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考研英语写作大作文之图表作文复习指导

考研教育网论坛   2006-12-04 16:15 【 】【我要纠错

  1.写作攻略

  图表作文是考研英语写作中较为常见的题型之一,也是难度较大的一种写作题型。这类作文可综合提供题目、数据、图像、提纲,形式多样,但实际上只涉及5个方面:描述图表、指明寓意、分析原因、联系实际、给出建议,而每次考试只是从这5个方面的内容中选出3个结合在一起。从写作类型来看,基本上属于说明文。要求考生围绕题目将有关信息转化为文字形式,考生应该具有一定数据分析和材料归纳的能力,同时会运用一定的写作方法。考研试题一般以三段式写作方法来组织文章,第一段总结归纳信息反映的整体情况,点出主题思想,第二段回答第一段所得出的问题,对数字、数据等做出有条理的分析比较,第三段做出总结或给以简单的评论。表格和图表题型写作要点:

  (1)考生应仔细研究题目以及提示信息,认清图表中的数字、线条、阴影等部分的变化趋势和走向,抓住其主要特点,然后根据图表所显示的中心信息确定内容层次以及主题句。

  (2)考生应该仔细研究图表所给出的大量信息,从中选取最重要,最有代表性的信息,然后根据全文的主旨去组织运用所获取的关键信息。切忌简单地罗列图表所给出的信息。

  (3)图表作文一般采用的时态为一般现在时,但如果图表中给出了具体时间参照,考生则应对时态进行相应的调整。

  (4)图表作文有一些固定句型和表达法,考生应对此融会贯通。

  (5)图表作文可以细分为表格,曲线图、柱形图和饼形图。除了上述共同要点,考生还应了解这四种图在写作方面的不同特点。

  ——表格可以表示多种事物的相互关系,所以考生要对表格中所给出的大量数字进行比较分析,从中找出其变化规律。

  ——曲线图常表示事物的变化趋势,考生应认真观察坐标系所显示的数据信息,并且密切注意交汇在坐标横轴和纵轴上的数字及单位。

  ——柱形图用来表示各种事物的变化情况及相互关系,要求考生通过宽度相等的柱形的高度或长度差别来判断事物的动态发展趋势,因此考生应密切关注坐标线上的刻度单位及图表旁边的提示说明与文字。

  ——饼形图表示各事物在总体中所占的比例及相互关系,旨在要求考生准确理解并阐述一个被分割成大小不等切片的饼形图所传达的信息。考生应清楚掌握部分与整体,部分与部分之间的相互关系,这种关系通常是以百分比的数字形式给出的。

  (6)列出各段主题句。考生可以根据所给提纲或已知信息列出每段的主题句,为全文的展开做好铺垫。

  (7)围绕主题句完成段落的展开。尽量做到主题明确、条理清楚、文字简练。

  (8)检查与修改。对图表作文的检查与修改应着重看文章中所列举的信息是否与图表所显示的信息一致,资料是否恰当。

  2.必背模版句型

  As can be seen from/in the chart/diagram/table/graph……

  从表格/图形中我们可以看到……

  The table shows a three times increase over that of last year.

  表格显示比去年上升了3倍。

  According to /As is shown in the Table /Figure/Chart……

  如表格/图表中显示……

  The number is 5 times as much as that of……

  此数字是……的5倍。

  It has increased by three times as compared with that of ……

  同……相比,增长了3倍。

  It can be seen from the chart/diagram/table/graph/figures/statistics that……

  从表格/图表/数据中我们可以看到……

  From the table/figures/data/results/information above, it can/may be seen/concluded/shown/estimated/calculated/inferred that……

  从以上的表格/图表/数据/结果/信息中,我们可以看到/总结/预测/计算/得出……

  A has the highest sales figure in the three departments, followed by B and C.

  在3个部门中,A的销售额最高,其次是B和C.

  The figure of A is about twice as much as that of B.

  A的数字是B的两倍。

  The rise lasted for two weeks and then began to level off in August.

  上升两个星期后,8月份开始平稳。

  It accounts for 30% of the total population.

  占到总人口的30%.

  The number of students has reached 500, indicating a rise of 20%, compared to last semester.

  学生人数达到500人,与上个学期相比上升了20%.

  It picked up speed at the end of this month.

  这个月底加快了速度。

  The pie charts show the changes on…… in some place in 2000.

  此饼形图显示了2000年一些地方……的变化。

  from this year on,there was a gradual declined reduction in the……, reaching a figure of……

  从这年起,……逐渐下降至……

  There are a lot of similarities/differences between……and……

  ……与……之间有许多相似(不同)之处

  It can be drawn from the chart that the proportions of A and B are going down, though the falling level of the latter is a lot lower/higher than that of the former.

  尽管B的下降速度比A要慢/快,从表中我们可以看到A和B的比例都在下降。

  The increase/decrease is more noticeable during the second half of the 5year period.

  在5年期限的后半段,增长/降低比较明显。

  It falls from 50% in 2000 to 30% in 2004, and then the trend reverse, finishing at 58% in 2005.

  从2000年的50%降到2004年的30%,然后形势逆转,2005年达到了58%.

  The table shows the changes in the number of……over the period from……to……

  该表格描述了在……年之……年间……数量的变化。

  As can be seen from the graph, the two curves show the fluctuation of……

  如图所示,两条曲线描述了……的波动情况。

  3.必背经典范文

  Directions: the table below shows the number of road accidents which occurred in Britain in different places and the ages of the injured persons. Write a report describing the information shown below.

  Road accidents in Britain

  when/where accidents occurredAge

  2-4Age

  5-7Age

  8-11Age

  11-13Age

  14-16TOTAL

  Going to school21383127

  Going home from school21692231

  Playing in the street89812651202

  Cycling into the street110259247

  Shopping for their parents432132152

  TOTAL9815281217359

  The chart above organizes data about road accidents involving children in Britain by and by when and where the accidents occurred. It can be seen that the incidence of accidents decreases as the childrens age increase and that age correlates with the circumstances surrounding the accident.

  For all ages, the most common situation leading to accident is playing in the street but young children were particularly affected. Children between the ages of 5-7 seemed to get into accidents while engaged in activities appropriate to their age, such as shopping for their parents or going home from school. In fact, this age group accounted for the most road accidents of all. Children between 8 and age 11 had the most accidents cycling in the street. After age 11, the number of accidents dropped considerably in all situations.

  From the chart, we get to know that playing in the street is the most common and universal site of accidents of all ages, but the risks that other sites and situations present vary with the children''s ages.

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