In Benjamin Franklin's civic pride and his projects for the improvement of Philadelphia,we see another aspect of the philosophy of doing good. At the same time we may recognize the zeal for reform that has long been a characteristic of American life. In his attention to the details of daily living,Franklin shows himself as the observant empiricist.
46. As the successful engineer of ways to make the city he loved cleaner,safer and more attractive he continually sponsored new institutions that were proof that the applications of reason to experience were fruitful in the real world.
47.Human bliss,observed Franklin,is produced not so much by great pieces of good fortune that seldom happen,as by little advantages that occur every day. Franklin typifies that aspect of the American character that is attentive to small details as well as over-all great plans.
48.The practical idealism of America lies in our capacity to work for our ideals step by step,to recognize that the perfect world is never achieved but that we may approach it gradually by a creative attentiveness to each aspect of life around us.
49.In the American tradition Franklin stands as a man who preached thrift,frugality,industry and enterprise as the way to wealth. 49. He grew to maturity in an American tradition that was older than he was,according to which such virtues as thrift and industry were not enough to bring a man success；he had also to practice charity and help his neighbor. Wealth was a token of esteem of the Divine Providence that governs men''s affairs,and thus the accumulation of riches was not sought for its own sake alone. Furthermore,wealth and position,being marks of the divine favor,conferred an obligation； a successful man was a steward,holding the world's goods in trust for the less fortunate.
50.Being an American meant for Franklin a passionate love of country and a devotion to a democratic point of view in which the rights and liberties of his fellow men were guaranteed and protected. As her foremost citizen in the eyes of the world,he was the champion of her cause in Britain for more than a decade before the Revolution and her representative in France during the years of conflict. America was fortunate in having a man of his stature and ability to serve her during those years；the skills he had acquired in mastery of life and the world's affairs were brought to bear on the issues of state in patriotic service. An old hand at presenting causes in the public press,he presented the case for America in British newspapers and magazines-under various pseudonyms,just as he had done at home in his Pennsylvania Gazette.
46.Since ancient times,physicians have known that cerebral damage to the brain could affect（0.5分）
language functions //,but a major breakthrough occurred in 1861 when Paul Broca,a young French（1分）
surgeon,observed a patient // who suffered from paralysis of the right side of his body as well as of speech.（0.5分）
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