Part I Cloze Test （20 points）
Directions： Read the following passage carefully and choose the best one from the four choices marked A， B， C and D to fill in each blank. （10 points）
Americans today believe that acceptable social behavior follows effortlessly from personal virtue. The 1）______ between morals and manners has become blurred （模糊）。 All you need is a good heart， most people assume， and the rest will take care of itself. You don't have to write thank-you notes.
Many Americans believe that natural behavior is beautiful. The “natural” 2）_____ to human relations presumes that to know any person well enough is to love him， that the only human problem is a communication problem. This 3）_____ that people might be separated by basic genuinely irreconcilable （不可调和的） differences —— philosophical， political， or religious —— and assumes that all such differences are 4）_____ misunderstandings.
Indeed， it has never been easier to insult people inadvertently （非故意地）。 A gentleman opens a door for a lady because his mother taught him that ladies 5）_____ such courtesies， but this one turns around and spits in his eye because he has insulted her womanhood. A young lady 6）_____ her seat in a crowded bus to an elderly， frail gentleman，and he gives her a dirty look because she has insulted his manhood. 7）_____ you，those are just people trying to be nice；the only problem is that they are operating on different systems of etiquette.
Curiously， it has never been 8）_____ to insult people intentionally. If you say， “You are nasty and I hate you，” the person is apt to reply， “ Oh， you're feeling 9）_____； I'll wait until you feel better.”
The idea that people can behave “naturally” without resorting to an artificial code tacitly （心照不宣地） agreed upon by their society is as silly as the idea that they can communicate by using a language without 10）_____ accepted semantic and grammatical rules.
1） A. instinct B. distinction C. intuition D. similarity
2） A. road B. way C. approach D. means
3） A. approves B. denies C. supports D. disagrees
4） A. no more than B. not more than C. a bit more than D. much more than
5） A. dislike B. approve C. thank D. appreciate
6） A. offering B. offered C. offers D. offer
7） A. Mind B. Warn C. Beware D. Notice
8） A. better B. easier C. worse D. harder1
9） A. friendly B. terrible C. disgusting D. hostile
10） A. superficially B. profoundly C. commonly D. individually
Directions： Complete the following passage with the appropriate words from the box， change the form if necessary. （ 10 points）
constitute， efficiency， control， code， environment， effect， impact， shabby， describe， straight， indirect， function， work， amateur， research
For years， some companies have been attempting to increase the 11）____________ of employees by prescribing dress and establishing dress 12）____________. Most of these schemes have proved ineffective because they have been created by 13）_____________ who don't understand the effect clothing has on the work 14）____________. Dress codes can 15）____________， but the assumption that clothing has a major， continuing 16）_____________ on the wearer is erroneous. True， you may feel 17）____________ when you wear shabby clothes， and your morale （精神） may perk up（振作）a bit when you splurge on an expensive tie. But clothing most significantly affects the people whom the wearer meets and， in the long run， affects the wearer only 18）____________ because it controls the reaction of the world to him. My 19）____________ shows that in most business situations the wearer is not directly affected by his clothing， and that the effect of clothing on other people is mainly 20）_____________ by the socioeconomic level of the clothing.
Part II Reading Comprehension （40 points）
Directions： Each of the passages below is followed by some questions or incomplete sentences. For each question or sentence there are four answers or choices marked A，B，C and D. Read the passage carefully and choose the best answer or choice to each of the questions or sentences.
In business settings， the handshake that connotes confidence， sincerity and openness goes like this： right hand extended and vertical， a firm but not a crushing grip， and in Texas， three or four full pumps up and down. On the East Coast， it's three to five shorter， quicker pumps. And in California， it's one or two quick pumps —— anything more than that is just too much.
So says communications specialist Patti Wood， who trains businessmen and public speakers on improving their presentation skills， and who frequently interprets the body language of the rich and powerful for the media.
“It's not the firmness so much as the fact that the palm of your hand has full contact with the palm of the other person's hand，” Wood says.
She argues that it takes 90 seconds for someone to formulate an opinion about another person based on first impressions.
In business， whether it's making a sales pitch， building clientele or creating rapport with co-workers， bosses or employees， those first 90 seconds are crucial and hard to erase. Elissa Foster， communications professor at the University of Texas-San Antonio， agrees.
“Most hiring decisions are made within the first 10 seconds of a meeting， before you even sit and talk，” Wood said.
“No matter what a person says after those 10 seconds， the interviewer spends their time saying to themselves， 'I was right，' looking for information to confirm their first impression.”
Wood advises job candidates to smile sincerely as they give a firm and formal equal-power handshake， both at the beginning and the closing of an interview.
“Because even if you don't think you did well， you want to face that person， smile and give them a good handshake，” she said. “You can save a bad interview with a good handshake.”
