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2009年考研英语阅读理解A命题思路解析(五)

印建坤   2008-05-13 09:58 【 】【我要纠错

  (六)、考研阅读理解文章的结构特点

  对于一篇完整的英文说明文或者议论文来说,不论其形式看上去有多么复杂多样,但是套用一句老话:“万变不离其宗。”一般考研阅读的文章都是采取传统的三段论形式:即提出问题(提出说明的事物或者现象)、分析问题(对事物或者现象进行说明)、解决问题(对说明的事物或者现象进行总结)。当然这里所说的“三段论”不是指所有的文章都分为三个段落,但是大部分文章基本上都是由这三个部分组成的。下面我们列举几种具体的情况来进行简单的分析,并在每种模式后面都举出了一篇考研真题的文章以帮助具体考生理解这些模式的特点,考生在平时的复习中也应该自己注意训练相关的判断力。

  模式一:

  第一部分:提出问题,可以开门见山地提出问题或者先阐述他人的观点然后揭示自己与之相左的观点;

  第二部分:层层递进地进行分析,段落之间的逻辑联系非常强,每一段的论述都之前一段为依据,这些段落经常以moreover,further,furthermore,besides,inaddition等词语或者词组开头;

  第三部分:在第二部分逻辑推理的基础上得出结论。

  例文:95年Passage 3

  In such a changing, complex society formerly simple solutions to informational needs become complicated. Many of life‘ s problems which were solved by asking family members, friends or colleagues are beyond the capability of the extended family to resolve. Where to turn for expert information and how to determine which expert advice to accept are questions facing many people today.

  In addition to this, there is the growing mobility of people since World War Ⅱ. As families move away from their stable community, their friends of many years, their extended family relationships, the informal flow of information is cut off, and with it the confidence that information will be available when needed and will be trustworthy and reliable. The almost unconscious flow of information about the simplest aspects of living can be cut off. Thus, things once learned subconsciously through the casual communications of the extended family must be consciously learned.

  Adding to societal changes today is an enormous stockpile of information. The individual now has more information available than any generation, and the task of finding that one piece of information relevant to his or her specific problem is complicated, time-consuming and sometimes even overwhelming.

  Coupled with the growing quantity of information is the development of technologies which enable the storage and delivery of more information with greater speed to more locations than has ever been possible before. Computer technology makes it possible to store vast amounts of data in machine-readable files, and to program computers to locate specific information. Telecommunications developments enable the sending of messages via television, radio, and very shortly, electronic mail to bombard people with multitudes of messages. Satellites have extended the power of communications to report events at the instant of occurrence. Expertise can be shared world wide through teleconferencing, and problems in dispute can be settled without the participants leaving their homes and/or jobs to travel to a distant conference site. Technology has facilitated the sharing of information and the storage and delivery of information, thus making more information available to more people.

  In this world of change and complexity, the need for information is of greatest importance. Those people who have accurate, reliable up-to-date information to solve the day-to-day problems, the critical problems of their business, social and family life, will survive and succeed. Knowledge is power may well be the truest saying and access to information may be the most critical requirement of all people.

  其中中间三段的第一句话都是对上文的承接并引出新的话题,分别为“In addition to this…”、“Adding to societal changes is an enormous stockpile of information”、“Coupled with the growing quantity of information is…”.

[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11]

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