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英语阅读难句分析之分割结构

考研教育网论坛   2006-08-20 10:12 【 】【我要纠错

  分割结构是一种修辞手段,在英语句子中,特别是在书面语中,比较常见。分割结构就是指把英语句子中原来属于一个整体的句子成分分割开,一部分留在句子的原来位置,另一部分远离原来位置。

  如:The best books are treasuries of good words,the golden thoughts,which,remembered and cherished,become our constant companions and comforters. 不难看出which become our constant companions and comforters原本是一个整体,被用作状语的过去分词remembered and cherished分割开。常见的分割结构形式有同位语或同位语从句与先行词的分割,定语或and定语从句与先行词的分割,主语与谓语的分割,谓语与宾语的分割。使用分割结构的目的是使语句结构平衡,避免头重脚轻,或者为了使表达的主题思想更加突出醒目,读起来更通顺流畅。分割结构的存在说明了英语在结构形式和表达方法上的生动性和灵活性,但也造成了句子结构的错综复杂。对于分割结构,只有从结构上和语意上弄清它才能避免理解上的错误,英译汉时要把原来属于一个整体部分的意义译出。

  如:An unusual present was given to him for his birthday,a book on ethics.过生日的时候他得到了一件不寻常的礼物——一本关于伦理道德的书。(present 和a book被分隔)

  再如:After Galileo's work the feeling grew that there were universal laws governing the motion of bodies and that these laws might apply to motion in the heavens as well as on earth.在伽利略著作之后,这样的认识加强了,即认为存在着支配物体运动的普遍规律,这些规律不仅支配着地球上的也支配着天体上的物体的运动。(the feeling和 that从句被分隔)

  此外,还有定语(或定语从句)与其中心词被分隔,某些词语与其所要求的介词被分隔,动词与其宾语被分隔,介词与其宾语被分隔等。总之,英语的分隔应遵循尾重原则(应当把长而复杂的成分放在句末,从而使结构平衡匀称,以避免主语部分太长,谓语部分太短)和句尾信息焦点原则(把新信息,即语义重点放在句子末尾)。阅读时要注意把原来属于一个整体的各部分找出来。

  1. Such a viewpoint,particularly prominent in the developing countries,is reinforced by the widely-held belief that it is not the peaceful application of nuclear energy that is endangering the survival of mankind.

  第一层:Such a viewpoint,主 particularly prominent in the developing 定 countries,is 系 reinforced 表 by the widely-held belief 状 that it is not the peaceful application of nuclear energy that is end- 同位语从句 angering the survival of mankind.

  第二层:(同位语从句)that 引 it 形主 is not 系 the peaceful application 强调主语 of nuclear energy 定 that 引 is endangering 谓 the survival 宾 of mankind. 定

  要点 本句主干为Such a viewpoint…… is reinforced by the widely-held belief;形容词短语particularly prominent in the developing countries,作为插入语修饰viewpoint,将主语和谓语分隔开来;介词短语by the widely-held belief是被动语态reinforced的行为主体;that it is……mankind是belief的同位语从句,这里还含有一个强调句式,即it is not the peaceful application……that is endangering……。

  译文 这种在发展中国家显得尤为突出的观点被一种广泛持有的信念所加强,即并非和平利用核能正危害着人类的生存。

  2. No girl should marry a man whose last name has the same initial as hers,for,as the rhyme goes,Change the name but not the letter,marry for worse instead of better.

  第一层:No girl 主 should marry 谓 a man 宾 whose last name has the same initial as hers,定语从句 for,as the rhyme goes,Change 状语从句 the name but not the letter,marry for worse instead of better.

  第二层:(定语从句)whose 引 last name 主 has 谓 the same initial 宾 as hers 定

  (状语从句)for,引 as the rhyme goes,状 Change 谓 the name 宾 but 连 not the letter,宾 marry 谓 for worse instead of better.状

  要点 这是个主从复合句。for是连接词,引导状语从句。as the rhyme goes是插入语,插在for和它引导的从句之间,造成for和它引导的从句的分离,翻译时,可译成一个主谓结构。

  译文 姑娘不该嫁给与自己的姓的首字母相同的人,因为正如一首童谣所说:改姓不改首字母,婚后必将受其苦。

  3. Nor,if regularity and conformity to a standard pattern are as desirable to the scientist as the writing of his papers would appear to reflect,is management to be blamed for discriminating against the odd balls among researchers in favor of more conventional thinkers who work well with the team.

  要点 否定词nor放在句首时,主谓倒装。is放到了主语management前。同时,if引导的条件状语从句置于nor与句子的其他成分之间,造成了句子的割裂状态。条件状语从句中as desirable…… as the writing……可视为同级比较结构。句中who引导的定语从句修饰先行词thinkers,可采用合译的方法翻译。be blamed for为固定短语,意为“因…而受指责”。in favor of ……在句中做状语。

  译文 假如像学术论文反映的那样,科学家们期望看到与某种标准模式符合的规律性和一致性。那么,如果管理者们歧视研究者中的“怪杰”,而喜欢善于合作的较常规思维的人,这也是无可指责的。

  4. I have discovered,as perhaps Kelsey will after her much-publicized resignation from the editorship of She after a build-up of stress,that abandoning the doctrine of juggling your life,and making the alternative move into downshifting brings with it far greater rewards than financial success and social status.

