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  famous:The most general one.widely known or honored.

  (杰出的 知名的)distinguished:Great,outstanding marked by excellent quality or deserved fame,used especially of people who are famous for serious work in science,the arts etc.

  He was a distinguished writer.

  (驰名的)celebrated:Famous,(substitute for renowned)

  It refers objectively to sb or something that has been give acclaim or honoured with awards or prizes.She was a celebrated actress.

  renowned:Highly honored and famous for something good.often refers to places or things,also It suggests something that has become legendary or is no longer available for an objective evaluation.

  Edison was renowned for his inventions.

  noted:Well-known and admired

  It often describes a more intellectual kind of effort and accomplishment indicating an authority or expert or their theories.Maybe it is not widely

  known to the general public.He was a very noted expert.

  (臭名昭著)notorious:Famous for something bad.

  He is notorious for his crimes.


  thief:The most general one.

  (强盗)robber:It suggests a direct confrontation in which the owner is forced to give up his valuables.

  (行凶强劫)mugger:A person who attacks and robs people in a street or in a lift.

  burglar:A person who breaks into a house at night to steal something.

  (歹徒 暴徒)gangster:A member of a group of criminals,esp.those who are

  armed and use guns to threaten.

  (匪徒)bandit:an armed robber.

  It suggests an organized group in a rural setting.

  (土匪)brigand:A robber who lives by robbing travelers in the country.

  (海盗)pirate:A person who robs on the sea.


  shake:The most general one.to move up and down or back and forth.

  It refers to persons or things.

  (发抖)quiver:To tremble a little.

  It suggests a rapid but invisible vibration.

  His lips quivered with emotion.

  (颤抖)tremble:To shake uncontrollably and slightly as from fear,cold,excitement etc.

  It implies uneasiness and nervousness.

  Her voice trembled as she began to sing.

  (瞬间发抖)shiver:To tremble from fear or cold.

  It suggests a slight and rapid movement.

  He stood shivering in the snow.

  (极度颤动)quake:to shake or tremble violently.

  It suggests a more violent and sudden change.

  He quaked with excitement.

  An explosion cam make the ground quake.

  (抽筋般颤动)shudder:To shake uncontrollably for a movement.

  It suggests a more intense shaking.

  She shuddered at the sight of a snake.

  20.说话 谈话


  speak:To use your voice to say words.

  (说)say:To speak words.

  (发出声音)utter:To make sound and say words.

  drawl:To speak in a slow,prolonged manner.

  mutter:To express displeasure with compressed lips.

  rave:To talk in an angry,uncontrolled way.

  gabble:To talk rapidly,making inarticulate sounds.

  (谈论)remark:To mention it or comment on it.

  (陈述)state:To say,express or put into words,esp.formally.

  He stated his view.

  (讲述)narrate:To tell formally in writing or speech or describe

  something in order with intonation.

  He narrated his adventure in the forest.

  (详述)relate:To tell formally in details,to give an account of.

  He related his experiences.

  (讲演)address:To say in speech or writing to a person or group.

  tell:To let people know about something.

  talk:To say things to someone.

  converse:To talk formally.

  The scholars are conversing with each other on


  chat:To talk in a friendly,familiar,informal manner.

  The two friends sat in a corner and chatted.

  chatter:To talk continuously rapidly about small things.

  The schoolgirls went along chattering.

  whisper:To talk in a low voice.

  She whispered me not to talk so loudly.

  murmur:To make a soft sound,esp.to speak or say in a quiet voice.

  He often murmurs to himself.

  (闲谈)gossip:To talk about the details of other people's actions

  and private lives which may not correct or proper.

  That woman is very fond of gossiping about others.

  stammer:To speak with pauses and repeated sounds because of excitement,embarrassment.

  stutter:To speak with pauses and repeated sounds because of

  inherent speech defect.

  21.事情 事件

  (事)thing:An event,a fact,a subject.

  He talked of many interesting things.

  (事情)matter:Seth that you have to deal with,something to be discussed,thought over.

  There are several matters to be dealt with at the meeting.

