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2007年考研英语新题型胜经之6选5论据找论点

印建坤   2006-05-12 10:48 【 】【我要纠错

  一、怎么考

  (1)大纲规定

  在一篇长度约500词的文章前有6个概括句或小标题。这些标题分别是对文章某一部分的概括。要求考生根据文章内容,从这6个选项中选出最恰当的5个标题填入文章的空白处。

  (2)命题形式

  该题型一般是一篇有七个段落的文章,除首末两段外,其余五个段落每段前都有一个空格,要求考生从选项中选出可以概括这个段落的句子或短语,充当这个段落的小标题。选项共有五个,多余的一个也是和某个段落内容有关,但并不一定是这个段落的概括,可能只是其中一部分的概括,这点要引起注意。

  二、怎么学

  (1)以纲为准,依题定法:认真阅读2006年考试大纲和考试分析里有关本题型的相关规定,仔细分析、反复研究考试分析里的样题,从样题的分析中去寻找和探究命题者的心态,从而发现解答此类题型的方法。

  考试分析中指出,该题型考查的是考生把握主旨大意,进行概括总结的能力。如样题所示,该题型要求考生为文章中的若干段落选出最恰当的小标题。其实,就是要求考生选出最能概括段落主题或要点的标题。

  从考试分析中可以看出,这个题型的目的在于检测考生的归纳能力。其实这种能力的练习我们已经做过许多,最典型的就是中学语文课文中的概括每段大意练习;还有就是我们平常做阅读理解时碰到的某个段落说明了什么这种练习。因此,这种概括能力我们每个人都有,这种练习也不陌生。不同的就是现在面对的是一些英语文章,而且大意都已给出,只是要求与各段相配。虽然语言不同,但是做法是相同的,就是通读文章的每一段,分析清楚重点说的是什么,然后对之进行归纳总结,再和选项配对。

  考试的样题分析也是这样进行的,首先通读全文,明晰文中讲了几个主体意思。然后再细看每个段落,每个段落分别说明了一个方面,将这个方面的大意概括出来。最后再看选项,将选项与概括出的大意相对照,选出一致的答案。基本方法就是这样。

  (2)大量练习,掌握规律:主旨题,实际上就是根据文章中已经给出的论据去从选项中去寻找支持该论据的论点。这样的题型,就是要掌握一定的方法,也就是提炼、概括的方法,然后做大量练习,逐渐掌握规律。

  二、怎么解

  (1)解题步骤

  A.看选项,从选项中就可以推断出相关段落大致的内容是关于什么的。

  B.读所考段落,抓住每段主题句和核心词汇。正确答案常常是主题句的改写。

  C.将从段落中提炼出的主题句和选项相对照,选出答案。

  (2)解题技巧

  A.“重点词原则”:阅读整个段落,将段落中的重点词句找出,重点词句主要是指:

  a.反复出现的词

  b.括号里的词

  c.引号里的词

  B.“干扰排除原则”:段落中未展开详细例证说明的选项往往是干扰选项,应该予以排除;

  C.“排除原则”:某段话的答案确定后,将该选项划去,以防止影响其他题目的作答。

  三、大纲样题

  Directions:

  You are going to read a list of headings and a text about plagiarism in the academic community. Choose the most suitable heading from the list A-F for each numbered paragraph(41-45)。The first and last paragraphs of the text are not numbered. There is one extra heading which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1.(10 points)

  [A]What to do as a student?

  [B]Various definitions of plagiarism

  [C]Ideas should always be sourced.

  [D]Ignorance can be forgiven.

  [E]Plagiarism is equivalent to theft.

  [F]The consequences of plagiarism

  Scholars,writers and teachers in the modern academic community have strong feelings about acknowledging the use of another person.s ideas. In the English-speaking world,the term plagiarism is used to label the practice of not giving credit for the source of one‘s ideas. Simply stated,plagiarism is“the wrongful appropriation or purloinning,and publication as one’s own of the ideas,or the expression of ideas of another.”

  41. The penalties for plagiarism vary from situation to situation. In many universities,the punishment may range from failure in a particular course to expulsion from the university. In the literary world,where writers are protected from plagiarism by international copyright laws,the penalty may range from a small fine to imprisonment and a ruined career. Protection of scholars and writers,through the copyright laws and through the social pressures of the academic and literary communities,is a relatively recent concept. Such social pressures and copyright laws require writers to give scrupulous attention to documentation of their sources.

  42. Students,as inexperienced scholars themselves,must avoid various types of plagiarism by being self-critical in their use of other scholars‘ideas and by giving appropriate credit for the source of borrowed ideas and words,otherwise dire consequentces may occur. There are at least three classifications of plagiarism as it is revealed in students’inexactness in identifying sources properly. They are plagiarism by accident,by ignorance,and by intention.

  43. Plagiarism by accident,or oversight,sometimes is the result of the writer‘s inability to decide or remember where the idea came from. He may have read it long ago,heard it in a lecture since forgotten,or acquired it second-hand or third-hand from discussions with colleagues. He may also have difficulty in deciding whether the idea is such common knowledge that no reference to the original source is needed. Although this type of plagiarism must be guarded against,it is the least serious and,if lessons learned,can be exempt from being severely punished.

  44. Plagiarism through ignorance is simply a way of saying that inexperienced writers often do not know how or when to acknowledge their sources. The techniques for documentation-note-taking,quoting,footnoting,listing bibliography——are easily learned and can prevent the writer from making unknowing mistakes or omissions in his references. Although there is no copyright in news,or in ideas,only in the expression of them,the writer cannot plead ignorance when his sources for ideas are challenged.

  45. The most serious kind of academic thievery is plagiarism by intention. The writer,limited by his laziness and dullness,copies the thoughts and language of others and claims them for his own. He not only steals,he tries to deceive the reader into believing the ideas are original. Such words as immoral,dishonest,offensive,and despicable are used to describe the practice of plagiarism by intention.

  The opposite of plagiarism is acknowledgement. All mature and trustworthy writers make use of the ideas of others but they are careful to acknowledge their indebtedness to their sources. Students,as developing scholars,writers,teachers,and professional leaders,should recognize and assume their responsibility to document all sources from which language and thoughts are borrowed. Other members of the profession will not only respect the scholarship,they will admire the humility and honesty.

  [试题分析]

  首先,通读全文,了解大意。这篇文章是关于抄袭的,介绍了抄袭的形式,以及如何合理引用、避免抄袭的建议。

  然后,再具体看每段文章各自说明的重点。文章第1段是解释抄袭是怎么回事。第2段的第一句话已经暗示了41题的答案,“The penalties for plagiarism vary from situation to situation.”中penalties是plagiarism的结果,而在6个选项中,F项中的The consequences of plagiarism(抄袭的后果)刚好与penalties相对应。第3段又说到,学生们应该避免抄袭,而造成抄袭又可以分为3种情况:偶然、无知和故意。这段主要将抄袭限制在学生身上,选项中A提到了学生,与这段内容一致。接下来的三段是对学生三种抄袭情况的进一步说明。第4段是关于偶然因疏忽抄袭的,提到原因是不知道出处,并且提到这种抄袭是最不恶劣的,选项C是说出处问题,D是说这种忽视可以谅解,是关于惩罚的,似乎两个选项都有关系。再看第5段,强调的是作者都应该学会标注引用的来源,如果没有标注,免不了要受到抨击。因此选项C最能体现这一点,最为切合。那么利用排除法,43题选A.再看43题所处段落中说,这种抄袭的情况是最轻的一种,是可以饶恕的,所以D选项最贴切。

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