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  SectionⅠUse of English


  Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  Humans are unique in the extent to which they can reflect on themselves and others. Humans are able to 1, to think in abstract terms, to reflect on the future. A meaningless, 2 world is an insecure world. We do not like extensive insecurity. When it 3 to human behavior we infer meaning and 4 to make to behavior understandable. 5 all this means is that people developquasi theoriesof human behavior, that is, theories that are not developed in 6, scientific manner. When doing so, people believe they know 7 humans do the things they do.

  Let's consider an example. In the United States people have been 8 with the increasing amount of crime for several years. The extent of crime bothers us; we ourselves could be victims. But it 9 bothers us that people behave in such ways. Why can such things happen? We develop quasi theories. We 10 concerned about the high crime rate, but we now believe we 11 it: out criminal justice system is 12; people have grown selfish and inconsiderate as our moral values weaken 13 the influence of liberal ideas; too many people are 14 drugs. These explanations suggest possible solutions. 15 the courts; put more people in jail as examples to other lawbreaker. There is now hope that the problem of crime can be solved if only we 16 these solutions. again, the world is no longer meaningless nor 17 so threatening.

  These quasi theories 18 serve a very important function for us. But how accurate are they? How 19 will the suggested solutions be? These questions must be answered with 20 to how people normally go about developing or attaining their quasi theories of human behavior.[301 words]

  1、[A]reason [B]consider [C]understand [D]meditate

  2、[A]unanimous [B]unimaginable [C]unpredictable [D]unfortunate

  3、[A]goes [B]comes [C]makes [D]concerns

  4、[A]explanations [B]conclusions [C]motives [D]consequences

  5、[A]That [B]Even [C]As [D]What

  6、[A]an objective [B]a subjective [C]a theoretic [D]a conclusive

  7、[A]how [B]why [C]whether [D]when

  8、[A]worried [B]disturbed [C]perturbed [D]concerned

  9、[A]also [B]even [C]yet [D]still

  10、[A]retain [B]remain [C]maintain [D]refrain

  11、[A]know [B]comprehend [C]understand [D]grasp

  12、[A]precautious [B]inadequate [C]deficient [D]destructive

  13、[A]by [B]as [C]from [D]for

  14、[A]for [B]on [C]against [D]with

  15、[A]Consolidate [B]Stiffen [C]Confirm [D]Strengthen

  16、[A]act on [B]work out [C]see to [D]set up

  17、[A]rather [B]very [C]much [D]quite

  18、[A]moreover [B]therefore [C]nevertheless [D]otherwise

  19、[A]sufficient [B]efficient [C]effective [D]capable

  20、[A]respect [B]relation [C]result [D]association

  SectionⅡReading Comprehension

  Part A


  Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A,B,C or D.Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1.(40 points)

  Text 1

  Researchers have studied the poor as individuals, as families and households, as members of poor communities, neighborhoods and regions, as products of larger povertycreating structures. They have been analyzed as victims of crime and criminals, as members of minority cultures, as passive consumers of mass culture and active producers of acounterculture, as participants in the informal economy, as inventors of survival strategies, as an economic burden and as a reserve army of labor—to mention just some of the preoccupations of poverty research.

  The elites, who occupy the small upper stratum within the category of the nonpoor, and their functions in the emergence and reproduction of poverty are as interesting and important an object for poverty research as are the poor themselves. The elites have images of the poor and of poverty which shape their decisions and actions. So far, little is known about those images, except as they are sketchily portrayed in popular stereotypes. The elites may well ignore or deny the external effects of their own actions (and omissions) upon the living conditions of the poor, Many social scientists may take a very different view. As poverty emerged and was reproduced, legal frameworks were created to contain the problems it caused with profound, and largely unknown, consequences for the poor themselves. In general, political, educational and social institutions tend to ignore or even damage the interests of the poor. In constructing a physical infrastructure for transport, industry, trade and tourism, the settlements of the poor are often the first to suffer or to be left standing and exposed to pollution, noise and crowding.

  Most important are the economic functions of poverty, as for lack of other options the poor are forced to perform activities considered degrading or unclean. The poor are more likely to buy secondhand goods and leftovers foodstuffs, thus prolonging their economic utility. They are likely to use the services of lowquality doctors, teachers and lawyers whom the nonpoor shy away from.[1]Poverty and the poor serve an important symbolic function, in reminding citizens of the lot that may befall those who do not heed the values of thrift, diligence and cleanliness, and of the constant threat that the rough, the immoral and the violent represent for the rest of society.

