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2007年考研英语语法复习手册(1)

考研教育网论坛   2006-05-31 16:36 【 】【我要纠错

  一、时态、语态

  时态、语态需要掌握的要点:

  1.以下几类动词一般不能用于进行时,同样不用于完成进行时:

  (1)表示感知的动词:hear, feel, notice, recognize, see, taste, smell;

  (2)表示意愿、情感的动词:desire, dislike, forgive, hate, like, love, prefer, refuse, want, wish, fear, love, hate;

  (3)表示思考、看法的动词:believe, doubt, expect, forget, hope, feel, mean, know, agree, realize, mind, recall, recollect, remember, trust, suppose;

  (4)表示所有、占有的动词:belong to, owe, own, possess, hold(容纳);

  (5)其他动词:cost, appear, concern, contain, consist, deserve, matter, seem.

  如:

  I''d say whenever you are going after something that is belonging to you, anyone who is depriving you of the right to have it is criminal.

  (1997年考研题,belong表示归属,不用于进行式)

  He was seeing somebody creeping into the house through the open window last night.

  (1990年考研题,see表示结果,不用于进行式)

  2.不用will/shall表达将来时的形式:

  (1)be going to表示现在的打算和意图;

  (2)arrive, come, drive, go, leave, retire, return, set off, start, take off等表示移位的动词的进行体表示按计划肯定要发生的将来动作;

  (3)be to (do)表示安排、计划、决定、命令或注定要发生的事,如:

  Greater efforts to increase agricultural production must be made if food shortage is to be avoided.

  (4)be about to (do)表示将要(做),如:

  Marlin is a young man of independent thinking who is not about to pay compliments to his political leaders.

  (5)be on the point /verge of (doing)表示“马上就要”,一般不与表示将来的时间状语连用;

  (6)be, begin, come, depart, get off, go, leave, return, start的一般现在时表示按日历或时刻表要发生的将来动作或事件,如:

  If you want your film to be properly processed, you''ll have to wait and pick it up on Friday, which is the day after tomorrow.

  (画线部分一般不用will be)

  (7)在时间、条件、让步从句中,一般现在时代替将来时,但要注意区别从句的类型,如:

  I don''t know where he will go tomorrow.我不知道他明天去哪儿。(宾语从句)

  I''ll tell him when you will ring again.我告诉他你什么时候再来电话。(宾语从句)

  比较:I''ll tell him when you ring again.你再打电话时我告诉他。(状语从句)

  (8)在make sure, make certain, see (to it)后的that从句中,谓语动词用一般现在时代替将来时,如:

  See to it that you include in the paper whatever questions they didn''t know the answer to last time.

  (include不能用will include或其他形式)

  3.完成时是时态测试的重点,注意与完成时连用的句型和时间状语:

  (1)by/between/up to/till +过去时间、since、by the time/when +表示过去发生情况的从句,主句用过去完成时。如:

  We had just had our breakfast when an old man came to the door.

  Between 1897 and 1919 at least 29 motion pictures in which artificial beings were portrayed had been produced.

  (表示1919年时已发生的情况)

  (2)by +将来时间、by the time/ when +谓语动词是一般现在时的从句,主句用将来完成时。如:

  By the time you arrive in London, we will have stayed in Europe for two weeks.

  I hope her health will have improved greatly by the time we come back next year.

  (3)by now、since +过去时间、in/during/for/over/the past/last few(或具体数字)years/days/months,主句用现在完成时,但在it is +具体时间since/before这一句型中,主句更多的时候不用完成时。如:

  The changes that howe taken place place in air travel during the last sixty years would have seemed completely impossible to even the most brilliant scientists at the turn of the 19th century.

  It is four years since John left school.

  (4)在It is the +序数词/形容词最高级+that的定语从句中,谓语动词常用现在完成时。如:

  It isn''t the first time that I have found myself in an embarrassing situation.

  (5)在no sooner…than…, hardly/scarcely…when/before…句型中,主句常用过去完成时。

  (6)其他与完成时连用的时间状语:all this while, all this year, for some time, so far, already, before, just, long, yet等。

  4.完成进行时指动作在完成时的基础上还要继续下去。

  如:

  The company has been promising a rise in salary for ages, but nothing has happened.

  The school board listened quietly as John read the demand that his followers had been demonstrating for.

  时态、语态答题思路:

  (1)先根据选项的区别点确定考题要点为时态,然后回到题句中寻找给出的或暗示的时间状语,缩小选择范围,进而选出正确答案;

  (2)根据谓语动词与句子主语或非谓语动词与其逻辑主语的关系,确定句子是主动语态还是被动语态。

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