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考研教育网名师钟平:考研英语阅读历年真题长句集锦(3)

钟平   2007-05-14 11:25 【 】【我要纠错

  41.The most thrilling explanation is,unfortunately,a little defective. Some economists argue that powerful structural changes in the world have upended the old economic models that were based upon the historical link between growth and inflation.

  42.The Aswan Dam,for example,stopped the Nile flooding but deprived Egypt of the fertile silt that floods left-all in return for a giant reservoir of disease which is now so full of silt that it barely generates electricity.

  43.New ways of organizing the workplace——all that re-engineering and downsizing——are only one contribution to the overall productivity of an economy,which is driven by many other factors such as joint investment in equipment and machinery,new technology,and investment in education and training.

  44.His colleague,Michael Beer,says that far too many companies have applied re-engineering in a mechanistic fashion,chopping out costs without giving sufficient thought to long-term profitability.

  45.Defenders of science have also voiced their concerns at meetings such as The Flight from Science and Reason,held in New York City in 1995,and Science in the Age of (Mis)information,which assembled last June near Buffalo.

  46.A survey of news stories in 1996 reveals that the antiscience tag has been attached to many other groups as well,from authorities who advocated the elimination of the last remaining stocks of smallpox virus to Republicans who advocated decreased funding for basic research.

  47.The'true enemies of science,argues Paul Ehrllch of Stanford University,a pioneer of environmental studies,are those who question the evidence supporting global warming,the depletion of the ozone layer and other consequences of industrial growth.

  48.This development——and its strong implication for US politics and economy in years ahead——has enthroned the South as America's most densely populated region for the first time in the history of the nation's head counting.

  49.Often they choose——and still are choosing——somewhat colder climates such as Oregon,Idaho and Alaska in order to escape smog crime and other plagues of urbanization in the Golden State.

  50.As a result,California's growth rate dropped during the 1970's,to 18.5 percent——little more than two thirds the 1960's growth figure and considerably below that of other Western states.

  51.Unlike most of the world's volcanoes,they are not always found at the boundaries of the great drifting plates that make up the earth's surface;on the contrary,many of them lie deep in the interior of a plate.

  52.The relative motion of the plates carrying these continents has been constructed in detail,but the motion of the plates with respect to another cannot readily be translated into motion with respect to the earth's interior.

  53.Wearing a seat belt saves lives;it reduces your chance of death or serious injury by more than half.

  54.While warnings are often appropriate and necessary——the dangers of drug interactions,for example——and many are required by state or federal regulations,it isn't clear that they actually protect the manufacturers and sellers from liability if a customer is injured.

  55.At the same time,the American Law Institute——a group of judges,lawyers,and academics whose recommendations carry substantial weight——issued new guidelines for tort law stating that companies need not warn customers of obvious dangers or bombard them with a lengthy list of possible ones.

  56.In the past year,however,software companies have developed tools that allow companies to push information directly out to consumers,transmitting marketing messages directly to targeted customers.

  57.The examples of Virtual Vineyards,Amazon.com,and other pioneers show that a Web site selling the right kind of products with the right mix of interactivity,hospitality,and security will attract online customers.

  58.An invisible border divides those arguing for computers in the classroom on the behalf of students'career prospects and those arguing for computers in the classroom for broader reasons of radical education reform.

  59.Rather,we have a certain conception of the American citizen,a character who is incomplete if he cannot competently access how his livelihood and happiness are affected by things outside of himself.

  60.Besides,this is unlikely to produce the needed number of every kind of professional in a country as large as ours and where the economy is spread over so many states and involves so many international corporations.

  61.But,for a small group of students,professional training might be the way to go since well-developed skills,all other factors being equal,can be the difference between having a job and not.

  62.Declaring that he was opposed to using this unusual animal husbandry technique to clone humans,he ordered that federal funds not be used for such an experiment-although no one had proposed to do so——and asked an independent panel of experts chaired by Princeton President Harold Shapiro to report back to the White House in 90 days with recommendations for a national policy on human cloning.