  Physically, the poor and the nonpoor are often kept apart, through differential land use and ghettoization. Socially, they are separated through differential participation in the labor market, the consumption economy, and in political, social and cultural institutions. Conceptually, they are divided through stereotyping and media. This separation is even more pronounced between the elites and the poor.[441 Words]

  21According to the author, studying the elites also sheds light on poverty research because

  [A]they are also members of the same society as the poor.

  [B]they play an important role in creating and reproducing poverty.

  [C]solution of the poverty problem is at their mercy.

  [D]they know the living conditions of the poor better than other groups.

  22While social scientists are devoting much of their effort to poverty research,

  [A]not enough legal frameworks have been created to relieve the condition of the poor.

  [B]they have done little to actually provide relief programs for the poor.

  [C]they ignore the role of the elites as an object for poverty research.

  [D]the poor people themselves do not much appreciate such effort.

  23In the eyes of the society,

  [A]the poor tend to symbolize what lazy evil people turn out to be.

  [B]the poor are not worthy of the sympathy the society shows them.

  [C]economic prejudice is more of an obstacle to the solution of poverty.

  [D]the nonpoor should show more sympathy for the poor.

  24The wordpronouncedin the last sentence of the passage probably means

  [A]sympathetic. [B]conspicuous.

  [C]identifiable. [D]unbridgeable.

  25In the passage, the author is mainly concerned with

  [A]analyzing a problem. [B]providing a solution.

  [C]defining a situation. [D]outlining a proposal.

  Text 2

  Popular ideological assumptions about society change with the decades, as well as with the enlargement of knowledge. The analysis of the human genetic code published last week demonstrates that humans, genetically speaking, are only twice as complicated as the fruit fly, and among themselves share 99.9 percent of their genes.

  Culture and nurture count in making us what we turn out to be, although that will perhaps come as no great surprise to those outside the closed world of academic theory.

  This partakes of the rediscovery of the wheel, since before positivism largely took over the social sciences in American universities in the 1950s, it was generally assumed by professors, as well as laymen, that culture had a great deal to do with how material civilization developed.

  [1]That argument, however, depended on historical evidence and reasoning, which had come to be consideredsoftknowledge—unscientific, subjective, itself culturebound and, even more recently, as a selfserving tale told by white male patriarchs in order to oppress the rest.

  To suggest that modern liberal civilization, science and technology emerged in Western Europe because of a particular cultural development linked to the assumptions, values and philosophies of classical Greece and Rome, the Jewish and Christian religions, and the ideas of the European Renaissance and Enlightenment, was thought to put down other civilizations where such development had not taken place.

  This notion,popular early in the 20th century,according to a New York Times report on the matter, is nowunsettling scholars and policymakers,since itchallenges the assumptions of market economists and liberal thinkers.These are nearly all, to some degree, economic determinists.

  The matter is of practical concern in making policy. Take the worst case: the problem of contemporary Africa.

  Until the 1950s, Africa was generally considered to be a region of premodern cultures, developed among a variety of peoples originally practicing simple agriculture, or hunting and gathering. Some cultures were of great artistic complexity;ll had complex codes of value and ceremony; some were quite advanced politically, resembling in many respects European feudalism, but all were without written languages or written knowledge.[370 Words]

  26What was possibly assumed before about humans and the fruit fly?

  [A]They were equally complicated in terms of gene.

  [B]Humans were much more genetically complicated than the fruit fly, genetically speaking.

  [C]Humans were two times as complicated as the fruit fly in gene.

  [D]The fruit fly was less stable than humans in the structure of genes.

  27Which of the following is true according to the text?

  [A]Modern scholars tend to deny the influence of culture on social development.

  [B]Only after the 1950s did scholars realize the great impact of culture.

  [C]Positivism believes in the truth that culture has a lot to do with economic development.

  [D]laymen would be surprised to see that culture is so influential on society.

  28Bysoftknowledge it is meant that the argument for cultures impact on society is

  [A]sound. [B]unapproachable.

  [C]groundless. [D]naive.

  29The author took Afica as an example of

  [A]political advancement.

  [B]sophisticated economy.

  [C]artistic complexity.

  [D]underdeveloped cultures.

  30What is the main idea of the text?

  [A]Culture and nurture are closely related to each other.

  [B]Culture is a motive force in social development.

  [C]Policymaking comes mainly from culture.

  [D]Scientific culture directs economic development.

