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中国教育在线   2006-01-17 00:00 【 】【我要纠错

  Text 3

  When prehistoric man arrived in new parts of the world, something strong happened to the large animals; they suddenly became extinct. Smaller species survived, the large, slow-growing animals were easy game, and were quickly hunted to extinction.

  Now something similar could be happening in the oceans that the seas are being over-fished has been known for years what researchers such as Ransom Myers and Boris Worm have shown is just how fast things are changing. They have looked at half a century of data from fisheries around the world. Their methods de not attempt to estimate the actual biomass (the amount of living biological matter) of fish species in particular parts of the ocean, but rather changes in that biomass over time. According to their latest paper published in Nature, the biomass of large predators (animals that kill and eat other animals) inanes fishery is reduced on average by 80% within 15 years of the start of exploitation. In some long-fished areas, it has halved again since then Dr. Worm acknowledges that these figures are conservative, one reason for this is that fishing technology has improved Today‘s vessels can find their prey using satellites and sonar, which were not available 50 years ago that means a higher proportion of what is in the sea is being caught, so the real difference between present and past is likely to be worse than the one recorded by changes in catch sizes. In the early days, too, longlines would have been more saturated with fish. Some individuals would therefore not have been caught, since to baited hooks would have been available to trap them, leading to an underestimate of fish stocks in the past. Furthermore, in the early days of longline fishing, a lot of fish were lost to sharks after they had been hooked. That is no longer a problem, because there are fewer sharks around noise.

  Dr. Myers and Dr. worm argue that their work gives a correct baseline, which future management efforts must take into account. They believe the date support an idea current among marine biologists, that of the“shifting baseline”。 The notion is that people have failed to detect the massive changes which have happened in the ocean because they have been looking back only a relatively short time into the past. That matters because theory suggests that the maximum sustainable yield that can be cropped form a fishery comes when the biomass of a target species is about 50% of its original levels. Most fisheries are well below that, which is a bad way to de business.

  31、The extinction of large prehistoric animals is noted to suggest that

  A、large animal were vulnerable to the changing environment

  B、small species survived as large animals disappeared

  C、large sea animals may face the same threat today.

  D、Slow-growing fish outlive fast-growing ones

  32、who can infer form Dr Myers and Dr. Worm‘s paper that

  A、the stock of large predators in some old fisheries has reduced by 90%

  B、there are only half as many fisheries are there were 15 years ago

  C、the catch sizes in new fisheries are only 20% of the original amount

  D、the number of larger predators dropped faster in new fisherish than in the old

  33、By saying these figures are conservative (line in ,paragragf-3), Dr worm means that

  A、fishing technology has improved rapidly

  B、then catch-sizes are actually smaller then recorded

  C、the marine bio mass has suffered a greater loss

  D、the date collected so far are pit pf date.

  34、Dr Myers and other researchers hold that

  A、people should look for a baseline that can‘t work for a longer time

  B、fisheries should keep the yield below 50% of the biomass

  C、the ocean biomass should restored its original level.

  D、people should adjust the fishing baseline to changing situation.

  35、The author seems to be mainly concerned with most fisheries‘

  A、management efficiency

  B、biomass level

  C、catch-size limits

  D、technological application.

  Text 4

  Many things make people think artists are weird and the weirdest may be this: artists‘ only job is to explore emotions, and yet they choose to focus on the ones that feel bad.

  This wasn‘t always so. The earliest forms of art, like painting and music, are those best suited for expressing joy. But somewhere in the 19th century, more artists began seeing happiness as insipid, phony or, worst of all, boring as we went from Wordsworth’s daffodils to Baudelaire‘s flowers of evil.

  You could argue that art became more skeptical of happiness because modern times have seen such misery. But it‘s not as if earlier times didn’t know perpetual war, disaster and the massacre of innocents. The reason, in fact, may be just the opposite: there is too much damn happiness in the world today.

  After all, what is the one modern form of expression almost completely dedicated to depicting happiness? Advertising. The rise of anti-happy art almost exactly tracks the emergence of mass media, and with it, a commercial culture in which happiness is not just an ideal but an ideology.