  63.In a draft preface to the recommendations,discussed at the 17 May meeting,Shapiro suggested that the panel had found a broad consensus that it would be morally unacceptable to attempt to create a human child by adult nuclear cloning.

  64.Because current federal law already forbids the use of federal funds to create embryos(the earliest stage of human offspring before birth)for research or to knowingly endanger an embryo's life,NBAC will remain silent on embryo research.

  65.If experiments are planned and carried out according to plan as faithfully as the reports in the science journals indicate,then it is perfectly logical for management to expect research to produce results measurable in dollars and cents.

  66.It is entirely reasonable for auditors to believe that scientists who know exactly where they are going and how they will get there should not be distracted by the necessity of keeping one eye on the cash register while the other eye is on the microscope.

  67.Nor,if regularity and conformity to a standard pattern are as desirable to the scientist as the writing of his papers would appear to reflect,is management to be blamed for discriminating against the odd balls among researchers in favor of more conventional thinkers who work well with the team.

  68.The grand mediocrity of today——everyone being the same in survival and number of off-spring——means that natural selection has lost 80% of its power in upper-middle-class India compared to the tribe.

  69. When a new movement in art attains a certain fashion,it is advisable to find out what its advocates are aiming at,for,however farfetched and unreasonable their principles may seem today,it is possible that in years to come they may be regarded as normal.

  70.With regard to Futurist poetry,however,the case is rather difficult,for whatever Futurist poetry may be even admitting that the theory on which it is based may be right——it can hardly be classed as Literature.

  71.But it is a little upsetting to read in the explanatory notes that a certain line describes a fight between a Turkish and a Bulgarian officer on a bridge off which they both fall into the river——and then to find that the line consists of the noise of their falling and the weights of the officers,Pluff!Pluff!A hundred and eighty-five kilograms.

  72.The coming of age of the postwar baby boom and an entry of women into the male- domiated job market have limited the opportunities of teen-agers who are already questioning the heavy personal sacrifices involved in climbing Japan's rigid social ladder to good schools and jobs.

  73.Last year Mitsuo Setoyama,who was then education minister,raised eyebrows when he argued that liberal reforms introduced by the American occupation authorities after World War II had weakened the Japanese morality of respect for parents。

  74.With economic growth has come centralization:fully 76 percent of Japan's 119 million citizens live in cities where community and the extended family have been abandoned in favor of isolated,tow-generation households.

  75.If the tradition of ambition is to have vitality,it must be widely shared;and it especially must be highly regarded by people who are themselves admired,the educated not least among them.

  76.Certainly people do not seem less interested in success and its signs now than formerly. Summer homes,European travel,BMWs——the locations,place names and name brands may change,but such items do not seem less in demand today than a decade or two years ago. 77. Instead,we are treated to fine hypocritical spectacles,which now more than ever seem in ample supply: the critic of American materialism with a Southampton summer home;the publisher of radical books who takes his meals in three-star restaurants;the journalist advocating participatory democracy in all phases of life,whose own children are enrolled in private schools.

  78.No clear-cut distinction can be drawn between professional and amateurs in science: exceptions can be found to any rule. Nevertheless,the word amateur does carry a connotation that person concerned is not fully integrated into the scientific community and,in particular,may not share its values.

  79.The trend was naturally most obvious in those areas of science based especially on a mathematical or laboratory training,and can be illustrated in terms of the development of geology in the United kingdom.

  80.A comparison of British geological publications over the last century and a half reveals not simply an increasing emphasis on the primacy of research,but also a changing definition of what constitutes an acceptable research paper.

  翻译

  41.很不幸,这最令人震惊的解释有一点缺陷。一些经济学家认为世界经济结构的强有力的变化已经结束了那个以经济增长和通货膨胀的历史关联为基础的旧的经济模式。

  42.例如,阿斯旺大坝使得尼罗河不再洪水泛滥,但是它也夺去了埃及以前所享有的洪水留下的肥沃淤泥——这些换宋的就是这么个疾病滋生的水库,现在这个水库积满了淤泥,几乎不能发电了。

  43.企业重组的新方法——所有那些重新设计、缩小规模的做法——只是对一个经济的整体生产力做出了一方面的贡献。这种经济还受许多其他因素的驱动,比如结合设备和机械上的投资、新技术,以及在教育和培训上的投资。

