。

  The great interest in exceptional children/shown in public education over the past three decades/indicates the strong feeling in our society that/all citizens, whatever their special conditions, deserve the opportunity to fully develop their capabilities. (1994年真题)

  分析:句子主干为:The great interest indicates the strong feeling in our society. 介词短语“in exceptional children”作状语修饰“the great interest”。过去分词短语“shown in public education over the past three decades”作定语修饰“the great interest”。“all citizens, whatever their special conditions, deserve the opportunity to fully develop their capabilities”是同位语“the strong feeling”的说明。

  翻译:在过去的三十年,人们在公共教育领域对特殊儿童所表现出来的强烈兴趣表明,在我们社会里,人们有一种强烈的愿望。那就是,所有的公民,无论他们自身状况如何,都应该获得全面发展自己能力的机会。

[1] [2]

◇ 编辑推荐
·2016年考研调剂信息汇总(更新中)
·2016年考研国家线
·2017考研网上辅导招生简章
 考研教育网官方微信

微信公众账号cnedu_cn

 网上辅导课程特色
  • 即报即学
  • 名师团队
  • 反复看课
  • 在线答疑
  • 移动教学
  • 讲义下载
  • 课后练习
  • 模拟测试
 24小时报名咨询
考研网上辅导课程 精品班 实验班
学费 购买 学费 购买
公共课 政 治 1500元 购买 3500元 购买
英 语 1500元 购买 3500元 购买
数 学 1500元 购买 3500元 购买
专业课 考研名师编写,网校独创考研管理类、法律类、教育等专业课电子书正在热卖!