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考研英语英译汉十大难点之名词翻译方法

考研教育网   2007-12-05 10:25 【 】【我要纠错

  二、名词的翻译方法

  1、不认识的名词

  (1)从文章句形找它的解释

  例:Pearson has pieced together the work of hundreds of researchers around the world to produce a unique millennium technology calendar that gives the latest dates when we can expect hundreds of key breakthroughs and discoveries to take place.

  未来学家皮尔森汇集世界各地数百位研究人员的成果,编制了一个独特的新技术千年历,它列出了人们有望看到数百项重大突破和发现的最迟日期。

  (2)看看前边有没有同义词

  例:But that,Pearson points out,is only the start of man-machine integration:It will be the beginning of the long process of integration that will ultimately lead to a fully electronic human before the end of the next century.

  但皮尔森指出,这个突破仅仅是人机一体化的开始:“它是人机一体化漫长之路的第一步,人机一体化最终会使人们在下世纪末之前研制出完全电子化的仿真人。”

  (3)从构词法找答案

  例:Astrophysicists working with ground based detectors at the South Pole and balloon borne instruments are closing in on such structures,and may report their findings soon.

  天体物理学家使用南极陆基探测器及球载仪器,正越来越近地观测这些云系,也许不久后会报告他们的观测结果。

  2、产生新意的名词

  (1)用逻辑推理法

  例:In general,the tests work most effectively when the qualities to be measured can be most precisely defined and least effectively when what is to be measured or predicted cannot be well defined.

  一般地说,当所要测定的特征能很精确地界定时,测试最为有效;而当所要测定或预测的东西不能明确地界定时,测试的效果则最差。

  (2)紧扣文章的主题

  例:There is no agreement whether methodology refers to the concepts peculiar to historical work in general or to the research techniques appropriate to the various branches of historical inquiry.

  所谓方法论是指一般的历史研究中的特有概念,还是指历史探究中各个具体领域适用的研究手段,人们对此意见不一。

  (3)语言环境

  例:But even more important,it was the farthest that scientists had been able to look into the past,for what they were seeing were the patterns and structures that existed 15 billion years ago.

  但更为重要的是,这是科学家们所能观测到的最遥远的过去的景象,因为他们看到的是150亿年前宇宙云的形状和结构。

  (4)熟悉习惯表达法

  例:Arguing from the view that humans are different from animals in every relevant respect,extremists of this kind think that animals lie outside the area of moral choice.

  这类人持极端看法,认为人与动物在各相关方面都不相同,对待动物无须考虑道德问题。

  3、抽象名词如何处理

  把抽象名词按照以下四种方法来应对

  (1)名词和动词的配合

  例:The existence of the giant clouds was virtually required for the Big Bang,first put forward in the 1920s,to maintain its reign as the dominant explanation of the cosmos.

  巨大的宇宙云的存在,实际上是使二十世纪二十年代首创的大爆炸论得以保持其宇宙起源论的主导地位所不可缺少的。

  (2)用形容词和名词之间进行配合

  例:Interest in historical methods has arisen less through external challenge to the validity of history as an intellectual discipline and more from internal quarrels among historians themselves.

  人们之所以关注历史研究的方法论,主要是因为史学界内部意见不一,其次是因为外界并不认为历史是一门学问。

  (3)名词和句子之间进行配合

  例:Interest in historical methods has arisen less through external challenge to the validity of history as an intellectual discipline and more from internal quarrels among historians themselves.

  人们之所以关注历史研究的方法论,主要是因为史学界内部意见不一,其次是因为外界并不认为历史是一门学问。

  (4)名词和章之间进行配合

  例:It applies equally to traditional historians who view history as only the external and internal criticism of sources,and to social science historians who equate their activity with specific techniques.

  这种谬误同样存在于历史传统派和历史社科派;前者认为历史就是史学界内部和外部人士对各种史料来源的评论,后者认为历史的研究是具体方法的研究。

  4、专有名词的问题

  包括人名、地名和专业术语

  (1)熟悉的专有名词

  例:Galileo''s greatest glory was that in 1609 he was the first person to turn the newly invented telescope on the heavens to prove that the planets revolve around the sun rather than around the Earth.

  伽利略的最光辉业绩在于他在1609年第一个把新发明的望远镜对准天空,以证实行星是围绕太阳旋转而不是围绕地球旋转的

  (2)不太熟悉的专有名词

  例:Pearson has pieced together the work of hundreds of researchers around the world to produce a unique millennium technology calendar that gives the latest dates when we can expect hundreds of key breakthroughs and discoveries to take place.

  未来学家皮尔森汇集世界各地数百位研究人员的成果,编制了一个独特的新技术千年历,它列出了人们有望看到数百项重大突破和发现的最迟日期。

  (3)复合性的专有名词

  例:The existence of the giant clouds was virtually required for the Big Bang,first put forward in the 1920s,to maintain its reign as the dominant explanation of the cosmos.

  巨大的宇宙云的存在,实际上是使二十世纪二十年代首创的大爆炸论得以保持其宇宙起源论的主导地位所不可缺少的。

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