  44.他的同事迈克尔·比尔说,有太多的公司已经用一种机械的方式实行公司内部的重新设计,在没有充分考虑长期赢利的能力下削减了成本。

  45.科学卫士们在会议上也表述了他们的关注,比如1995年在纽约市举行的“逃离科学与理性”会议,以及去年6月在布法罗附近召开的“(错误)信息时代的科学”会议。

  46.一项关于1996年新闻报道的调查显示,反科学的标签还可以贴在许多其他团体身上,从提倡消灭最后存留的天花病毒的权威机构,到鼓吹削减基础研究经费的共和党人(都被贴上了反科学的标签)。

  47.环境研究的先驱、斯坦福大学的保罗·厄尔里西认为,科学真正的敌人是那些对支持全球变暖、臭氧层损耗以及工业发展的其他后果的证据提出置疑的人。

  48.这种发展——以及其对美国政治、经济在未来几年的潜在的强有力的影响一一使得南部在全国人口普查中有史以来首次成为美国人口最密集的地区。

  49.他们常常选择——现在依然这样选择——居住在那些气候较为寒冷的地区,比如俄勒冈、爱达荷,还有阿拉斯加,为的是逃避烟雾、犯罪,以及“金州”(加利福尼亚)城市化进程中的其他问题。

  50.结果,加利福尼亚的人口增长率在20世纪70年代时下降到了18.5%一稍高于60年代增长率的三分之二,大大低于西部其他各州。

  51.跟世界上的大多数火山不同的是,它们(热点)并不总是在由构成地球表面巨大漂流板块之间的边界上出现;相反,它们中有许多位于一个板块较纵深的内部。

  52.携带这些大陆板块的相对运动已经能够被详细地表述出来,但是这些板块相对于另一些板块的运动还不能轻易地解释为它们相对于地球内部的运动。

  53.系好安全带能够挽救性命,它能将丧生和重伤的概率减少一半以上。

  54.尽管警告常常是适当而且必须的——比如对于药物相互作用的危险提出警告——许多警告还是按州或联邦政府规定要求给出的,然而(我们)并不清楚,如果顾客受到伤害时,这些警告是不是确实可以使得生产者和销售者豁免责任。

  55.与此同时,美国法律研究所——由一群法官、律师和理论专家组成,他们的建议分量极重——发布了新的民事伤害法令指导方针,宣称公司不必提醒顾客注意显而易见的危险,也不必连篇累牍地一再提请他们注意一些可能会出现的危险。

  56.但是,在过去的一年间,软件公司已经开发出工具,使得公司可以直接将信息“推出”给顾客,直接把营销讯息传递给目标顾客。

  57.像VirtualVineyards,Amazon.com这样的先驱网站表明,一个将交互性、热情服务和安全性合理结合以销售同类商品的网址是可以吸引网上客户注意的。

  58.有些人为了学生的就业前景为教室里放置电脑而辩,有些人为教育的彻底改革中更为广泛的理由为教室里放置电脑而辩,这两群人之间有一条无形的界线。

  59.我们更应该具有的是作为美国公民的某种观念,这个公民人物如果不能很恰当地认识到自己的生存和幸福是如何受到自身之外的事物的影响,那么其公民特征就是不完整的。

  60.另外,在我们这么一个大国里,经济延展到这么多的州、涉及到这么多的国际公司,因而要按照数量培养出所需的各类专业人员是不大可能的

  61.但是,对一个小部分学生来说,职业教育也是条可取的路径。因为在其他因素相同的情况下,技能的娴熟是得到工作与否的关键。

  62.他宣布自己反对使用这种非同寻常的畜牧繁殖技术来克隆人类,并下令。不准联邦政府基金用于做此类试验——尽管还没有人建议这么做——他还请一个以普林斯顿大学校长哈罗得·夏皮罗为首的独立的专家组在90天内向白宫汇报关于制定有关克隆人的国家政策的建议。

