Directions: Read each of the following statements carefully and decide whether it is true or false. Write T for true and F for false in the bracket.
The fact that the speech signal is often somewhat ambiguous does not mean that speech perception often relies heavily on top-down or conceptually driven processes.
Ogden and Richards argue that the relation between a word and thing it refers to is not direct.
The cooperative principle is proposed by Grice.
The phatic function can often be entirely personal and totally without any implication of communication to others.
A proposition is what is expressed by a declarative sentence when that sentence is uttered to make a statement.
1. Compare carefully the following definitions of Language and write a paper discussing which points recur and explaining the significance of the similarities and differences among the definitions.
Language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols by means of which a social group cooperates. （J. B. Carroll, 1953）
Language is a purely human and non-instinctive method of communicating ideas, emotions and desires by means of voluntarily produced symbols. （Sapir, 1921）
Language is the institution whereby humans communicate and interact with each other by means of habitually used oral-auditory arbitrary symbols." （Hall, 1968）
From now on I will consider language to be a set of elements （Chomsky, 1957）
2. How many stages of development has Chomsky's TG Grammar undergone? Comment on each of the stages briefly.
3. Illustrate two major linguistic views and comment on their significance in language learning and teaching.
1. The following words have unusual plurals. Identify as many other words as you can which show similar behaviour in the plural.
（1）man change vowel of singular form
（2）sheep no change at all
（3）phenomenon replace –on with –a
（4）wife replace voiceless fricative with voiced fricative then add /z/
2. Draw trees diagrams for the following compounds. Note that they both have more than one meaning and therefore require more than one tree. How does the tree structure relate to the difference in meaning?
（1）student film society
（2）child psychology graduate
3. Study the following examples and discuss why Speaker B's answer in （1）is acceptable while in （2）is not acceptable in term of co-ordination.
（1）Speaker A: What did he do?
Speaker B: Run up the hill and up the mountain.
（2）Speaker A: What did he do?
Speaker B: *Ring up his mother and up his sister.
4. Try to make sense of the following witty dialog and to identify the cohesive ties and explain briefly.
Speaker A: Time flies.
Speaker B: You can't; they fly too quickly.
5. What is the difference between lexical and grammatical meaning?
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