  (事务 责任)business:A special duty,something that has to be done.

  Public business is every one's business.

  (事务)affair:An event or set of connected events.(pl)private and personal life.

  I have many affairs to look after.

  (事件)event:An important happening.Events such as birthdays and anniversaries are often celebrated.

  Do you know the chief events of 1986.

  incident:Not as important as an event.Incidents seldom are celebrated.Sometimes an event becomes an incident after many years have passed.

  (偶然事件)happening:An occurrence,and sometimes an unusual one.

  There have been strange happenings here lately.

  (偶发事件)occurrence:An incident that is usually unexpected and has not been planned ahead of time.

  Flood is practically an annual occurrence in this district.


  admit:To agree to the truth of,usu,something bad.

  It suggests reluctance or possible objection.

  He admitted his crime/stealing.

  (自白 供认)confess:To admit guilt as to a crime or as to a shortcoming,in the sense of making known to others one's own error or wrong doing.

  He confessed his fault/doing something wrong.

  acknowledge:to agree the truth of,recognize the fact or existence of what have said or done,good or bad.

  It emphasizes openly in a embarrassing or awkward and usually not voluntary way.

  I acknowledged my signature/mistakes/errors/having been defeated.

  grant:To admit or to agree something is true.

  I granted his request/his honesty.

  take sth/sb for granted.

  concede:To admit as true,just or proper often unwillingly because of overwhelming evidence.

  I conceded you that point,but I still think you are wrong.

  recognize:To accept or acknowledge it.

  It refers to something about law and diplomacy.

  The new regime was recognized by China.


  walk:The most general one.

  stride:To walk with long steps.

  He strode through the station a few minutes before the train left.

  (高视阔步)stalk:To walk stiffly,slowly,and proudly with long steps.

  trot:To jog,move quickly,usu refers to horses.

  (蹒跚而行)waddle:To walk from side to side with short steps like a duck.

  The fat man waddled out of the room.

  (蹒跚)stagger:To walk unsteadily,slide and drag the feet almost

  falling at each step,usually because of illness,injury or drink.

  After drinking too much,he staggered in the street.

  (摇摆蹒跚)totter:To walk unsteadily showing great weakness often used

  of very young children learning to walk.The child tottered before his parents.

  (拖着脚走)shuffle:To move without lifting the feet clear of the floor as if wearing slippers.

  The old man shuffled along the road.

  (趾高气扬地走)strut To walk in a proud strong way,esp.with the chest out and trying to look important.

  (慢行)amble:To walk at an easy gentle rate.

  It stresses a leisurely but regular movement.

  (闲逛)stroll:To walk,esp.slowly,for pleasure.

  It emphasizes a slower movement,more wandering and aimless with suggestions of many starts and pauses.

  They are strolling through this park.

  saunter:A little more formal than stroll.

  (漫步 徘徊)wander:To move about without a fixed course,aim,or purpose.

  He was wandering about/down/through/up and down the street.

  (漫游)roam:To wander with as very clear aim.

  It suggests a more serious purpose behind the irregular

  of circular movement in complete forgetfulness of time.

  The lovers roamed around/through the fields.

  (跋涉)trudge:To walk heavily and wearily with effort as when one(plod)is tired.

  The hunter was trudging through the deep snow.

  (重步行走)tramp:To walk with firm heavy steps.

  Who has been tramping all over the carpet in muddy shoes.


  mince:To walk with little short steps in an affected manner.

  It was a funny sight to see her mince along.

  slouch:To walk in a loose,ungainly(不雅观)way.

  hustle:To walk in a busy,active way.


  jump:The most general one.to throw oneself into the air.


  leap:(literary)To spring through the air,often landing in a different place.

  The boy leaped over the brook without difficulty.

  (跳跃)spring:To leap suddenly and quickly.

  He sprang to his feet at the sudden noise.

  (跳着跑)bound:To spring lightly along.

  It suggests high spirits and excitement.

  His dog bounded to meet me.

  (轻快地跑)skip:To move in a slight dancing way,as with quick steps and jumps.