  People in earlier eras were surrounded by reminders of misery. They worked until exhausted, lived with few protections and died young. In the West, before mass communication and literacy, the most powerful mass medium was the church, which reminded worshippers that their souls were in peril and that they would someday be meat for worms. Given all this, they did not exactly need their art to be a bummer too.

  Today the messages your average Westerner is bombarded with are not religious but commercial, and forever happy .Fast-food eaters, news anchors, text messengers, all smiling, smiling. Our magazines feature beaming celebrities and happy families in perfect homes. And since these messages have an agenda——to lure us to open our wallets to make the very idea of happiness seem unreliable. “Celebrate!” commanded the ads for the arthritis drug Celebrex, before we found out it could increase the risk of heart attacks.

  What we forget——what our economy depends on is forgetting——is that happiness is more than pleasure without pain. The things that bring the greatest joy carry the greatest potential for loss and disappointment. Today, surrounded by promises of easy happiness, we need someone to tell us as religion once did, Memento mori: remember that you will die, that everything ends, and that happiness comes not in denying this but in living with it. It‘s a message even more bitter than a clove cigarette, yet, somehow, a breath of fresh air.

  36.By citing the example of poets Wordsworth and Baudelaire, the author intends to show that

  A. Poetry is not as expressive of joy as painting or music.

  B. Art grow out of both positive and negative feeling.

  C. Poets today are less skeptical of happiness.

  D. Artist have changed their focus of interest.

  37. The word“bummer”(Line 5. paragraph 5) most probably means something

  A. religious B. unpleasant C. entertaining D. commercial

  38.In the author‘s opinion, advertising

  A. emerges in the wake of the anti-happy part.

  B. is a cause of disappointment for the general peer

  C. replace the church as a major source of information

  D. creates an illusion of happiness rather than happiness itself.

  39.We can learn from the last paragraph that the author believes

  A .Happiness more often than not ends in sadness.

  B. The anti-happy art is distasteful by refreshing.

  C. Misery should be enjoyed rather than denied.

  D .The anti-happy art flourishes when economy booms

  40.Which of the following is true of the text?

  A Religion once functioned as a reminder of misery.

  B Art provides a balance between expectation and reality.

  C People feel disappointed at the realities of morality.

  D mass media are inclined to cover disasters and deaths.

  Part B

  On the north bank of the Ohio river sits Evansville,Ind, home of David Willianis ,52,and of a riverboat casinola place where gambling games are played .During several years of gambling in that casino ,Williams a state auditor earning $35,000 a year ,last approximately $175,000 . He had never gambled before the casino sent him a coupon for $20 worth of gambling.

  He visited the casino, lost the $20 and left .On his second visit he lost $800. The casino issued to him, as a good customer, a“Fun Card”, which when used in the casino earns points for meals and drinks, and enables the casino to track the user‘s gambling activities. For Williams, these activities become what he calls“electronic heroin”。

  (41) ,In 1997 he lost $21,000 to one slot machine in two days. In march 1997 he lost $72,186. He sometimes played two slot machines at a time, all night, until the boat locked at 5 a.m , then went back aboard when the casino opened at 9 a.m .Now he is suing the casino ,charging that it should have refused his patronage because it knew he was addicted. It did know he had a problem.

  In march 1998,a friend of Williams‘s got him involuntarily confined to a treatment center for addictions, and wrote to inform the casino of Williams’s gamblers. The casinno included a photo of Williams among those of banned gamblers, and wrote to him a“cease admissions”letter noting the“medical /psychological”nature of problem gambling behaviors, the letter said that before being readmitted to the patronizing the casino would pose no threat to his safety or well-being.


  The Wall Street Journal reports that the casino has 20 signs warning,“enjoy the fun and always bet with your head ,not over it .”Every entrance ticket lists a toll-free number for counseling from the Indiana Department of Mental Health .Nevertheless Williams‘s suit charged that the casino ,knowing he was“helplessly addicted to gambling”intentionally worked to“love”him to“engage in conduct against his will”well.


  The fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of mental Disorders says“pathological gambling”involves president, recurring and uncontrollable pursuit loss of money than of the thrill of taking risks in quest of a windfall.

