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2009年考研英语阅读理解A命题思路解析(九)

考研教育网   2008-05-15 08:47 【 】【我要纠错

  模式五:

  第一部分:把开头分为两段,第一段不直接进入要论述的问题和作者的观点,而是通过一个引子展开,或讲述一个有趣的故事、或交待一些背景知识,到了第二段才正式提出问题,因此在这种情况下考生要避免直接去第一段找主旨,而是要通过阅读全文正确地定位主题所在段落;

  第二部分:对提出的问题进行论述;

  第三部分:得出结论,总结全文。

  例文:1994年Passage 2

  One hundred and thirteen million Americans have at least one bank-issued credit card. They give their owners automatic credit in stores, restaurants, and hotels, at home, across the country, and even abroad, and they make many banking services available as well. More and more of these credit cards can be read automatically, making it possible to withdraw or deposit money in scattered locations, whether or not the local branch bank is open. For many of us the cashless society is not on the horizon—it''s already here.

  While computers offer these conveniences to consumers, they have many advantages for sellers too. Electronic cash registers can do much more than simply ring up sales. They can keep a wide range of records, including who sold what, when, and to whom. This information allows businessmen to keep track of their list of goods by showing which items are being sold and how fast they are moving. Decisions to reorder or return goods to suppliers can then be made. At the same time these computers record which hours are busiest and which employees are the most efficient, allowing personnel and staffing assignments to be made accordingly. And they also identify preferred customers for promotional campaigns. Computers are relied on by manufacturers for similar reasons. Computer-analyzed marketing reports can help to decide which products to emphasize now, which to develop for the future, and which to drop. Computers keep track of goods in stock, of raw materials on hand, and even of the production process itself.

  Numerous other commercial enterprise, from theaters to magazine publishers, from gas and electric utilities to milk processors, bring better and more efficient services to consumers through the use of computers.

  文章第一段通篇在谈论信用卡服务的优点,而第二段的第一句话才是主题句,指出了使用计算机的便利,因为信用卡的便利正式由于计算机技术的发展和普及带来的。

  模式六:

  第一部分:提出问题,作者将要对该问题的存在进行指责和批判;

  第二部分:从各个方面或者各个层次对问题进行反驳;

  第三部分:指出问题存在根本原因、可能带来的后果、相应的改进措施、或者正确的看法和观点等。

  例文:这类反证类的文章至今还没有在考研真题中出现过,但是考生应该对这种模式有所了解。

  此外,考研阅读理解的文章一般都会有比较清晰的行文脉络,掌握这些规律也会有助于对文章整体的把握,甚至还可以帮助考生预见文章中可能会出现的观点和发展方向。

  常见的行文脉络有以下几种

  一般——具体:文章开头先提出一个总的抽象的概念或者观点,接下来的各个段落具体说明第一段的观点,把抽象的概念具体化到一些事件上。

  具体——一般:文章开头提出一个具体的问题或者事件,接下来几段从各个方面分别说明,最后一点进行总结并把观点抽象到一般的层面。

  时间顺序:这种行文脉络出现在自然科学类的文章中比较多,一般通过时间先后顺序来说明某一种理论的发展或者某一项研究的进展程度。

  对比:这类文章的主要目的目的在于对比两种观点、两个事物的共同点或者差异等。

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