  要点 本句中as perhaps Kelsey will……引导的方式状语从句放到了主句的谓语动词discovered与that引导的宾语从句之间,从而造成动宾之间的分割。as引导的从句中省略了谓语动词discover,是为了避免重复。宾语从句中主语为abandoning……and making……并列的动名词短语;谓语为bring sth with sth结构,只是因宾语过长,而把with短语提前了。

  译文 我发觉,放弃那种“日夜操劳的生活”信念而选择“放慢生活的节奏”会带来比金钱和社会地位更大的回报。凯尔西在长期经受巨大压力后,从惹人注目的《女性》杂志编辑部退出之后,恐怕她也将与我有同样的感觉。

  5. Such an outcome,if it happens,could cause a political controversy;or it could lead to more power being transferred to the EU in the worst possible circumstances,namely when the Union is deeply unpopular.

  要点 这是个复合句。条件从句因为太短,置于主句的主谓之间,造成句子割裂,翻译时应将从句提到句首。namely when the……unpopular是一个状语从句,用来解释the worst possible circumstances.the EU:the European Union,欧盟。

  译文 这种结果一旦产生,就可能引起政治上的争吵;在最糟糕的情况下,即在欧盟很不得人心的时候,也可能使更多的权利落到欧盟手中。

  6. That fact,let alone the current division between the 11 euro countries and the four,led by Britain,that have not joined,is likely to mean that the Union should become a multi-system entity,with some countries signing up to everything and others choosing only some things.

  要点 句子的主干结构是That fact…… is likely to mean that……。with some countries signing up to everything and others choosing only some things是“with +复合结构”形式,表示伴随状态。短语let alone……not joined置于主谓之间,造成句子割裂,翻译时应将其还原,放在最后。分词短语led by Britain和定语从句that have not joined都修饰the four.euro:欧元。multi-:前缀,表示“多…的”,如mutilateral,多边的:multiple,多个的。

  译文 这一事实可能意味着欧盟将成为一个多体系的实体,其中一些国家对每一件事都表示赞同,而另一些则不尽然;更不用说以英国为首的尚未加入欧洲统一货币体系的四国和已经 加入这一体系的十一个欧元国家之间目前已存在的分歧了。

  7. This trend began during the Second World War,when several governments came to the conclusion that the specific demands that a government wants to make of its scientific establishment cannot generally be foreseen in detail.

  要点 该句的主干结构是This trend began during the Second World War,when……。when引导定语从句,修饰the Second World War.that the specific……detail是conclusion的同位语从句,在该从句中,主语是 the specific demands of its scientific establishment,that a government wants to make是 demands的定语从句。该定语从句放在其先行词 demands和of介词短语之间,造成句子的割裂。翻译时,可把被割裂的部分还原。

  译文 这种趋势始于第二次世界大战期间,当时一些国家的政府得出这样的结论:政府要向科研机构提出的具体要求通常是无法详尽预见的。

  8. Observations were made of the children at the beginning and at the end of preschool and first grade.

  要点 整个of短语作observations的定语,相当于Observations of the children at the beginning and at the end of preschool and first grade were made.因为定语太长,所以将其置于动词之后,以避免句子头重脚轻。这样就造成了句子的割裂,翻译时应将被割裂的部分还原。preschool:学前的。

  译文 人们对孩子们在学前班和小学一年级开始时和结束时的情况都曾进行过观察。

  9. Whether to use tests,other kinds of information,or both in a particular situation depends,therefore,upon the evidence from experience concerning comparative validity and upon such factors as cost and availability.

  要点 这是一个简单句。Whether to……situation是本句的主语,depends是谓语动词,两个upon后面是宾语。availability在句中是指“测试和信息容易得到或找到”。therefore是副词,插在depends 和upon……之间,造成它们在结构上的割裂。翻译时,可把therefore提到句首。

  译文 因此,究竟是采用测试还是其他种类的信息,或是在某一特定情况下两者并用,须凭从有关相对效度的经验中得出的证据而定,也取决于诸如费用和有无采用的可能性等因素。

  10. I have been transformed from a passionate advocate of the philosophy of having it all,preached by Linda Kelsey for the past seven years in the page of She magazine,into a woman who is happy to settle for a bit of everything.

  要点 该句的主干结构是I have been transformed from a passionate advocate of the philosophy of having it all……into a woman……。preached by……magazine是过去分词短语,作the philosophy of having it all的定语,插在from……into之中,造成了句子的割裂。翻译时,可把分词短语译成一个分句,其他照原文顺序翻译。

  译文 我从一个“全力以赴”的生活哲学——在过去七年里林达·凯尔西一直在《女性》杂志鼓吹这种生活方式——的积极倡导者,一改而成为随遇而安的女人。

  相关链接:英语阅读难句分析之定语从句

        英语阅读难句分析之倒装句

        英语阅读难句分析之省略句

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