  The little girl skipped at her mother's side.

  hop:To jump on one leg.

  The boy had hurt his leg and had to hop along.

  vault:To leap over something using the hands or a pole.

  You can vault a fence by putting your hands on it and swinging yourself over.

  hurdle:To jump over some thing while running.

  The horse hurdled the fence and ran into the woods.

  25.特点 特征

  quality:The most general one.


  characteristic:Quality typical of a particular person and thing,a special and easily recognized quality of sb/sth.

  It has may scientific or technical uses.

  It implies neutral description in referring to any aspect of something without evaluating its relative importance to the whole.

  A useful characteristic of the cat is its ability to catch and kill mice.

  (特征)character:The combination of qualities which make a particular person,thing,place,etc.

  A tendency not to show emotions is supposed to be part of the British national character.

  (性质)nature:The qualities make someone or something different from others.

  It indicates the widest range of traits,including emotional,mental and physical qualities.

  It is only human nature to like money.

  (特征)attribute:A quality belonging to or forming part of the

  mature of a person or thing.

  The word is positive rather than negative.

  Darkness is an attribute of night.

  (特性)peculiarity:The quality of being peculiar,strangeness,unusualness.

  It shows an unpleasant attribute that is quite noticeable.

  One of his peculiarities is that his two eyes are not the same size.

  (特色)feature:A typical and noticeable part or quality.

  It suggests something positive and specifically

  It refers to physical appearance.

  A lake is an important feature in this area.

  (品质 特性)trait:A particular quality of sb/sth.

  It refers to more abstract attributes.Honesty and diligence are the chief traits of his character.

  (个性)personality:The whole nature or character of a particular person.

  It refers to the whole indefinable emotional coloration that a specific person gives off.He has a strong personality.


  increase:To make or become larger in amount or number.

  it refers to quantity or intensity as well as size.

  The population of this county has increased.

  add:To put together with something else so as to increase the

  number size,importance.

  He added some wood to increase the fire.

  (扩大)enlarge:To grown larger or wider.

  I want to enlarge this photograph/house.

  (放大)magnify:To make something appear larger than in reality,esp.by means of a lens.

  You have magnified the peril.

  (扩充)amplify:To make large or fuller,esp.give fuller information,more details etc.

  to amplify a radio signal/sound.

  augment:(fml)To become larger or greater.

  It emphasizes the action of addition.

  He augmented his income by writing some short stories.

  (扩展 扩张)expand:To increase in range scope or volume as well as in size.Iron expands when it is heated.

  (加长)extend:To make longer in space or time,to extend a railway.

  Can't you extend your visit for a few days.



  smile:The corners of your mouth move outwards and slightly upwards.

  He smiles his consent./with satisfaction.

  (大笑)laugh:To make a noise to show one's amusement and

  happiness.You can laugh at a joke or at an amusing sight.You can laugh at someone without being amused.

  They all laughed loudly.

  (露齿而笑)grin:To smile with the teeth.

  The boy grinned from ear to ear when I gave him a


  (暗笑 含笑)chuckle:To laugh quietly.

  I could hear him chuckling to himself as he read

  that funny article.

  (咯咯笑)giggle:To laugh repeatedly foolishly and uncontrollably,esp.by girls.

  I heard them giggle when I passed by the girls.

  (窃笑 暗笑)snicker:To laugh in a disrespectful more or less secret way.

  On hearing his absurd opinion,I went snickering.

  (假笑 痴笑)simper:To smile in a silly unnatural way.

  When I told him the thing,he simply simpered.

  (得意的笑)smirk:To smile in a false or too satisfied way.

  He smirked at everyone that passed.

  (窃笑)titter:To laugh very quietly from nervousness or badly

  controlled amusement.

  The girls tittered when they heard this.

  (狂笑)guffaw:To laugh loudly and rudely.

  All the people guffawed at his silly words.

  (哄笑)roar:To laugh long and loudly.

  They roared after they heard the joke.

  (欢笑)chortle:To give a laugh of pleasure or satisfaction.