  Text 3

  A cofigurative culture is one in which the prevailing model for members of the society is the behavior of their contemporaries.[1]Although there are records of postfigurative cultures in which the elders provide the model for the behavior of the young and in which there has been as yet no break in the acceptance of the ways of the ancestors, there are few societies in which cofiguration has become the only form of cultural transmission and none is known in which this model alone has been preserved through generations. In a society in which the only model was a cofigurative one, old and young alike would assume that it was‘society’for the behavior of each new generation to differ from that of the preceding generation.

  In all cofigurative cultures the elders are still dominant in the sense that they set the style and define the limits within which cofiguration is expressed in the behavior of the young. There are societies in which approbation by the elders is decisive for the acceptance of new behavior, that is, the young look not to their peers, but to their elders, for the final approval of change.[2]But at the same time, when there is a shared expectation that members of a generation will model their behavior on that of their contemporaries, especially their adolescent age mates, and that their behavior will differ from that of their parents and grandparents, each individual, as he successfully embodies a new style, becomes to some extent a model for others of his generation.

  Cofiguration has its beginning in a break in the postfigurative system. Such a break may come about in many ways through a catastrophe in which a whole population, but particularly the old who were essential to leadership, is decimated, as a result of the development of new forms of technology in which the old are not expert, following migration to a new land where the elders are, and always will be, regarded as immigrants and strangers, in the aftermath of a conquest in which subject populations are required to learn the language and ways of the conqueror, as a result of religious conversion, when adult converts try to bring up children to embody new ideals they themselves never experienced as children and adolescents, or as a purposeful step in a revolution that establishes itself through the introduction of new and different life styles for the young.[403 Words]

  31Which is the most logical title for this passage?

  [A]The Generation Gap: Cofigurative vs. Postifiguative.

  [B]The Cultural Absorption: Cofigurative of Postfigurative.

  [C]Postfiguative Cultures: The Breakdown of the Past.

  [D]Cofiguative Cultures: Contemporaries as Models.

  32In cofiguative cultures the young

  [A]never ask the eldersapproval of change.

  [B]look to their peers for approval of change.

  [C]model their behavior on that of their grandparents.

  [D]expect to resemble the experience of their parents.

  33In cofigurative cultures the young see the elders as

  [A]representatives of a past left behind.

  [B]custodians of ancient wisdom.

  [C]members of a higher caste.

  [D]models for proper behavior.

  34Cofigurative cultures are well adapted for

  [A]identifying cultural deviants in an unstable modem society.

  [B]liberating enslaved peoples in long occupied land.

  [C]maintaining traditional roles by the dominating class.

  [D]absorbing new members into the prevailing structure of the time.

  35Which of the following events is LEAST likely to result in a cofigurative type of culture?

  [A]Mass religuious conversion to a new faith.

  [B]The development of firm caste lines.

  [C]The enslavement of one tribe by another.

  [D]Historical migration to a rich country.

  Text 4

  A metal with a builtin memory is one of the very useful discoveries made during Americas space program. Nitinol was discovered by scientists working at the Naval Surface Weapons Center. They were looking for heatshield metals for missiles and satellites, but what they found was nitinol. This alloy can be formed into shapes just like any other metal, but it returns to its original form at a certain temperature.

  When this alloy of nickel and titanium is first formed, it is shaped into ingots, brickshaped masses of the metal. Then it is drawn out into a wire of varying thickness, depending on the job it is destined to do. It is set into its desired curve or shape and heated briefly. It is then cooled off by dipping the wire in cold water. Thissetsits memory.[1]The metal can then be formed into any desired shape, but whenever its temperature exceeds its room temperature, it returns to the shape it has memorized.

  This makes nitinol perfect, of course, for spacecraft, for antennas, probes, shields, and foldingarmsmade of nitinol can be stored safely inside a spacecraft, protecting them from damage during launching. Then, once safe in orbit, the spacecraft would suddenlygrowantennas and other structures. The suns rays would have warmed up the folded and coiled nitinol, and it would have returned to its original shape.

  But scientists have found a more down to earth use for this wire:hey now use it to strengthen teeth. Before nitinol, teeth that needed straightening have brackets attached to them; wires were attached to these to exert a pull in the right direction. But this pull must be constant, and the stainless stell arch wire cannot exert the correct force if it has been bent several fimes or if the tooth has actually moved toward it as planned. As a result, many people with dental braces must have the wire replaced monthly, tightened every few weeks, or adjusted painfully tight at the beginning of the treatment.