21. Which of the following statements is true according to the first paragraph？
A. Handshake can show your confidence， sincerity and openness.
B. It is advisable to give a handshake by grasping other's hand firmly.
C. Handshake in business varies from place to place.
D. A proper handshake is a quick shake with three or four fingers.
22. In the sentence “those first 90 seconds are crucial and hard to erase” （Par. 5）， “erase” here means ___________.
A. pass B. endure C. forget D. remember
23.In the job interview， most interviewers make the hiring decision ___________.
A. based on the first impression of no more than 10 seconds
B. after the contact with you for 90 seconds
C. after you finish your talk
D. after They gets more information
24.Which of the following statements is implied in the passage？
A. During the interview， the interviewers pay no attention to the job candidates but look for proof of their decision.
B. You should give handshake at the beginning and the closing of the meeting.
C. While shaking hands， you should smile and keep an eye contact with the interview.
D. You may get another chance for the job if you give a good handshake after you fail in the interview.
25.The topic of the passage is ________________.
A. Proper Body Language
B. A Good Handshake
C. A Successful Interview
D. An Effective Communication
People have wondered for a long time how their personalities and behaviors are formed. It is not easy to explain why one person is intelligent and another is not， or why one is cooperative and another is competitive.
Social scientists are， of course， extremely interested in these types of questions. They want to explain why we possess certain characteristics and exhibit certain behaviors. There are no clear answers yet， but two distinct schools of thought on the matter have developed. As one might expect， the two approaches are very different from one another， and there is a great deal of debate between proponents （支持者） of each theory. The controversy is often referred to as “nature/ nurture”。
Those who support the “nature” side of the conflict believe that our personalities and behavior patterns are largely determined by biological and genetic factors. That our environment has little， if anything， to do with our abilities， characteristics and behavior is central to this theory. Taken to an extreme， this theory maintains that our behavior is predetermined to such a degree that we are almost completely governed by our instincts.
Proponents of the “nurture” theory， or， as they are often called， behaviorists （行为主义者）， claimed that our environment is more important than our biologically based instincts in determining how we will act. A behaviorist， B. F. Skinner， sees humans as beings whose behavior is almost completely shaped by their surroundings. The behaviorists' view of the human being is quite mechanistic； they maintain that， like machines， humans respond to environmental stimuli （刺激） as the basis of their behavior.
Either of these theories cannot yet fully explain human behavior. In fact， it is quite likely that the key to our behavior lies somewhere between these two extremes. That the controversy will continue for a long time is certain.
26. Which of the following statements would the supporters of the “nature” theory agree with？
A. A person's instincts have little effect on his actions.
B. Environment is important in determining a person's behavior and personality.
C. Biological reasons have a strong influence on how we act.
D. The behaviorists' view correctly explains how we act.
27. Which one of the following statements would the proponents of the “nurture” theory agree with？
A. Person's character is greatly influenced by his environment.
B. Behaviorist theory is not correct.
C. Biologically based instincts are important in how we act.
D. Environment has little to do with behavior.
28. Skinner .
A. supports the nature theory
B. believes in the importance of genes in determining personality
C. thinks the environment plays an important role in determining character
D. believes instincts govern behavior
29. Concerning the nature/ nurture controversy， the writer of this article .
A. supports the nature theory
B. supports the nurture theory
C. believes both are completely wrong
D. thinks that the correct explanation of human behavior will take ideas from both theories
30. In the United States， Black people often score below White people on intelligence tests. With this in mind， which of the following statements is NOT true？
A. Nature proponents would say that Whites are genetically superior to Blacks.
B. Supporters of the nature theory would say that Whites score well because they have a superior environment.
C. Behaviorists would say that Blacks often lack the educational and environmental advantages that Whites enjoy.
D. Nurture proponents would disagree that Blacks are biologically inferior to Whites.
In Britain today， is it possible to tell a person's class just by looking at him？ Physical details alone tell us about healthy， diet and type of work done. A hundred years ago the working class very often looked unhealthy， small and was either too thin or too fat. The upper classes were often tall， sporting types who were used to a good diet and looked healthy. Today living and working conditions have improved， and such descriptions would no longer be so true. People are taller now than a hundred years ago. Everyone in Britain today is able to have free medicine， a good diet， acceptable working conditions and enough rest and leisure.
The clothes people choose to wear， however， do provide information about their background. The most obvious way in which the background is shown by clothes is for the amount of money spent on them. Expensive clothes look expensive and show their wearer has money. Clothes can provide other clues as well. The upper classes appear to be less interested in fashion and wear good quality clothes in non-bright colors， made of natural material like wool， leather or cotton. Lower working class people often choose clothes in bright colors， made of man-made material. A sociological explanation for this would be that color and interest are missing from their lives， and therefore any opportunity to introduce this is taken.
