Part 1 Vocabulary and Structure （25 minutes， 10 points）
Directions： There are twenty incomplete sentences in this section. For each sentence there are 4 choices marked A， B， C， and D. Choose the one that best completes the sentence.
Mark your answer on the ANSWER SHEET with a single line through the center.
1. Experiments in the photography of moving objects _____ in both the United States and Eu- rope well before 1990.
A. have been conducting B. were conducting
C. had been conducting D. are conducting
2. After long negotiations， the firm ______ to build a double-purpose bridge across the river.
A. contracted B. contacted C. consulted D. convinced
3. Diderot was also a philosophical materialist， ______ that thought developed from the move- ments and changes of matter.
A. believing B. have been located C. believes D. be locating
4. We felt to death because we could make nothing of the lecturer's speech.
A. exposed B. tired C. exhausted D. bored
5. The population of many Alaskan cities has ______ doubled in the past three years.
A. large than B. more than C. as great as D. as many as
6. It was very difficult to build a power station in the deep valley， but it ______ as we had hoped.
A. came off B. went off C. brought out D. made out
7. A baby might show fear of an unfamiliar adult， _______ he is likely to smile and reach out to another infant.
A. if B. whenever C. so that D. whereas
8. Christmas is a holiday usually celebrated on December 25th _______ the birth of Jesus Christ.
A. in accordance with B. in terms of C. in favor of D. in honor of
9. Weather _______， there will be an open air party with live music here this weekend.
A. permits B. should permit C. will permit D. permitting
10. When workers are organized in trade unions， employers find it hard to lay them _______
A. off B. aside C. out D. down
11. The symbols of mathematics ________ we are most familiar are the sings of addition， subtraction， multiplication， division and equality.
A. to which B. which C. with which D. in which
12. The machines in this workshop are not regulated ________ but are jointly controlled by a central computer system.
A. inevitably B. individually C. irrespectively D. irregularly
13. We are sure that ________ to do this face to face， he would find it difficult to express himself without losing his temper.
A. were he to try B. would he try C. was he trying D. if he tries
14. The local people were joyfully surprised to find the prices of vegetables no longer according to the weather.
A. evaluated B. converted C. fluctuated D. modified
15. ________ he realized it was already too late for us to return home.
A. No sooner it grew dark when B. Hardly it grew dark than
C. It was not until dark that D. Scarcely it grew dark than
16. Without computer network， it would be impossible to carry on ________ any business operation in the advanced countries.
A. practically B. preferably C. precisely D. possibly
17. _______ will Mr. Forbes be able to regain control of the company.
A. With hard work B. As regards his hard work
C. Only if he works hard D. Despite his hard work
18. From the incident they have learned a lesson： ________ decisions often lead to bitter regrets.
A. urgent B. hasty C. instant D. prompt
19. What the teacher of the science class does and says ________ of great importance to the students at college.
A. was B. are C. is D. were
20. The Chinese community there， consisting of 67， 000 _______， is the largest concentration of Chinese outside Asia.
A. visitors B. workers C. adults D. inhabitants
Part Ⅱ Reading Comprehension （70 minutes， 40 points）
Directions： There are 5 passages in this part. Each of the passages is followed by 4 questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are 4 choices marked A， B， C， and D. Choose the best one and mark your answer on the ANSWER $HEET with a single line through the center.
In the United States the way people spend their leisure time is an important part of their identity. Perhaps everybody does nearly the same thing all day in the office or the factory， but leisure time is what makes people distinct and reveals who they are. Some people like rock music， for example， and others may like jazz or classical music. Some people are runners or swimmers， and others are “couch （睡椅） potatoes” who “surf” the television channels with a remote control. Some go to museums while others spend long hours at a shopping center. These kinds of choices are ways that people define themselves.
It hasn't always been this way. “Leisure time” was almost unknown in the United States in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. When most people worked on farms， the workday was from sunrise to sunset every day except Sunday， which was devoted to church. Later， with the rise of factories and city populations， people worked equally long hours and had only Sunday for rests. Some people did many of the things then that they do now-attend concerts， have parties， go to restaurants， read novels， or play sports-but to a much lesser extent.
Slowly， throughout the twentieth century， leisure time grew. Technology made farm work less burdensome， and changes in laws shortened the factory workday and week. New inventions such as phonograph （留声机） and the radio gave people access to music and mass entertainment on a scale unknown before. People gradually became consumers of entertainment， and businesses competed fiercely for their dollars.
For many people leisure time means going somewhere-to a museum， to a concert， to a restaurant， or to a baseball game， for example. Or it means doing something such as playing volleyball， backpacking， swimming， biking， or playing in a park with their children. For other people free time means staying home with wonderful sources of entertainment， such as a VCR， stereo （立体声系统）， or cable TV with dozens of channels. Others pursue creative activities such as cooking， gardening， and home improvement. The latest stay-at-home activity is “surfing the net” -that is， looking for information and entertainment on the Internet.