  But nitinol wires can be formed to exert force in a certain direction, cooled off, and then reformed to fit the patients mouth. As the mouth warms the nitinol, it begins to try to assume its preset shape. This exerts a steadier, more constant pull on the tooth than could ever be achieved with stainless steel wire.[2]Nitinol can be bent into such intricate shapes—while maintaining its pull—that very difficult treatments, such as moving one tooth from behind another, can be done now without the expense or pain of constant adjustment. Nitinol has cut the time needed for these treatments by almost half, a real benefit for both patient and dentist.[455 Words]

  36The main idea of this passage is that

  [A]nitinol is a highly versatile metal.

  [B]nitinol helped make the space program a success.

  [C]nitinol has revolutionized dental care.

  [D]most alloys havememories。

  37Which of the following is NOT a step in forming nitinol for space use?

  [A]The metal is shaped into ingots.

  [B]The metal is separated into mickel and titanium.

  [C]The metal is drawn into a wire.

  [D]The metal is set in its desired curve or shape and heated briefly.

  38We can conclude from this passage that

  [A]nitinol has itsmemoryfunction because it is an alloy.

  [B]the suns rays are necessary to trigger the metalsmemory。

  [C]people have only begun to discover the many uses of nitinol.

  [D]one problem with nitinol is that it often returns to its original shape at inopportune times.

  39The passage suggests that

  [A]nitinol is an organic metal.

  [B]nitinol is stronger than any metal.

  [C]nitinols sensitivity to temperature changes makes it impractical for most uses.

  [D]nitinol is better than stainless steel in jobs that require constant stress on the metal.

  40As used in the last paragraph of this passage, the word intricate means

  [A]abnormal. [B]complex.  [C]regular. [D]perfect.

  Part B


  You are going to read a list of headings and a text about Scofflaws in society. Choose the most suitable heading from the list AF for each numbered paragraph ( 4145 ).The first and last paragraphs of the text are not numbered. There is one extra heading which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. ( 10 points )

  [A]The statement of Riseman is proved by the reality in society.

  [B]Scofflaw becomes nourishing.

  [C]The phenomenon of scofflaw makes us worrying.

  [D]The danger of scofflaw is most serious.

  [E]The redlight runner is the most brazenly scofflaw.

  [F]Scofflaw is the defy of the law and order of society.

  Law and order is the longest running and probably the best loved political issue in U. S. history. Yet it is painfully apparent that millions of Americans who would never think of themselves as lawbreakers, let alone criminals, are taking increasing liberties with the legal codes that are designed to protect and nourish their society.


  Indeed, there are moments today—amid outlaw litter, tax cheating, illicit noise and motorized anarchy—when it seems as though the scofflaw represents the wave of the future. Harvard Sociologist David Riesman suspects that a majority of Americans have blithely taken to committing supposedly minor derelictions as a matter of course. Already, Riesman says, the ethic of U. S. society is in danger of becoming this:Youre a fool if you obey the rules.


  Nothing could be more obvious than the evidence supporting Riesman. Scofflaws abound in amazing variety. The graffitiprone turn public surfaces into visual rubbish. Bicyclists often ride as though twowheeled vehicles are exempt from all traffic laws. Litterbugs convert their communities into trash dumps. Widespread flurries of ordinances have failed to clear public places of highdecibel portable radios, just as earlier laws failed to wipe out the beersoaked hooliganism that plagues many parks. Tobacco addicts remain hopelessly blind to signs that say NO SMOKING. Respectably dressed pot smokers no longer bother to duck out of public sight to pass around a joint.The flagrant use of cocaine is a festering scandal in middle and upperclass life. And then there are(hello, everybody!)the jaywalkers.


  The dangers of scofflawry vary widely. The person who illegally spits on the sidewalk remains disgusting, but clearly poses less risk to others than the company that illegally buries hazardous chemical waste in an unauthorized location. The fare beater on the subway presents less threat to life than the landlord who ignores fire safety statutes. The most immediately and measurably dangerous scofflawry, however, also happens to be the most visible. The culprit is the American driver, whose lawless activities today add up to a colossal public nuisance. The hazards range from routine double parking that jams city streets to the drunk driving that kills some 25, 000 people and injures at least 650, 000 others yearly! Illegal speeding on open highways? New surveys show that on some interstate highways 83% of all drivers are currently ignoring the federal 55 m. p. h. speed limit.


  The most flagrant scofflaw of them all is the red light runner. The flouting of stop signals has got so bad in Boston that residents tell an anecdote about a cabby who insists that red lights arejust for decoration。 The power of the stoplight to control traffic seems to be waning everywhere. In Los Angeles, redlight running has become perhaps the citys most common traffic violation. In New York City, going through an intersection is like Russian roulette. Admits Police Commissioner Robert J. Mc Guire:Today its a 5050 toss up as to whether people will stop for a red light.Meanwhile, his own police largely ignore the lawbreaking.


