Questions 6 to 10 are based on the following passage.
The United States court system， as part of the federal system of government, is characterized by dual hierarchies:there are both state and federal courts. Each state has its own system of courts， composed of civil and criminal trial courts， sometimes intermediate courts of appeal， and a state supreme court. The federal court system consists of a series of trial courts (called district courts)serving relatively small geographic regions (there is at least one for every state).a tier of circuit courts of appeal the hear appeals from many district courts in a particular geographic region， and the Supreme Court of the United States.
The two court systems are to some extent overlapping,in that certain kinds of disputes, such as a claim that a state law is in violation of the Constitution,may be initiated in either system. They are also to some extent hierarchical(等级的),for the federal system stands above the state system in that litigants (persons engaged in )who lose their cases in the state supreme court may appeal their cases to the Supreme Court of the United States.
Thus,the typical court case begins in a trial court-a court of general jurisdiction-in the state or federal system. Most cases go no further than the trial court: for example, the criminal defendant is convicted (by a trial or a guilty plea)and sentenced by the court and the case ends; the personal injury suit results in a judgment by a trial court （or an out-of –court settlement by the parties while the court suit is pending） and the parties leave the court system. But sometimes the losing party at the trial court cares enough about the cause that the matter does not end there. In "loser" at the trial court may appeal to the next higher court.
6. What does the passage mainly discuss？
A） Civil and criminal trial courts.
B） Typical court cases.
C） The court system in the United States
D） The appeal court process.
7. According to the passage， district courts are also known as .
A） circuit courts
B） supreme courts
C） intermediate courts
D） trial courts
8. The phrase "engaged in '(Line 4, Para.2) could best be replaced by " "
A） committed to
B） involved in
C） attentive to
D） engrossed in
9. The passage indicates that litigants who lose their cases in the state trial court may take them to a
A） different trial court in the same state
B） court in a different geographic region
C） federal trial court
D） state supreme court
10. It can be inferred from the passage that typical court cases are
A） always appealed
B） usually resolved in the district courts
C） always overlapping
D） usually settled by the supreme court
Questions 11 to 15 are based on the following passage.
To read a new book， you simply need good light, time and the right frame of mind. But to read a new software package,you need a thousand pounds' worth of hardware,considerable computer knowledge, plenty of time,and most important of all,endless determination.
Generally speaking， all books are very much alike， and the experienced reader has no difficulty coping with an unfamiliar book. But imagine how frustrating it would be if you had to make a mental adjustment,if you had to read in a different way, every time you read a book from a different publisher,yet this is exactly what it is like when you use a new software package.
You can be encouraged in a good book within a minute,but getting new software running takes ages. Learning to use a new piece of software is like trying to ride a trick bicycle,on which the handlebars have a reverse action. It looks easier than it really is. This is partly because you must first unlearn what you've learnt on the last package; no two packages use the control characters on the keyboard in quite the same way. How much easier it would be if there are some standards to which all software writers adhere！
Since you can't rely on your previous experience, the only way to understand your new software package is to rely on the manual. Some software manuals are written with the beginner in mind and have explicit instruction with well-designed exercises that lead you gently on from stage to stage. But most assume that you are already an expert, and expert,and have complicated explanations which only confuse and irritate you. All require a full set of fingers and thumbs to mark pages while hunting out information. Yes, perhaps the information is in the manual, but where？
11. When learning to use a new software package you may probably feel
12. The author mentions the trick bicycle, on which the handlebars have a reverse action,in order to show
A） how difficult it is to learn to ride a bicycle
B） it is impossible to learn to ride this bicycle
C） how difficult it is to learn a new software package
D） to learn to ride a bicycle is the same thing as to learn a new software package
13. How could a software package become easier to users according to the author？
A） All software packages are made by the same software company.
B） The users are familiar with all kinds of software packages.
C） There are some standards to which all software writers adhere.
D） There is a cormmitte which examines all software packages
14. What is the most common problem in software manuals according to the passage？
A） They have complicated explanations which are quite beyond your understanding.
B） They are printed in very small characters.
C） Their instructions and explanations are too simple.
D） They are written with the beginner in mind.
15. The word "explicit' (Line 3, Para. 4) probably means" "
Questions 16 to 20 are based on the following passage.
Perhaps the most startling theory to come out of kinetics(动力学), the study of body ,was suggested by Professor Ray Birdwhistell. He believes that physical appearance is often culturally programmed. In other words， we learn our looks-we are not born with them.
A baby has generally unformed facial features. A baby,according to Birdwhistell, learns where to set the eyebrows by looking at those around-family and friends. This helps explain why the people of some regions of the United States look so much alike. New Englanders or Southerners have certain common facial characteristics that cannot be explained by genetics. The exact shape of the mouth is not set as birth， it is learned after. In fact， the final mouth shape is not formed until well after permanent teeth are set.
For many,this can be well into adolescence. A husband and wife together for a long time often come to look somewhat alike. We learn our looks from those around us. This is perhaps why in a single country there are areas where people smile more than those in other areas. In the United States， for example,the South is the part of the country where the people smile most frequently. In New England they smile less,and in the western part of New York state still less. Many Southerners find cities such as New York cold and unfriendly,partly because people on Madison Avenue smile less than people on Peachtree Street in Atlanta， Georgia. People in densely populated urban areas also tend to smile and each other in public less than people do in rural areas and small towns.
16. Ray Birdwhistell believes that physical appearance
A） has little to do with culture.
B） can be influenced by culture.
C） is ever changing.
D） varies from place to place.
17. According to the passage， the final mouth shape is formed
A） before birth
B） as soon as one's teeth are permanently set
C） sometime after permanent teeth are set
D） around 15years old
18. Ray Birdwhistell can tell what region of the United States a person is from by
A） how much he or she laughs
B） how he or she raises his or her eyebrows
C） what he or she likes best
D） the way he or she talks
19. People who are more friendly live in
A） densely populated areas
B） the country
C） New York city
D） the North
20. This passage might have been taken out of a book dealing with
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