  (44) , .Pushed by science, or what claims to be science, society is reclassifying what once were considered character flaws or moral failings as personality disorders skin to physical disabilities


  Forty-four states have lotteries, 29 have casinos, and most of these states are to varying degrees dependent on__you might say addicted to__revenues from wagering. And since the first Internet gambling site was created in 1995,competition for gambler‘s dollars has become intense. The Oct.28 issue of Newsweek reported that 2 million gamblers patronize 1,800 virtual cosines every week, with $3.5 billion being lost on Internet wagers this year, gambling has ,passed pornography as the web’s webs most profitable business.

  (A)。 Although no such evidence was preserved, the casino‘s marketing department continued to pepper him with mailings. And he entered the casino ad used his Fun Card without being detected. (B) It is unclear what luring was required, given his compulsive behavior. And in what sense was his will operative?

  (C) By the time he had lost $5,00, he said to himself that if he could get back to even , he would quit , one night he won $5,500 ,but he did not quit.

  (D) Gambling has been a common feature of American life forever, but for a long time it was broadly considered a sin, or a social disease . Now it is a social policy , the most important and aggressive promoter of gambling in America is the government .

  (E) David Williamds suit should trouble this gambling nation . But don‘t bet on it .

  (F) It is worrisome that society is medicalizing more and more behavioral problems , often defining as addiction what earlier ,sterner generations explained as weakness of will.

  (G) the anoymous ,lonely ,undistracted nature of online gambling is especaillly conductive to compulsive behavior . But even if the government knew how to more against Internet gambling , what would be its grounds for doing so?

  Part C

  Is it true that the American intellectual is rejected and considered of no account in his society? I am going to suggest that it is not true. Father Bruckbergen told part of the story when he observed that it is the intellectuals who have rejected American. But they have done more than that. They have grown dissatisfied with the role of intellectual. It is they, not American, who have become anti-intellectual.

  First, the object of our study pleads for definition. What is an intellectual? (46) I shall define him as an individual who has elected as his primary duty and pleasure in life the activity of thinking in Socratic(苏格拉底) way about moral problems. He explores such problem consciously, articulately, and frankly, first by asking factual questions, then by asking moral questions, finally by suggesting action which seems appropriate in the light of the factual and moral information which he has obtained. (47) His function is analogous to that of a judge, who must accept the obligation of revealing in as obvious a matter as possible the course of reasoning which led him to his decision.

  This definition excludes many individuals usually referred to as intellectuals——the average scientist for one. 48) I have excluded him because, while his accomplishments may contribute to the solution of moral problems, he has not been charged with the task of approaching any but the factual aspects of those problems. Like other human beings, he encounters moral issues even in everyday performance of his routine duties—— he is not supposed to cook his experiments, manufacture evidence, or doctor his reports. 49) But his primary task is not to think about the moral code, which governs his activity, any more than a businessman is expected to dedicate his energies to an exploration of rules of conduct in business. During most of his walking life he will take his code for granted, as the businessman takes his ethics.

  The definition also excludes the majority of factors, despite the fact that teaching has traditionally been the method whereby many intellectuals earn their living (50) They may teach very well , and more than earn their salaries ,but most of them make little or no independent reflections on human problems which involve moral judgment. This description even fits the majority eminent scholars.“Being learned in some branch of human knowledge in one thing, living in public and industrious thoughts”, as Emersion would say,“is something else.”

  Section III writing

  Part A

  51 Directions:

  You want to contribute to Project Hope by offering financial aid to a child in a remote area, write a letter to the department concerned, asking them to help find a candidate. You should specify what kind of child you want to help and how you will carry out you plan. Write your letter in no less than 100 words. Write it neatly on ANSWER SHEET2

  Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter; use“Li Ming”instead.

  Do not write the address. (10 points)

  Part B

  52 Directions: study the following photos carefully and write an essay in which you should:

  1) describe the photos briefly

  2) interpret the social phenomenon reflected by them ,and

  3) give you point of view

  You should write 160-200 words neatly on ANSWER SHEET2(20 points)





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