  Redlight running has always been ranked as a minor wrong, and so it may be in individual instances.When the violation becomes habitual, widespread and incessant, however, a great deal more than a traffic management problem is involved. The flouting of basic rules of the road leaves deep dents in the social mood. Innocent drivers and pedestrians pay a repetitious price in frustration, inconvenience and outrage, not to mention a justified sense of mortal peril. The significance of redlight running is magnified by its high visibility. If hypocrisy is the tribute that vice pays to virtue, then furtiveness is the true outlaws salute to the force of lawandorder.

  The redlight runner, however, shows no respect whatever for the social rules, and society cannot help being harmed by any repetitious and brazen display of contempt for the fundamentals of order.

  Part C


  Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points)

  46)To avoid the various foolish opinions to which mankind is liable, no superhuman genius is required. A few simple rules will keep you, not from all errors, but from silly errors.

  If the matter is one that can be settled by observation, make the observation yourself. Aristotle could have avoided the mistake of thinking that women have fewer teeth than men, by the simple device of asking Mrs. Aristotle to keep her mouth open while he counted. He did not do so because he thought he knew. Thinking that you know when in fact you dont is a fatal mistake, to which we are all liable.

  Many matters, however, are less easily brought to the test of experience. 47) If, like most of mankind, you have strong convictions on many such matters, there are ways in which you can make yourself aware of your own prejudice. If an opinion contrary to your own makes you angry, that is a sign that you subconsciously are aware of having no good reason for thinking as you do. If someone maintains that two and two is five, or that Iceland is on the equator, you feel pity rather than anger, unless you know little of arithmetic or geography that his opinion shakes your own contrary conviction. The most savage controversies are those about matters as to which there is no good evidence either way. 48) So whenever you find yourself getting angry about a difference of opinion, be on your guard; you will probably find, on examination, that your belief is going beyond what the evidence justifies.

  For those who have enough psychological imagination, it is a good plan to imagine an argument with a person having a different opinion. 49) This has one advantage, and only one, as compared with actual conversation with opponents: this one advantage is that the method is not subject to the same limitations of time and space. Mahatma Gandhi considered it unfortunate to have railways and steamboats and machinery; he would have liked to undo the whole of the industrial revolution. You may never have an opportunity of actually meeting anyone who holds this opinion, because in Western countries most people take the advantage of modern technology for granted. 50) But if you want to make sure that you are right in agreeing with the prevailing opinion, you will find it a good plan to test the arguments that occur to you by considering what Gandhi might have said in refutation of them. I have sometimes been led actually to change my mind as a result of this kind of imaginary dialogue. Furthermore, I have frequently found myself growing more agreeable through realizing the possible reasonableness of a hypothetical opponent.[449 Words]


  Part A


  You will go to a university to do cooperation research in the Department of Geography as a visiting scholar. Write to the Student Accommodation Office telling them:

  1) what your situation is,

  2) what accommodation you wish to have, and

  3) ask for any suggestions

  You should write about 100 words on ANSWER SHEET 2. Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. UseLi Minginstead. You do not need to write the address. (10 points)

  Part B


  Study the following drawing carefully and write an essay entitledGreat Expectations。

  In the essay you should

  1) describe the drawing and interpret its meaning, and

  2) give your comment on the phenomenon.

  You should write 160—200 words neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (20 points)


  SectionⅠUse of English


  「解析」reason说理,推理,可与下文to think in abstract terms, to reflect on the future呼应。这里补充对几个重要的近义词,即consider, meditate, reflect, speculate作一下辨析:



  reflect表示以沉思的方式回顾、回想发生过的事情,常与on连用。如:He sometimes reflected on the changes that had taken place in the world since his youth.