People in the United States are basically not much different from others in what they do in their leisure time. The real difference may lie in the energy， time， money， and sheer enthusiasm that they devote to it.
21. “Couch potatoes” in paragraph 1 refers to those who
A. control their viewing of TV programs
B. are happy watching situation comedies
C. watch TV while eating potato chips
D. are crazy about watching TV programs
22. According to the passage， in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries， some Americans ______
A. worked from sunrise to sunset seven days a week
B. preferred working in factories to working on farms
C. had many of the leisure time activities that people now have
D. fought for shorter working hours and more leisure time
23. Apart from technology， the growing leisure time throughout the twentieth century is also due to
A. changes in laws B. mass entertainment
C. new types of consumption D. competitive business
24. In terms of leisure time activities， people in the United States ________
A. enjoy a larger variety than people in other countries
B. are not much different from people in other countries
C. enjoy more stay-at-home activities such as “surfing the net”
D. are less energetic and enthusiastic than others
Whether you are logging on to your personal computer， using a credit card， or disarming a door security system， passwords or PINs （personal identification numbers） guard access to numerous regular operations.
It is estimated that within then years， consumers could be faced with handling more than 100 passwords！ Given the popularity of passwords， how can you choose ones that are sufficiently complicated to be secure yet are simple enough to remember？
There are basic guidelines to bear in mind. Don't use as a password your name or that of a member of your family， even in modified form. Also avoid using your telephone number， your Social Security number， or your address. Such information can easily be obtained by a determined hacker （黑客）。
In addition， if possible， don't use passwords made up entirely of letters or digits. A relatively simple computer program can crack such a code quickly. Finally， do not use a word that can be found in any dictionary， even a foreign-language one. Huge lists are available that contain words， place names， and proper names from all languages. Programs can test for variations of these words， such as if they are spelled backward， capitalized， or combined.
So， what kinds of passwords should be used？ Usually ones that have a minimum of six to eight characters and that have a mixture of upper-and lower-case letters， digit and punctuation （标点） symbols. How difficult is it to crack such a combination of characters？ One source says， “A machine that could try one million passwords per second would require， on the average， over one hundred years.”
How can you choose a combination that is easy to remember？ Some suggest that you take the title of a favorite book or film or a line from a song or poem and use the first letter from each word as your password， adding capital letters， punctuation， or other characters. For example， “to be or not be” could become “2B/not2B.”
Other suggestions include taking two short words and link them with a punctuation character， such as “High？Bug” or “Song；Tree”。
Taking into account the suggestions outlined above can help you to protect important infor- mation from unwanted hackers. Remember， too， the importance of changing your passwords regularly. Just a final comment： Whatever passwords you decide to use， don't pick any of the examples given above.
25. What is the main idea of this passage？
A. How to strengthen security through a password.
B. How to choose a password that is easy to remember.
C. How to prevent your password from being cracked.
D. How to choose a safe and convenient password.
26. Why shouldn't we use a word that can be found in any dictionary as a password？
A. Because it can be easily remembered by a computer hacker.
B. Because computer programs can crack it.
C. Because computer hackers are determined to crack it.
D. Because the lists are so huge that the words are not easy to remember.
27. If you are choosing a password for your computer， which of the following is the best choice？
A. iaHgnahs B. 19730508 C. 2B/not2B D. Re-B， pl2
28. How can you choose a password that is both secure and simple to remember？
A. Taking the title of your favorite book or film.
B. Taking a line from a song or poem you like best.
C. Making up a nonsensical word which cannot be found in any dictionary.
D. Using two short words linked with a punctuation character.
According to a concerned 1997 article in the Boston Globe， the United States spent less than one percent of its transportation budget on facilities for pedestrians （行人）。 Actually， I'm surprised it was that much. Go to almost any suburb developed in the last 30 years， and you will not find a sidewalk anywhere. Often you won't find a single pedestrian crossing.
I was made fully aware of this one summer when we were driving across Maine and stopped for coffee in one of those endless zones of shopping malls （购物中心）， motels， gas stations and fast-food places. I noticed there was a bookstore across the street； so I decided to forget coffee and go there to have a look.
Although the bookshop was no more than 70 or 80 feet away， I discovered that there was no way to cross over six lanes of swiftly moving traffic on foot without putting myself in danger. In the end， I had to get in our car and drive cross.
At the time， it seemed ridiculous and annoying， but afterward I realized that I was possibly the only person ever to have thought of crossing the street on foot.