  He chortled with delight when I told him the news.

  (笑骂)taunt:To try to make sb angry,or upset by making unkind

  remarks,laughing at faults or failures.

  They taunted her with her inability to swim.

  (嘲笑 嘲弄)ridicule:To laugh unkindly at or to make unkind fun of.

  They all ridiculed the idea.

  (讥笑)deride:To laugh at or make fun of as of no value./to mock

  at someone with contempt They all derided his foolishness.

  (嘲弄)mock:To laugh at sb(sth)when it is wrong to do so,esp.

  by copying in a funny or contemptuous way.

  The students mocked the seriousness of his expression.

  twit:(infl)To make fun of sb because of behavior,a mistake,a fault,etc.

  He twitted her with her timidity.

  (嘲笑 轻蔑地笑)scoff:To laugh at,to speak or act disrespectfully./to

  speak in scornful mocking way.

  It was a great invention but at first many people scoffed at it.


  chaff:(infl)To make fun of sb in a good-humored way.

  He chaffed the man about his mistakes in speaking English.

  (讥笑)jeer:To laugh rudely at /to insult sb in a loud,unpleasant way.

  They always jeer at the priests.

  gibe(jibe):To laugh at with the intention of hurting the feeling with sarcastic remarks.

  Don't gibe at her behavior until you know the reason for it.

  (讥笑 冷笑)sneer:To express proud dislike by a kind of usu,one- side

  smile or to show scorn or contempt by looks.

  She sneered at the furniture in his neighbor's home.

  joke:To make fun of.

  You mustn't joke with him about religion.

  (取笑)jest:To act or speak playful,not seriously.

  Don't jest about serious things.

  (戏弄)banter:To speak,or act playfully or jokingly.

  We bantered him on the subject of marriage.

  (轻视)scorn:To look down upon.


  mad:Showing that one has amanita illness which often causes them to behave in strange way.

  crazy:(infl)Very strange or foolish.

  psychotic:The most precise one.used by psychiatrists.

  insane Not sound in mind.used in scientific articles.

  lunatic:(old derog)wildly foolish.

  demented It indicates sb's mentality has degenerated from a precious level.

  maniac:(n)A mad person who is violent and dangerous.


  smell:The most general one.

  It refers to something pleasant or unpleasant.

  odo(u)r:(fml)More used in scientific articles.

  fragrance:A sweet or pleasant smell.

  It refers to flowers and stresses a delicate smell from plants.

  Those roses have a delightful fragrance.

  scent:A smell esp.left by an animals,an pleasant smell.

  Our dog lost the fox's scent.

  perfume:A sweet or pleasant smell.

  It refers to either natural smell or a man-made smell and stresses a strong and rich smell compared with fragrance

  aroma:A strong usu pleasant smell,often a spicy smell.

  flavor:The particular quality of tasting good or pleasantly strong.The bread hasn't much flavor.

  savor:The smell of food by the processes of cooking.

  The meat had cooked too long and lost its savor.

  stink:A strong unpleasant smell.the stink of sweaty feet.

  stench:A very strong unpleasant smell.


  fear:The feeling that one has when danger is near.

  (可怕)dread:A great fear esp.of some harm to come.

  It suggests fear of facing whatever is coming.Usually dread also means loss of courage.

  Illness is the great dread of his life.

  (畏惧)fright:The feeling or experience of fear.sudden great fear.

  I nearly died of fright at the sight of escaped lion.

  (恐慌)alarm:Sudden fear and anxiety as caused by the possibility of

  danger and excitement caused by fear of danger.

  The news caused great alarm.

  (恐惧)terror:Extreme and intense fear.

  The people ran from the enemy in terror.

  (恐怖 战栗)horror:A feeling of great shock,fear and dislike.

  I cried out in horror as I saw the man killed.

  (惊恐万状)panic:Sudden uncontrollable quickly-spreading fear or terror,which results in unreasonable and frantic activity.

  When I realized the situation I got into a panic.

  (敬畏)awe:A feeling respect mixed with fear and wonder.

  He always stands in awe of his father.

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