  2「答案」 [C]unpredictable

  「解析」[A]unanimous意见一致的,无异议的, [B]unimaginable想不到的,不可思议的, [C]unpredictable不可预见的, [D]unfortunate不幸的。只有 [C]unpredictable符合题意。

  3「答案」 [B]comes

  「解析」when it comes to sth.当说到……的时候,为固定表达结构,这需要同学们识记。

  4「答案」 [C]motives

  「解析」motives动机。通过对上文behavior, meaning及下文make the behavior understandable的识别,可知 [C]motives为正确答案。即理解了意义动机,就理解了一个行为。辨:explanations解释。conclusions结论,consequences结果,后果,重要性。

  5「答案」 [D]What

  「解析」应选 [D]what.谓语动词is之前是名词从句做主语。从句中,主语为all this,谓语为means,宾语为what.要点:名词从句的连词是各种特殊疑问词(包括whether和if)和that.that在从句中不作任何成分。even,as不引导名词从句。

  6「答案」[A]an objective

  「解析」objective客观的。联系下文的scientific manner可知[A]an objective为正确答案。辨:subjective主观的,theoretic理论的,conclusive结论的,决定性的。

  7「答案」 [B]why

  「解析」承接上文,人们想要弄清楚行为的意义和动机。故 [B]why为所选。

  8「答案」 [D]concerned

  「解析」关键要识别be concerned with sth.关心,关注某事。辨:be worried about担心,忧虑,be disturbed by……受到……烦扰,be perturbed by sth.对……感到不安。



  10「答案」 [B]remain


  11「答案」 [C]understand

  「解析」全文思路就是议论人们试图要理解人类的这类行为。故 [C]understand为正确答案。辨:know知道,了解(某人)。comprehend领会理解(文章等的)意义,本质,重要性等。grasp理解,领会,抓住文章的思路,大意等。

  12「答案」 [B]inadequate

  「解析」联系上下文可知描述我们的刑事司法系统无力,做得不够可知 [B]inadequate为正确选项。辨:precautious戒备的,警惕的,deficient(在数量或程度方面)不足的;不够的,(比较:inefficient a.效率低的,效率差的,不能胜任的,无能的。)destructive破坏性的。

  13「答案」 [C]from

  「解析」as, for都只能在引导从句时表示原因。by可表示多种意义。如:依据,按照,通过等,但不表示原因。from介词短语有时可表原因。此处应选 [C]from.

  14「答案」 [B]on

  「解析」on可表示在从事某事,处于某种状态。如:be on duty值班;be on diet节食。be on drugs吸毒。

  15「答案」 [D]Strengthen

  「解析」联系上下文,加强法庭,意即加强司法惩治力度。故 [D]Strengthen为正确选项。辨:consolidate巩固;强化;统一;合并,stiffen增加硬度,使僵硬,使生硬,confirm确认,批准,使巩固确定,使有效。

  16「答案」[A]act on

  「解析」联系上下文,按这些解决办法行事,可知[A]act on按……行事为正确选项。辨:work out解决,算出,制定出,see to sth.负责,承办某件事,set up建起,树立起。这里补充讲一些与act及其名词action相关的一些常用词组:

  act as充当act for代理

  go (come) into action开始战斗(行动)in action在战斗中

  put out of action使失去作用take action采取行动

  17「答案」 [D]quite

  「解析」修饰分词常用quite,尽管它也可修饰其他形容词或副词。rather, very用于一般的形容词或副词。much可修饰比较级,用于增强比较级意义,表……的多。或用于修饰名词,表一个量。

  18「答案」 [B]therefore


  19「答案」 [C]effective



  「解析」with respect to sth.关于,涉及,就……而论,其他三项都不能构成有意义的结构。relation关系,result结果,association联系,联想意义,协会。

  SectionⅡReading Comprehension

  Text 1


  21.「答案」 [B]they play an important role in creating and reproducing poverty.

  「解析」第二段指出,在不受穷的人中,社会名流占据为数不多的社会上层,在贫困的产生及其再生产过程中,他们的作用与穷人一样也是一个有意义的重要研究对象。这些人对于穷人和贫穷有自己的认识,这影响着他们的决定和行动。对于这些认识,我们还不太了解,仅见于一些通常的粗略的定型描述。这些人也许忽视或否认自己的行动(或无所行动)对穷人的生活状况所产生的外在影响。但许多社会学家却与他们的看法不同,在他们看来,随着贫困的产生和再生产,要求制定法律条文来涵盖所产生的问题,这些问题的产生对穷人自身产生深刻的影响——则这一影响在很大程度上还不为人所知。 [C]意为贫穷问题要依赖他们解决。

  22.「答案」 [C]they ignore the role of the elites as an object for poverty research.

  「解析」第一段提到研究者对穷人问题已经进行了各种各样的研究,但第二段又指出对于社会名流在贫困的产生过程中起到的重要作用却研究不够。参阅上题题解。[A]意为没有制定足够的法律条文来帮助穷人摆脱自己的境况。 [B]意为他们在向穷人提供救济上几乎没有做任何事情。

  23.「答案」[A]the poor tend to symbolize what lazy evil people turn out to be.