The fact is， we not only don't walk anywhere anymore in this country， we won't walk anywhere， and dislike anyone who tries to make us， as the city of Laconia， N.H. discovered. In the early 1970s， Laconia spent millions on a comprehensive urban renewal project， which included building a pedestrian mall to make shopping more pleasant. Esthetically （美学上） it was a triumph—— urban planners came from all over to praise and take photos —— but commercially it was a disaster. Forced to walk one whole block from a parking garage， shoppers abandoned downtown Laconia for suburban malls.
In 1994 Laconia dug up its pretty paving blocks， took away the flowers and decorative trees， and brought back the cars. Now people can park right in front of the stores again， and downtown Laconia thrives again.
And if that isn't said， I don't know what is.
29. In paragraph 1，'Tm surprised it was that much“ means the authors thinks _ _
A. the government spends too much on facilities for pedestrian
B. the government speeds just enough on facilities for pedestrian
C. the amount is more than he has expected
D. the amount is less than he was expected
30. In Maine the author had to drive to a bookstore 70 or 80 feet away because _ _
A. it was practically impossible for him to cross the street on foot
B. the street was actually too broad to cross on foot
C. it was against the traffic regulations to cross the street on foot
D. no one has ever walked across such a crowded street
31. According to the author， most Americans __
A. don't care much about the lack of facilities for pedestrian
B. think it ridiculous and annoying to have no crossing for pedestrian
C. are interested in building the facilities for pedestrian
D. have realized the importance of the facilities for pedestrian
32. What is sad according to the author？
A. The Laconia urban renewal project was poorly supported.
B. Laconia has become a busy shopping center again.
C. People park their cars right in front of the stores.
D. Most Americans are reluctant to walk even a single block.
Your shipment of twelve thousand “Smart” watches was received by our company this morning. However， we wish to make a number of complaints concerning the serious delay in delivery and your failure to carry out our specific instructions with regard to this order.
It was stressed from the beginning that the delivery date had to be less than six weeks from the initial order， in order to meet our own customers' requirements. While we understand that delays in production are occasionally inevitable， we must point out that the major reason why the order was placed with your company was because we were assured by you of its speed of delivery， and that your existing stocks were sufficiently high to ensure immediate shipment. Late delivery of the goods has caused us to disappoint several of our most valued customers， and is bound to have a negative effect on potential future orders.
The second complaint concerns the difference in colour between the watches we ordered and those delivered. It was stated clearly in the original order that watches in combinations of green/ purple and orange/purple only were required. However， only half the watches in the delivery received are of the colours specified. Our Hong Kong agent assures us that she stressed to you the importance of following our instructions precisely， since we consider there to be only a limited market in this country for watches of other colours at the present time. Any watches that are not of the specified colours will， of course， be returned to you.
We are also somewhat concerned about the rather poor quality of the goods received， since it is apparent that the watches that finally arrived have been produced from inferior materials and have been manufactured to a lower standard than those in the sample. We have also found that a number of the watches do not appear to be functioning. Whether the latter problem is due to poor manufactures， damage during transportation or bad batteries is not yet clear， but we should like to point out that we feel this matter to be entirely your responsibility.
As a result of the above problems， therefore， we feel that the most suitable course of action is to return to you unpaid any of the goods considered unsatisfactory， and to subtract any resultant costs from our final settlement. We shall also， of course， be forced to reconsider whether any further orders should be placed with your company.
We look forward to your prompt reply.
33. The manufacturers of “Smart” watches were given the order because __
A. they produced the best watches of its kind in the world
B. they watches would be easy to make and the designs were already prepared
C. they promised they could produce enough stocks quite quickly
D. they claimed the order would be easy since the watches were already in stock
34. Receiving watches in the wrong colours is a problem because __
A. the Hong Kong agent stressed the need to fulfill the order exactly
B. these watches will be difficult to sell
C. these watches will not be able to get into the limited market
D. people will not buy the watches at present
35. “The latter problem” in paragraph 4 refers to __
A. the poor quality of the goods
B. the use of inferior materials
C. the low standard of manufacture
D. some of the watches not working
36. The last sentence of paragraph 5“We shall also， of course， be forced to…… with your company” suggests that
A. the company may stop trading with the watch manufacturers
B. the company will probably reduce the number of watches to be ordered in the future
C. the writer is afraid their company might go out of business soon
D. the company is probably willing to give the manufactures another chance
In London， two weeks ago a class of students made legal history by winning a lawsuit against their college for poor teaching.
In this landmark case the group all passed their course in historic vehicle restoration， but sued （起诉） the Oxfordshire college they had attended， claiming their qualifications were worth-less because none had gained jobs in the field. The fact that the course was substantially different from that promised meant they won their case.
James Groves， general secretary of the National Postgraduate Committee in UK reports that students are getting better at complaining. “They are starting to see themselves as consumers of a product， and are reacting accordingly when things don't go right. Most importantly， they usually are paying their own fees and expect to get what they have paid for.”
