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考研英语应用文写作之摘要和报告复习指导

考验教育网论坛   2006-12-05 08:51 【 】【我要纠错

  摘要

  1.写作攻略

  摘要是对原始文献(或文章)的基本内容进行浓缩并写成语义连贯的短文。它以迅速掌握原文内容梗概为目的,不需加入任何主观评论和解释,但必须简明、确切地表述原文的重要内容。摘要写作要求简明扼要,用词准确。摘要题型写作是难度非常大的一种写作形式。随着考生英语水平的不断提高,这种题型引起考生的普遍重视。写作摘要时应该注意以下几点:

  (1)动笔之前,考生一定要认真仔细地阅读所给原文,力求抓住其大意,掌握原文要点。 如果一遍不能明白,可以多读几次,读的次数越多越容易明白文章大意。

  (2)摘要的长度不应超过原文的三分之一,一般是原文的四分之一或五分之一,考试时应遵守规定的字数限制。

  (3)在做摘要时考生切忌照搬原文,应该用自己的语言来写。一篇摘要应该是语言的再创造,而不是原文词语的简单堆砌。

  (4)摘要应与原文的观点保持一致,为了使摘要条理清晰,无特殊情况应按原文的逻辑顺序排列。

  (5)摘要要做到内容完整,没有大的遗漏,使读者无需查看原文就能够获得原文的主要内容。应重点反映主要观点,删除细节。

  (6)削除例子,简化描述。用简短的语句代替冗长的语句。

  (7)检查与修改时,考生应重点检查是否遗漏了原文的要点或包含了细节。

  另外,写摘要时应该使用简单的衔接词,如but,then,thus,yet,for等等,而不能使用at the same time,on the other hand 等。

  2.必背模版句型

  This paper mainly deals with……

  这篇论文主要是写……

  This article focuses on the topics of (that,having,etc)……

  这篇文章的强调的主题是……

  This essay presents knowledge that……

  这篇短文主要是讲关于……的知识。

  This thesis discusses/analyzes……

  这篇论文讨论/分析了……

  This paper provides an overview of……

  这篇文章综述了……

  This article compares……and summarizes key findings.

  这篇文章比较了……并总结了主要的发现。

  This paper presents up-to-date information on……

  这篇论文介绍了关于……的最新信息。

  This article not only describes……but also suggests……

  这篇文章不仅描述了……而且建议……

  This paper provides a method of ……

  这篇为……提供了方法。

  This paper introduces an applicable procedure to analyze……

  这篇文章介绍一种分析……的可行程序。

  This paper is devoted to examining the role of……

  这篇论文致力于研究……的作用。

  This paper reflects the state of the art in……

  这篇论文展示了……目前的情况。

  This article reviews the techniques used in……

  这篇文章综述了……领域采用的技术。

  The writer of this essay tries to explore……

  本文作者试图探讨……

  The aim/purpose/objective of this paper is to determine……

  本文的目的/目标是为了决定……

  3.必背经典范文

  将下面这篇约500词的原文按要求写成约150词的摘要。

  原文:

  How New York Became America's Largest City

  In the 18th century New York was smaller than Philadelphia and Boston.Today it is the largest city in America.How can the change in its size and importance be explained?

  To answer this question we must consider certain facts about geography,history,and economics.Together these three will explain the huge growth of Americas most famous city.

  The map of the Northeast shows that four of the most heavily populated areas in this region are around seaports.At these points materials from across the sea enter the United States,and the product of the land are sent there for export across the sea.

  Economists know that places where transportation lines meet are good places for making raw materials into finished goods.That is why seaports often have cities nearby.But cities like New York needed more than their geographical location in order to become great industrial centers.Their development did not happen simply by chance.

  About 1815,when many Americans from the east coast had already moved toward the west,trade routes from the ports to the central regions of the country began to be a serious problem. The slow wagons of that time,drawn by horses or oxen,were too expensive for moving heavy freight very far. Americans had long admired Europe's canals.In New York State a canal seemed the best solution to the transportation problem.From the eastern end of Lake Erie all the way across the state to the Hudson River there is a long strip of low land.Here the Erie Canal was constructed. After several years of work it was completed in 1825.

  The canal produced an immediate effect.Freight costs were cut to about one-tenth of what had been.New York City,which had been smaller than Philadelphia and Boston,quickly became the leading city of the coast.In the years that followed,transportation routes on the Great Lakes were joined to routes on the Mississippi River.Then New York City became the end point of a great inland shipping system that extended from the Atlantic Ocean far up the western branches of the Mississippi.