  「解析」[A]意为穷人通常看做是懒惰和邪恶的人的最终下场。第三段最后一句指出,贫困和穷人也起一个重要的象征作用,告诉人们,对于那些忽视节俭、勤劳和卫生美德的人来说,等着他们的命运(lot)可能是什么;这也警示人们那些粗野、不道德、凶暴的人不断对社会形成的威胁。 [C]意为经济上的偏见对解决贫困问题障碍更大。第三段前三句实际上谈的是贫困给穷人带来的糟糕的经济状况。

  24.「答案」 [B]conspicuous.

  「解析」 [B]意为明显的。pronounced此处意为明显的。注意本段谈到了穷人和富人在物质环境、社会环境以及在人们对二者的思想看法中存在的巨大隔阂。在穷人和作为社会最上层的名流之间,这种隔阂当然更大、更明显。

  25.「答案」[A]analyzing a problem.

  「解析」本文的侧重点不是如何解决贫困问题 [B]和 [D]表达的内容,而是如何全面研究贫困问题,第一段描述了目前对贫困问题的研究,第二段指出了社会学家研究上的不足,认为不仅应该研究贫困者,还应该研究造成贫困的社会、政治等因素——特别是社会上层的人在造成贫困的作用,最后一段又回到这个问题。第三段描述了穷人所面临的情况。可见,作者更多的是在分析问题。

  Text 2


  26.「答案」 [D]The fruit fly was less stable than humans in the structure of genes.


  27.「答案」[A]Modern scholars tend to deny the influence of culture on social development.

  「解析」根据第六段第一句所述,文化问题与社会发展的关系正困扰着当今一些学者,因此 [D]不对;根据第三段中before前后的逻辑关系可推理:实证论不认为文化与物质发展有关系,因此 [C]不对;根据第二段后半部分信息, [D]不正确。

  28.「答案」 [C]groundless.

  「解析」根据soft后面破折号的解释作用,该词意为unscientific、subjective,因此 [C]为正确答案。

  29.「答案」 [D]underdeveloped cultures.


  30.「答案」 [B]Culture is a motive force in social development.


  Text 3


  31.「答案」 [D]Cofiguative Cultures: Contemporaries as Models.

  「解析」文章第一段指出:并存文化指的是一种社会成员遵循的主要模式是他们同时代者的行为的文化;在一个只有并存文化模式的社会,年长者和年轻者都认为,任何新一代人的行为都应该与上一代有所不同,这是合乎自然规则的;文章第二段具体说明了并存文化;第三段指出:并存文化是在成人楷模社会体系的崩溃中诞生的;然后解释了并存文化是如何诞生的。由此可知:本文主要讲的是并存文化——也就是同时代者视为的模式。选项中只有 [D]项之意能够表达此意;[A]项、 [B]项和 [C]项之意都不能表达文章的中心意思。

  32.「答案」 [B]look to their peers for approval of change.

  「解析」文章第二段指出:在一些社会中,长者对一种新行为的认可具有决定性——即年轻人应该向年长者而不是其同辈寻求变革的支持;但同时,有一种共识——任何一代人都应该以其同辈的行为为典范,尤其是其青春期的同伴。由此可知:在并存文化中,年轻人应该向其同辈寻求变革的支持。选项中只有 [B]项之意与此意相符;[A]项之意明显与文章的思想不符; [C]项和 [D]项两项之意与文章的意思相反。

  33.「答案」[A]representatives of a past left behind.

  「解析」文章第二段第一句指出:在所有的并存文化中,年长者在意识方面仍然具有权威性——他们确定生活模式,规定限制性条款;但是,任何一代人的行为都与其父辈、祖父辈的行为不同。由此可知:在并存文化中,年长者被看成是过去笔为的代表。选项中只有[A]项之意与此意相符; [B]项和 [C]项两项之意与文章的意思不符;文中没有提到 [D]项之意。

  34.「答案」 [D]absorbing new members into the prevailing structure of the time.

  「解析」文章第三段指出:并存文化是在成人楷模社会体系的崩溃中诞生的;这种崩溃可能因为一场大灾难,以多种方式显现;在这场大灾难中,大批年长者被杀害;受统治的人被要求学习统治者的语言和生活方式。由此可知:并存文化适宜于吸收新的社会成员。选项中只有 [D]项之意与此意相符;文中没有提到[A]项之意; [B]项和 [C]项两项之意也与文章的意思不符。

  35.「答案」 [B]The development of firm caste lines.

