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考研辅导教师传授英语阅读原文三读法

李传伟   2007-03-28 08:57 【 】【我要纠错

  长期的阅读研究和教学实践使我了解到学习考研英语的同学的众多困惑,如何高速有效地阅读原文是其中之一。在考试时,有的同学运用“地毯式”阅读法,读到每个词时都若有所思,战战兢兢,惟恐意思稍有偏差,陶醉于个别句子的繁琐分析,惟恐自己不了解句子的成分。这种缓慢谨慎的阅读虽然在心理上能给阅读者以一种虚假的踏实感,但是无论是从理解原文还是从做题的角度而言都表现为效率低下。针对这一普遍情况,笔者结合2006年的阅读第一篇文章介绍阅读原文的一种有效方法——考研阅读原文“三读法”:详读重点,略读细节,跳读修饰。

  一、详读重点

  所谓重点,就原文而言,就是文章的基本结构、内容和态度;就答题而言,就是问题所对应的原文的出题句。以这个标准来衡量,需要重点阅读的原文词句就不会很多,因为文章后面只有五道题,它们对应的原文在五句以上。为了回答文章后面的问题,需要重点阅读原文的下列内容:

  1.宏观方面

  1)文章结构

  2)文章主题句

  3)各段首末句

  4)作者态度

  2.微观方面

  1)有转折处

  2)重要标点

  3)句子主干

  二、略读细节

  相对于论点而言,论据是细节性的。如果明白论点,论据可以读得较快。相对于段落主题而言,解释段落主题的支持句是细节性的。可以略读的细节包括:

  1.例子

  2.解释

  三、跳读修饰

  细节性的修饰,只对论点起次要的补充说明作用,第一遍阅读时可以跳过。此外,这些细节性的东西通常也不出题,即使涉及问题,到时候看也来得及。可以跳读的细节包括:

  1.两个逗号之间的东西

  2.两个破折号之间的东西

  3.人物的头衔

  4.并列叙述

  下面以2006年考研阅读第一篇为例,说明如何运用“三读法”达到最佳效果。

  In spite of "endless talk of difference, American society is an amazing machine for homogenizing people. There is "the democratizing uniformity of dress and discourse, and the casualness and absence of deference" characteristic of popular culture. People are absorbed into "a culture of consumption", launched by the 19th-entury department stores that offered "vast arrays of goods in an elegant atmosphere. Instead of intimate shops catering to a knowledgeable elite" these were stores "anyone could enter, regardless of class or background. This turned shopping into a public and democratic act. " The mass media, advertising and sports are other forces for homogenization.

  Immigrants are quickly fitting into this common culture, which may not be altogether elevating but is hardly poisonous. Writing for the National Immigration Forum, Gregory Rodriguez reports that today's immigration is neither at unprecedented level nor resistant to assimilation. In 1998 immigrants were 9.8 percent of population; in 1900, 13.6 percent. In the 10 years prior to 1990, 3.1 immigrants arrived for every 1,000 residents; in the 10 years prior to 1890, 9.2 for every 1,000. Now, consider three indices of assimilation—language, home ownership and intermarriage.

  The 1990 Census revealed that "a majority of immigrants from each of the fifteen most common countries of origin spoke English 'well' or 'very well' after ten years of residence. " The children of immigrants tend to be bilingual and proficient in English. "By the third generation, the original language is lost in the majority of immigrant families. "Hence the description of America as a "graveyard" for languages. By 1996 foreign-born immigrants who had arrived before 1970 had a home ownership rate of 75.6 percent, higher than the 69.8 percent rate among native-born Americans.

  Foreign-born Asians and Hispanics "have higher rates of intermarriage than do U.S-born whites and blacks. " By the third generation, one third of Hispanic women are married to non-Hispanics, and 41 percent of Asian-American women are married to non-Asians.

  Rodriguez notes that children in remote villages around the world are fans of superstars like Arnold Schwarzenegger and Garth Brooks, yet "some Americans fear that immigrants living within the United States remain somehow immune to the nation's assimilative power."

  Are there divisive issues and pockets of seething anger in America? Indeed. It is big enough to have a bit of everything. But particularly when viewed against America's turbulent past, today's social indices hardly suggest a dark and deteriorating social environment.

  21. The word "homogenizing" (Line 1, Paragraph 1) most probably means

       [A] identifying.                   [B] associating.   

       [C] assimilating.                  [D] monopolizing.

  22.  According to the author, the department stores of the 19th-century

       [A] played a role in the spread of popular culture.

       [B] became intimate shops for common consumers.

       [C] satisfied the needs of a knowledgeable elite.

       [D] owed its emergence to the culture of consumption.

  23. The text suggests that immigrants now in the U.S.

       [A] are resistant to homogenization.

       [B] exert a great influence on American culture.

       [C] are hardly a threat to the common culture.

       [D] constitute the majority of the population.

  24. Why are Arnold Schwarzenegger and Garth Brooks mentioned in Paragraph 5?

       [A] To prove their popularity around the world.

       [B] To reveal the public's fear of immigrants.

       [C] To give examples of successful immigrants.

       [D] To show the powerful influence of American culture.

  25. In the author's opinion, the absorption of immigrants into American society is

       [A] rewarding.             [B] successful.    

       [C] fruitless.             [D] harmful.

  一、详读重点

  根据上面要求详细阅读的内容,作者以红色标出了重点。首先是宏观方面。从文章结构而言,本文主要阐述一个概念homogenization(同化),属于常见的“一枝独秀型”结构,即主要说明一个核心概念。文章首句In spite of “endless talk of difference, American society is an amazing machine for homogenizing people就是全文的中心。除了这一句之外,其他段落的首末句也值得关注。从态度而言,作者在首句用amazing(令人惊叹的)、第二段首句(hardly poisonous)与全文末句(hardly suggest a dark and deteriorating social environment)使用双重否定表明移民成功融入美国社会。

  从微观方面而言,第二段首句(but)、倒数第二段末句(yet)与末段末句(but)三处的转折对应三道题,加上文章首句也对应一道题,这样四道题——1、3、4、5题所对应的原文就确定了。剩下的第二题也很容易根据问题中的关键词19th-century定位第一段。

  由此可见,只要阅读时抓住了重点,就能迅速地定位各个问题所对应的原文。

  二、略读细节与跳读修饰

  一方面为了加快速度,另一方面为了提高准确率,对于细节与修饰部分可以较快地阅读甚至跳过。在第一段中,第二句难以理解,但是由于放在文章的主题之后,应该属于对首句主题的细节性说明。所以,阅读的时候如果看不懂不要较真儿,因为它只是一个论据,而且通常不考。

  在第二段中,段末包含数字年代的两个句子属于并列性的细节,应该速读甚至跳读。第三段与第四段是对第二段末句所说的三个表明同化的指标——language, home ownership and intermarriage 的详细说明,属于明显的细节,阅读时应该速读。如此阅读不仅抓住了重点,而且节约了时间。

  综上所述,只要详读重点、略读细节与跳读修饰,就能做到正确率与速度双丰收。所以,考研阅读的最高境界是:精读要考的,略读次要的,不管无关的。

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