Clothes are available at a price within most people's reach. New clothes make the wearer feel good， and show some degree of wealth to the outside world. Today it is the younger people who spend most money on clothes. Fashion is no longer for the upper classes and rich. Young people from all social classes spend a lot of money on clothes. Some new fashions are started by the lower working class people who want to look different and feel important. They want people to look at them.
31. In the past， one's appearance could not tell us about his.
A. habit B. diet C. health D. occupation
32. The clothes people choose to wear can tell us about their.
A. education B. occupation C. hobby D. background
33. The upper classes tend to wear clothes.
A. in fashion B. in bright colors
C. in dark-color clothes D. of man-made material
34. The lower working class people start the new fashion because .
A. they want to look different and healthy
B. they want to show their distinctions
C. they want to show their wealth
D. they want to show their taste
35. Which of the following statements is NOT true？
A. Expensive clothes look expensive and show the wearer has money.
B. The lower working class people prefer clothes in bright colors because they lack colors in their lives.
C. Today， it is still the upper class people who spend most money on clothes.
D. Today， fashion is no longer for the upper classes and the rich.
Distance learning is rapidly becoming an integral part of America's education system. More and more universities are offering courses through technology-enabled learning， and the proliferation of these opportunities is pushing the boundaries of conventional teaching and learning.
As Nancy Knowlton， president and chief operating officer of SMART Technologies Inc.， observes， “Distance education will soon be a fundamental part of learning at all levels through multiple modes of delivery.” According to Knowlton， this trend is directly tied to advances in interactive technology and a growing comfort level using it. “Technology is becoming increasingly easier to use. Electronic teaching tools are much more stable and no longer require constant technical support.” She adds， “People are also more technology savvy. They're able to troubleshoot problems and solve more technical issues on their own， making teaching with technology an attractive and viable option.”
SMART is a pioneer in creating products that actively support distance collaboration and learning. For example， the SMART Board is an interactive whiteboard that can be hooked up to a computer and an LCD projector， enabling teachers to display and control computer applications from the Board's touch-sensitive surface. Students and teachers are able to write notes over top of applications and then save， e-mail， or post them on the Web. The Boards， which range in size from 47 inches to 72 inches diagonally， deliver a bright， easy-to-see image in real time using conferencing software. This allows an entire class to view and interact with information presented during the class——no matter where they're geographically located in relation to the person conducting the seminar or lecture.
A certain infrastructure must be in place to deliver distance education courses. In short， there are two necessary components： 1） Audio， so that remote students can listen and participate in class discussions； and 2） A data stream that enables students to view class notes and interact with the instructor. Therefore， distance education classes must have access to technologies such as computers， SMART Boards， long-distance telephone services， and audio-conferencing equipment. Additionally， technical assistance and support for both instructors and students will help to ensure a seamless， hassle-free delivery of course material.
What's next on the horizon？ “We predict that a more diverse spectrum of educational institutions will implement distance education as part of an enhanced curriculum，” says Knowlton. She also acknowledges the opportunity for distance education programs to help bridge universities with the greater community. As Knowlton describes， “We're beginning to see universities use these technologies to collaborate with corporations and research institutions around the world. It's redefining the way we think about education——the boundaries are limitless.”
36. According to the passage， the trend of distance learning is attributed to all the following except __________.
A. the improvement of the technology
B. the popularization of the computer
C. the convenience it provides for teaching and learning
D. the great demand for education
37. The SMART Board is one ____________________
A. for the teacher to display his instruction to the students
B. for the students to save information displayed by the teacher
C. for the teacher and students to show what they want to show to each other
D. for the teacher and students to talk with each other over distance
38. Which of the following devices is responsible for the function of keeping students communicating with each other？
A. Audio-conferencing equipment B. A data stream
C. Touch-sensitive surface D. LCD projector
39. According to the author， the horizon of education is one that _________.
A. offers more distance education for enhanced curriculum
B. offers more opportunities of education to remote communities
C. offers more cooperation with companies and research institutions
D. All of the above
40. The sentence “People are also more technology savvy” means __________.
A. people are also more slaves of technology than masters
B. people are also more familiar with technology
C. people are also more dependent on technology
D. people are also more independent of technology
Part III Short Answer Questions （10 Points）
Directions： In this section there is a short passage with five questions. Read the passage carefully and then answer the questions in the fewest possible words （not exceeding 15 words）。
Poor countries are failing in their efforts to stop avian flu from spreading to humans. Yesterday， Indonesian doctors reported an eighth human death from the disease in that country； if confirmed， it would be the 68th avian flu death worldwide. In Bangladesh， we have yet to see the virus on our poultry farms. When we do， we will have to confront the same public health crisis that Indonesia and other countries face now.