  The coming of the railroads made canal shipping less important,but it tied New York even more closely to the central regions of the country.It was easier for people in the central states to ship their goods to New York for export overseas.

  Exports from New York were greater than imports.Consequently,shipping companies were eager to fill their ships with passengers on the return trip from Europe.Passengers could come from Europe very cheaply as a result.

  Thus New York became the greatest port for receiving people from European countries. Many of these people remained in the city.Others stayed in New York for a few weeks,months,or years,and then moved to other parts of the United States.For these great number of new Americans New York had to provide homes,goods,and services.Their labor helped the city be come great.

  摘要

  How New York Became America's Largest City

  New York was once smaller than Philadelphia and Boston,but now it is America's largest city because of geography,history and economics.

  New York was located at the seaport where materials were imported to the US and the products of the US were sent abroad across the sea.The city was further developed when the Erie Canal was completed in 1825.This linked Lake Erie to New York via the Hudson River and the cost of transporting goods to those who had settled inland was cut down.In addition,the Great Lakes were soon linked to the Mississippi.Later,railroads tied New York closer to the central states,whose goods were exported via New York.Fewer goods were imported,so cheap passages were available from Europe.New York became the main port for receiving Europeans,many of whom stayed in the city and helped it become great.

  报告

  1.写作攻略

  报告是下级部门就某件事情向上级部门和领导回报工作、反映情况、提出建议等使用的上行公文。就其内容实质来说,可分为信息类报告和分析类报告。信息类报告在日常事务中经常发生,其目的是通报信息和情况,一般要求准确、正确、完整、简明扼要。分析类报告在语言和格式上则更加正式、复杂,其目的在于对某问题或情况进行调查、研究、分析、评估或论证后提出结论,篇幅一般较长。报告的写作主要有以下要求:

  (1)写好一份报告,撰写人首先要对所要写的内容有充分的了解。写作时,应尽量多用被动语态,少用第一人称,以免主观、冒昧。

  (2)一般英文报告都可采用书信格式。

  (3)报告要有明确的中心思想、清楚的段落层次和合理的结构安排。

  2.必背模版句型

  The report is hereby made to ask for the approval of the board for the solution of the problem.

  请董事会批准这件事的解决方案。

  This report will summarize……

  本报告将总结……

  The report provides an introduction to……

  本报告介绍了……

  The operation on…… is under smooth way.

  ……的运行很正常。

  This report only provides guidelines they can use to assess their own needs.

  本报告尽为他们评估自身需求提供一些指导。

  May I have your approval of……by the end of this month?

  月底之前我能得到您就……的批准吗?

  We will fulfill the task ahead of time.

  我们将提前完成任务。

  Upon the request of the committee,we have conducted the report.

  应委员会的请求,我们完成了这份报告。

  3.必背经典范文

  To:Mr. Johnson

  From:Li Nan

  Subject:Ship Accident off West Coast of The Yangtze River,No Casualties.

  Date:April.4,2005

  Yesterday evening two boats collided in thick fog in The Yangtze River not far from Wu Han. One was a cargo ship carrying lumber,apparently on its way to The Yangtze River. The other was a National ferry on its regular run from Jiu Jiang to Wu Han.

  However,because of the weather conditions,the captains did not realize the danger until a few seconds before the collision took place. Consequently,there was no time for them to prevent the accident.

  Fortunately,there were no casualties among the crews or passengers,but both ships suffered badly damages.

  A spokesman for the port authorities said that a committee would be set up to determine the cause of the collision.

  Sincerely yours,

  Li Nan

  译文

  收信人:约翰逊先生

  发信人:李楠

  主题:长江西岸撞船事故,无伤亡

  日期:2005年4月4日

  昨晚在距武汉不远处,长江上的两艘船在浓雾中相撞。其中一艘为装运木材的货船,正向长江驶来;另外一艘是国家渡船正从九江到武汉正常航行。

  但是由于恶劣的天气,船长知道撞击发生前几秒才意识到危险。 结果根本没有时间避免事故的发生。

  幸运的是船员和乘客都没有伤亡,但船的损害相当严重。

  船运部门发言人说会成立事故调查小组彻底调查事故原因。

  你诚挚的:李楠

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