考研英语语法定语从句难点解析(笔记)

2006-6-6 16:52 网友提供 【 】【我要纠错

  一般说来,定语从句被分割开来大致有以下三种:

  ①在先行词与定语从句之间插入一个状语。

  如:There are many thousands of stars in the sky that are like the sun.

  在太空中有成千上万的象太阳般的星星。

  乍一看,that引导的定语从句在名词sky的后面,似乎应该是修饰sky的。但仔细一想,“不对啊,天空怎么能象太阳呢?”,原来that引导的定语从句被in the sky这个地点状语分隔开来,修饰中心词stars.

  ②在先行词与定语从句之间插入一个定语。

  如:Do you remember one afternoon ten years ago when I came to your house and borrowed a diamond necklace?

  你还记得吗,十年前的一天下午,我来到你家,找你借了一条钻石项链?

  when I came to your house and borrowed a diamond necklace实际上是修饰afternoon而不是修饰 years.ten years ago 实际上是定语后置修饰afternoon.

  ③先行词与定语从句被谓语分隔开来。此时,先行词通常是句子的主语,因定语从句较长,主句谓语较短,为使句子平衡,常将定语从句移至谓语之后

  如:A new master will come tomorrow who will teach you German.

  明天,新(男)老师将来较你德语。

  [语法难点精析之besides,but,except,exept for,excepting,apart from的区别]

  (1) besides与except

  前者表示"除。。。以外,还有。。。";后者表示"从整体中除去。。。"

  这个大家都知道,就不举例子了。

  (2)except与except for

  a.除去的和非除去的是同类事物,用except

  eg:

  All the essays are well written except Nelson''s.

  Nelson的文章(除去的)和All the essays(非除去的)是同类事物,所以用except.

  b.除去的和非除去的不是同类事物,用except for,并且从语气上通常表示遗憾。

  eg:His essay is well written except for a few spelling mistakes.

  a few spelling mistakes(除去的)和His essay(非除去的)是不同类的事物。

  (3)apart from 具有多重意义:既可表示besides,也可以表示exept或exept for,还可以表示without的意思

  eg:

  Apart from the cost,it will take a lot of time.(=besides)

  The orphan had no one to take care of him apart from his uncle.(=except)

  He has done good work,apart from a few slight faults.(=except for)

  There can be no knowledge apart from practice.实践出真知。(=without)

  (4)excepting =except,但一般用于句首或用于not,without,always等词之后

  eg:

  Excepting his brother,they are all right.

  Everyone,not excepting myself,must share the blame.

  All of us,without excepting those who know more about the subject,should study.

  All my brothers com here every day,always excepting the youngest.

  (5)but与except同义,但but多用在every,any,no等和由这些词构成的复合词如everything,anywhere,nobody等词以后及all,none之后

  eg:

  The children go to school everyday but Sunday.

  They are all gone but me.

  You can get the book anywhere but here.

  There is no one but me.

  Who but George would do such a thing?

  [语法难点之too……to 结构表示肯定含义的情况]

  [too……to 结构表示肯定含义的情况]

  我们知道too……to结构一般表示否定含义,意为“太……以致于不能”

  eg:He is too old to work.

  但too……to在下列情况下却表示肯定含义:

  ⑴当too前或to前有否定词构成双重否定时。

  eg:English is not too difficult to learn.

  英语并不太难学。

  He is too wise not to see that.

  他很聪明,不会不懂这一点。

  ⑵当too后是glad,pleased,happy,delighted,satisfied,ready,willing,kind,apt,good,true,easy,near,careful,well,early,delicious,eager,anxious等形容词或副词时。

  eg:They are too anxious to leave.

  他们急于离开。

  He is too ready to help others.

  他总是乐于助人。

  与这些词连用时,too前还常加上only,all,but,just,simply等副词,意思不变,因为这些词加上too后与very同义。

  eg:I''m only too glad to see you .

  见到你非常高兴。

  They are but too pleased to hear the news.

  他们听到这个消息,非常高兴。

  ⑶与cannot连用时。

  eg:You cannot be too careful(=You can never be careful enough) to do your homework.

  你做作业越仔细越好(=无论怎样仔细也不过分)。

  ⑷当不定式在句中作定语或真正的主语时。

  eg:There are too many problems to be solved.

  有很多问题有待解决。

  It is too much to say that he is a fool.

  [语法难点精析之every表示“每隔”的用法]

  ⑴“every other+单数名词”

  意思是“每隔一……”

  如:every other day 每隔一天 every other tree 每隔一棵树

  ⑵“every+基数词+复数名词”或“every+序数词+单数名词”

  意思是“每隔……”(较英语数词少一个)

  如:every three days=every third day 每隔两天(或者译为每三天)

  因此every two days=every other day 每隔一天(或者译为每两天)

  ⑶“every few+复数名词”

  意思是“每隔几……”

  如:every few days(每隔几天)

  [语法难点精析之alive、live、living和lively的用法]

  ⑴ lively 有“活泼的、快活的、生动的”等意思,可以指人或物,可作定语或标语;但它没有“活着的”意思,而其他三个都有。

  如:

  Young children are usually lively.

  小孩子们通常是活泼的。

  He told a very lively story.

  他讲了一个生动的故事。

  ⑵alive、live、living都有“活的、有生命的”意思,与dead意义相反。但live通常只作前置定语,且一般用于动物;alive、living不仅可作定语(alive只能置于名词后;living一般置于名词前,也可置于名词后),也可以作表语。

  如:

  This is a live(=living) fish.(=This is a fish alive.)

  这是一条活鱼。(指动物,且作定语时,三者均可用)

  Who''s the greatest man alive(=living man)?

  谁是当今最伟大的人物?(指人,不能用live)

  The fish is still alive(=living)

  那条鱼还活着。(指动物作表语时不能用live)。

  ⑶living主要指在某个时候是活着的,而alive指本来有死的可能,但仍活着的。而且,作主语补足语或宾语补足语时,只能用alive;作比喻义(如“活像……”、“活生生的”等)解时,要用living.

  如:

  The enemy officer was caught alive.(作主语补足语,不用living)

  那位敌方军官被活捉了。

  We found the snake alive.(作宾语补足语,不用living)

  He is the living image of his father.(比喻义,不用alive)

  他活象他父亲。

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