The government of Bangladesh has prudently banned the import of poultry from all countries that have declared bird flu outbreaks， as well as from a few countries that are suspected of covering up outbreaks. But because the virus can also be spread by migratory birds， it seems inevitable that it will eventually reach Bangladesh. And we in the industry know that vaccinating chickens， as Indonesia has done and China now proposes to do， will not prevent human deaths.
First， flu viruses mutate（变异） frequently； a particular vaccine may match the field virus for just a few months， after which it will be less effective. And even when the vaccine does match， it is possible for an inoculated（注射预防疫苗的） flock to include a few unprotected birds that replicate enough virus to spread the disease to farm workers and surrounding farms. This can happen because workers injecting vaccines do not always use the correct technique when they grow tired or bored； or because even correctly vaccinated chickens may not have an immune response if they are malnourished or stressed by crowding. Because the disease will kill only the few unprotected chickens， its presence on farms that have used the vaccine may go unnoticed until farm workers or neighboring households are infected. That is probably why humans are still periodically dying of bird flu in Indonesia despite the vaccinations there.
Many Indonesians raise chickens in their backyards or keep pet birds in cages. If the virus spreads among these birds， their human owners could be exposed， thus increasing the probability that a person could become simultaneously infected with bird flu and human flu. Such an infection might result in an exchange of genes between viruses， which could create the dreaded （and as yet unseen） pandemic（流行广的）flu virus. To prevent a pandemic（流行性疾病）， the trickle of human infections must be stopped before it becomes a flood.
The best strategy for stopping bird flu is to cull all poultry and pet birds， even healthy ones， within a wide radius（范围）of each detected outbreak. But in a country like Indonesia， where annual per capita income is only about $1，140， farmers will not kill healthy chickens without compensation. And the Indonesian government cannot afford to pay for healthy chickens to be culled. So human infections - and the threat of a pandemic - will continue.
To avert（防止）this， North America and Western Europe need to help Asian governments pay for an effective bird flu eradication（杜绝）program. This will be very expensive， because farmers have to be compensated for destroying millions of healthy chickens in affected areas. However， it would stop periodic bird flu infections in humans.
41. What causes bird flu to spread across countries even if the import of poultry is banned？
42. How many problems are mentioned in Par. 3 as regard to the measure of chicken vaccination？
43. If a person is infected with bird flu， what measures must be adopted against the spread of the virus？
44. What is most needed in poor countries for the prevention of the spread of bird flu？
45. What is the purpose of the author in writing this report？
Part IV Translation （15 points）
Directions：Put the following underlined sentences into Chinese.
46. The space-age research has many useful applications here on earth. Chronobiologists （时间生理学家） can tell you when to eat and still lose weight， what time of day you're best equipped to handle the toughest challenges， when to go to the dentist with your highest threshold（限度）of pain and when to exercise for maximum effect. Winget says， “It's a biological law of human efficiency： to achieve your best with the least effort， you have to coordinate the demands of your activities with your biological capacities.”
47. Some people have a better sense of humor than others just as some people have more musical talent， mathematical talent etc. than others. A truly funny person has a joke for every occasion， and when one is told， that triggers （引起） an entire string of jokes from that person's memory bank. A humorless person is not likely to be the most popular person in a group. It is reasonable to say that the truly humorous individual is not only well liked， but is often the focus of attention in any gathering.
48. Conventional wisdom is that the highest mission of a corporation is to maximize profits and return to shareholders. That is a myth. It has never been true. Profit is just money —— a medium of exchange. You always trade it for something else. So profits are not an end； they are a means to an end. My philosophy is this： We don't run business to earn profits. We earn profits to run our business.
49.Happy people usually have good opinions of themselves： They believe themselves to be more ethical， more intelligent， less prejudiced， better able to get along with others， and healthier than the average person. Happy people typically feel personal control. Feeling empowered rather than helpless， they also do better in school， achieve more at work， and cope better with stress. Deprived of control over one's life —— a phenomenon studied in prisoners， nursing-home patients， etc. —— people suffer lower morale（意志） and worse health. Severe poverty is depressing if it destroys people's sense of control over their life.
50.Many people are believers in their own immunity to advertising. These nave inhabitants of consumerland believe that advertising is childish， dumb， a bunch of lies， and influences only the masses of the less sophisticated. Their own purchases， they think， are made purely on the basis of value and desire， with advertising playing only a minor supporting role. But advertisers know better. Although few people admit to being greatly influenced by ads， surveys and sales figures show that a well-designed advertising campaign has dramatic effects.
Part V Writing （15 points）
Directions：Suppose you are going to take part in a speech contest next week. Now you are writing a speech of about 200 words on the topic “Manners Are of Vital Importance on Campus” for the contest， in order to advocate all college students behaving politely on campus. The following points should be included：
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