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考研英语阅读定语从句实例解析(一)

考研教育网论坛   2008-03-18 10:17 【 】【我要纠错

  英语和汉语中的定语有很大的不同。汉语中定语只能前置,而英语中定语既可前置也可后置。两者的不同,不仅表现在结构上,也表现在意义上。英语中的定语从句有时从原因、结果、目的或条件等方面对中心词加以限定。因此,在对语法结构、上下文逻辑关系深刻理解的前提下,为了更明确地表明这种逻辑关系,可以将定语从句翻译成相应的状语从句。同时值得注意的是,定语从句与中心词之间常有分割成分,而该分割成分中与定语从句紧挨着的名词,常常会被误认为定语从句的中心词。

  因此,遇到这种结构,一定要根据上下文和常识进行判断。翻译定语从句时可采用提前译、顺序译、分译或转译等多种方法。

  1. As far as the third factor is concerned, the history of science shows many instances in which the force of authority has operated in such a manner as to build up an exceedingly powerful resistance to further investigation; in some cases centuries elapsed before this resistance was eventually broken down, as happened in cosmology, for example.

  第一层:As far as the third factor is concerned,状语从句the history主of science定shows谓many定instances宾in which the force of authority has operated in such a manner as to build up an exceedingly power定语从句ful resistance to further investigation;in some cases状centuries主elapsed谓before this resistance was eventually broken down,as状语从句happened in cosmology,for example.

  第二层:(状语从句)As far as引the third factor主语is系concerned表语。

  (定语从句)in which 引the force主of authority定has operated谓in such a manner as to build up an exceedingly powerful re状sistance to further investigation.

  (状语从句)before引this resistance主was系eventually状broken down,表as happened in cosmology,for example 定语从句。

  第三层:(定语从句)as引happened谓in cosmology状for example插入语。

  要点:本句由两个分句构成,以分号连接。第一个分句的主干为the history of science shows many instances,in which引导的定语从句修饰instances,such ……as ……表结果,后接不定式;在第二个分句中,before 引出时间状语从句:before this resistance was eventually broken down;代词as在此是关系代词,引出定语从句:as happened in cosmology.resistance:抵抗(力);阻力。cosmology:宇宙论,宇宙哲学。

  译文:至于第三个因素,科学史中有许多事例表明,权威的力量起到这样一种作用:它给进一步的研究设置了一道极其牢固的障碍;在许多情况下,要花上几个世纪的时间才能最终打破这道障碍。例如,在宇宙学中就发生过这样的事。

  2. Behaviorists suggest that the child who is raised in an environment where there are many stimuli which develop his or her capacity for appropriate responses will experience greater intellectual development.

  第一层:Behaviorists主suggest谓that the child who is raised in an environment where there are many stimuli which develop his宾语从句or her capacity for appropriate responses will experience greater intellectual development.

  第二层:(宾语从句)that引the child主who is raised in an environment where there are many stimuli which develop his or her capacity定语从句for appropriate responses will experience谓greater intellectual定development. 宾。

  第三层:(定语从句)who引is raised谓in an environment状where there are many stimuli which develop his or her capacity for ap定语从句propriate responses.

  第四层:(定语从句)where引there引are系many定stimuli主which develop his or her capacity for appropriate responses定语从句。

  第五层:(定语从句)which引develop谓his or her定capacity宾for appropriate定responses.

  要点:根据上下文的逻辑关系可以看出,本句中suggest的词义不是propose,而是bring an idea into the mind,所以翻译为…的看法是。who引导的定语从句修饰child,根据上下文的语义关系,翻译成条件句;where引导的定语从句修饰 environment,用合译法译出;which引导的从句修饰stimuli,用分译法进行翻译。appropriate:适合的,相称的。

  译文:行为主义者的看法是,如果一个儿童在有许多刺激因素的环境里长大,而这些刺激因素能够开发其相应的反映能力,那么这个儿童将会有更好的智力发展。

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