Groves says most complaints to his organization are about facilities and the quality of supervision. He says that more students seem to make complaints might be due simply to the fact that universities are getting better at dealing with them. “In the past there was a tendency for colleges to brush these things aside. Today， most universities observe a code of practice and complaints are taken more seriously.”
He adds that students with complaints should first talk informally with the person concerned， taking a “friendly but firm attitude.”
Jaswinder Gill， who represented the students in the Oxfordshire case， is co-author of a recently published book： “Universities and Students.” He says the Oxfordshire case is interesting because the majority of students finished the course and was awarded qualifications. “Previously， students have sued when they failed to gain qualifications. But it is not now good enough for universities and colleges to say to grieving students： 'you've got your qualification， so what's the problem？ 'It's about the quality of that qualification.”
The students argued that promises made in the college introduction， in course material and by course representatives during interviews were not met. Promised job opportunities in the industry failed to materialize， as did the promised 50 percent of practical and vocational work， and basic tools had not been available. Gill suggests that in such cases it is easy to prove the college at fault.
37. What made the students of Oxfordshire win their case？
A. None of them gained jobs a few years after graduation.
B. The students failed to get their qualifications.
C. They didn't get what they had been promised.
D. They were over-charged by the college they attended.
38. According to James Groves， __
A. more students make complaints because universities take their criticism more seriously
B. through handling more complaints from the students， universities have learnt how to deal with them
C. college students tend to make complaints about the facilities of their schools
D. most university authorities tend to brush student complaints aside
39. According to the passage， the students are complaining about their education， because __
A. more courses provided by universities fail to meet the promised quality
B. students want to pay for a consumption worth their own money
C. when things don't go right students have the right to react accordingly
D. students require universities to provide the best facilities and quality supervision
40. In the Oxfordshire case， what did the college promise？
A. 50% of the students could get their qualifications through the course.
B. 50% of the students would receive quality education.
C. 50% of the students could find a job in the field.
D. 50% of the time would be spent practicing in the field.
Part III Cloze Test （15 minutes， 5 points）
Directions： There are 10 blanks in the following passage. For each numbered blank， there are 4 choices marked A， B， C， and D. Choose the best one and mark your answer on the ANSWER SHEET with a single line through the center.
How does water scarcity affect people？ First of all， it 41 their health. It is not that they will die of thirst； rather， the poor quality of the water 42 for cooking and drinking may make them ill.
43 our bodies require water to treat waste products， plentiful water is required for proper sanitation （卫生） —— water that for much of mankind is simply not available. 44 people without adequate sanitation rose from 2.6 billion in 1990 to 2.9 billion in 1999. And sanitation is literally a matter of life and death. In a 45 statement， United Nations officials warned： “When children lack water that is fit for drinking and sanitation， virtually every aspect of their health and development is 46.”
Food production is dependent on water. Many crops， of course， are watered by rain， but in recent times irrigation has become the key 47 the world's booming population. Today 36 percent of the world's harvest depends on irrigation.
If plentiful water flows out of every tap in our home and if we have a clean toilet （抽水马桶） that conveniently washes out waste， it may be 48 to believe that the world is rtmning out of an adequate supply of water. We should remember， however， that only 20 percent of mankind enjoys such 49. In Africa many women spend as much as six hours a day 50 water.
41. A. hurts B. harms C. injures D. destroys
42. A. valuable B. desirable C. capable D. available
43. A. As for B. As well as C. Just as D. Such as
44. A. The number of B.A number of C. Number of D. Numerous
45. A. joining B. joined C. join D. joint
46. A. at a loss B. at all cost C. at worst D. at risk
47. A. to feed B. to feeding C. for feed D. for feeding
48. A. hard B. easy C. sure D. usual
49. A. decorations B. luxuries C. wastes D. recreations
50. A. bringing B. taking C. fetching D. carrying
Part IV Translation （30 minutes， 15 points）
Directions： Translate the following passage into Chinese and put your translation on the AN-SWER SHEET.
Since 1981， farmers in Holland have encouraged to adopt “green” farming techniques that were thought to benefit plant and bird life. Farmers who have voluntarily adopted these measures are compensated by the European Union. The goal of the program is to work against the negative effects of modern farming， such as declines in species diversity and the disturbance of local
The “green” methods of farming cost the European Union about 1.7 billion Euros annually. This is about 4 percent of the budget for “Common Agricultural Policy，” and the compensation is expected to rise to 10 percent within the next few years.
Various forms of “green farming” employed around the world have proved successful， and all new methods thought to be environmentally sensitive should be subject to sound scientific evaluation to determine whether they are actually meeting the intended goals.
Part V Writing （30 minutes， 15 points）
Directions： You are to write in no less than 120 words about the title “What I Consider Important in Life ”。 Your composition should be based on the Chinese outline given below.
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