  63.在5月17日的会议上所讨论的这份建议书的序言草案中,夏皮罗提出,专家组已经达成广泛共识,那就是“试图通过成人细胞核克隆来制造人类幼儿的做法在道德上是不可接受的”

  64.因为现今的联邦法律已经禁止使用联邦基金克隆胚胎(人类后裔在出生前的最早阶段)用于研究或者有意地威胁胚胎的生命,NBAC在胚胎研究上将保持沉默。

  65.如果试验是像科学杂志上的报告所示的那样如实地根据计划规划和实施的话,那么对管理层来说,期待研究能够产生可以用金钱衡量的结果是完全合理的。

  66.审查者完全有理由相信,知道自己准备做什么、怎么做的科学家不应该因为必须一只眼盯着收银机,一只眼盯着显微镜而分散了注意力。

  67.如果科学家对标准式样的整齐划一的要求就像他论文的写作所反映的一样,那么管理层就不该因歧视研究者中的“思维与众不同的人”,喜欢其中较为传统的“善于团队合作”的思想者而受到指责了。

  68.当今人与人在很大程度上的平等——即面对自然淘汰法则人人机会均等,并且连子嗣的数目都一样——意味着和在印度土著部落中的情况相比,印度中上层阶级中已丧失了80%的自然选择中的优势。

  69.当艺术领域的一个新运动发展成某种流行时尚时,最好应该弄清这场运动倡导者的真正意图,因为,不管他们的原则在今天看来多么牵强无理,很可能多年以后他们的理论会被视为正常。

  70.然而就未来主义诗歌来说,情况则不这么简单了,因为不管未来主义诗歌是什么——就算承认它赖以存在的理论基础都是正确的——这种形式也很难被归入文学。

  71.但当我们先是从注释中得知某诗行讲述了一个土耳其军官和一个保加利亚军官在桥上动手打架并双双掉进河里,而后却发现该行诗中不过只充斥着“扑通,扑通,185公斤重”这类对他们落水时的动静以及对军官们体重的描写时,我们不免感到困惑不安。

  72.战后婴儿潮一代的步入成年以及女性打入男性主导的劳动力市场使得青少年的发展机会变得极为有限,他们已经在不停地质疑为了爬上日本国内那通往优秀学校和体面工作的严酷的社会阶梯而做出的巨大的个人牺牲。

  73.去年,当担任教育部长职务的濑户光夫争辩说二战后由美国占领当局引入的自由主义革新削弱了日本民族“尊敬父母的道德品质”的时候,舆论哗然。

  74.随着经济的增长,出现了集中化:全国1.19亿公民,其中整整76%的人口定居城市:在这里,原来的社区和多代同堂的大家庭已被摒弃,取而代之的是与外界疏于往来的、只由两代人组成的核心家庭。

  75.如果野心的传统具有生命力,那么这传统必会为许多人分享;尤其会受到自己也受人仰慕的人士的青睐,在这些人中受过良好教育的可不占少数。

  76.当然,人们现在对成功及其各种标志的兴趣似乎并不亚于先前。消夏别墅、欧陆旅行、宝马车——地点、地名以及品牌或许会有变化,但这类事物在今天被人渴求的程度也似乎不会亚于一二十年前。

  77.相反,我们被款待看到这样一些虚伪的壮观景象,他们似乎比以前的任何时候都更供应充足:美国式物质主义的批判者却拥有位于南安普顿的避暑山庄:激进书籍的出版商却在三星级餐厅享用一日三餐;倡导在人生各个阶段的参与民主制的记者,他的子女却就读于私立学校。

  78.科学领域的专业人员和业余爱好者之间划不出泾渭分明的界线:因为任何规则都有例外。然而,“业余”一词的确意味着相关人员不能充分融入职业科学界,尤其未能分享科学圈子的价值。

  79.很自然,这种趋势会在尤以数学或实验室训练为基础的自然学科领域表现最为明显,并且可以英国的地质学发展作例证来说明。

  80.将过去一个半世纪英国地质学领域的出版物做一下比较,(我们)就会发现不仅对科研的主导地位的强调不断攀升,而且一篇可接受的科研论文所包含的内容的定义也有所变化。

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