  「解析」[A]项、 [C]项和 [D]项三项之意与文章第三段第二句话的意思相符;文中没有提到 [B]项之意。

  Text 4


  36.「答案」[A]nitinol is a highly versatile metal.

  「解析」此题问及本文的主题思想是什么。选项[A]意为镍钛诺是一种用途很广的金属;选项 [B]意为镍钛诺有助于太空计划的成功;选项 [C]意为镍钛诺带来牙科护理的革命;选项 [D]意为大部分金属都具有记忆力。纵观全文得知,本文主要介绍镍钛合金的特性及其在航空及牙科护理等领域的广泛用途,故本题正确答案为[A]。

  37.「答案」 [B]The metal is separated into mickel and titanium.

  「解析」本题问的是所给四个选项中,哪一选项不是作用于太空用途的镍钛诺合金的必要步骤。本文第二段第一行提到选项[A],第二行提到选项 [C],第三行提到选项 [D],只有选项 [B]没有被提到。且由第一段第四行得知,镍钛诺是一种合金,具有在一定温度下恢复原状的特性,如果把这种合金分离成镍和钛,则不具备这种特性了,故本题正确答案为 [B]。

  38.「答案」 [C]people have only begun to discover the many uses of nitinol.

  「解析」本题问的是所给四个选项中,哪一选项是根据短文可得出的结论。选项[A]意为镍钛诺具有恢复原状的特性是因为它是合金。固然,镍钛诺合金具有恢复原状的特性。然而,是合金并不是它具有这种特性的直接原因,所以,[A]不正确。选项 [B]意为要想引发这种金属的记忆功能,阳光是必不可少的。文章最后一段第二行指出,口腔温度可以漫暖镍钛诺,使之呈现预先设定的形状,故 [B]不正确。选项 [C]意为人们才刚开始发现镍钛诺的多种用途。由第三段第一行得知,镍钛诺可广泛用于宇宙飞船、天线、探测器、防护材料等,现在科学家们又发现镍钛诺可用于稳固牙齿,故 [C]为正确答案。选项 [D]意为镍钛诺的一个问题是经常在不适宜的时候恢复原状,文中没有提及,故不正确。

  39.「答案」 [D]nitinol is better than stainless steel in jobs that require constant stress on the metal.

  「解析」本题问的是文章表明所给四个选项中哪一选项是正确的。选项[A]意为镍钛诺是一种有机金属,选项 [B]意为镍钛诺比任何金属都坚固,选项 [C]意为镍钛诺对温度的灵敏性使它不宜用于大部分用途,以上选项文中均未提及。只有 [D]为正确选项,意思是对于需要金属长期稳固的场合来说,镍钛诺比不锈钢更为适用。由本文最后一段第三行可知。

  40.「答案」 [B]complex.

  「解析」要求根据短文推测出intricate一词是什么意思。根据上下文得知,该词意思是难度极大的、要求复杂的,故正确答案为 [B]。

  41「答案」 [B]

  「解析」The scofflaw represents the wave of the future,里斯曼也说人们已经到了似乎鄙视遵守规则秩序的地步了,可见玩忽法令的风气在不断滋长。因此答案为B.



  43「答案」 [D]

  「解析」这段指出,玩忽法令的行为虽然极为常见,但危害却最大,The most immediately and measurably dangerous scofflawry, however, also happens to be the most visible.正确理解了这一句话,就可以得出答案D.



  45「答案」 [C]


  46、To avoid the various foolish opinions to which mankind is liable, no superhuman genius is required.「1」A few simple rules will keep you, not from all errors, but from silly errors.「2」


  「解析」to which mankind is liable是介词提前的定语从句,be liable to something意为有……倾向的,容易……;not …… but ……是固定结构,意为不是……,而是……。

  47、If, like most of mankind, you have strong convictions on many such matters,「1」there are ways in which you can make yourself aware of your own prejudice.「2」If an opinion contrary to your own makes you angry,「3」that is a sign that you subconsciously are aware of having no good reason for thinking as you do.「4」


  「解析」该句较长,是两个带if从句的复合句。句中的难译之处有conviction一词及no good reason for thinking as you do.conviction原意为深信、信念,在这里引申为一味地迷信……;no good reason for thinking as you do的言下之意是平常是有充分的理由的。

  48、So whenever you find yourself getting angry about a difference of opinion, be on your guard;「1」you will prob ably find, on examination, that your belief is going beyond what the evidence justifies.「2」


  「解析」be on ones guard意为保持警惕、提防,如:be on ones guard against saying the wrong thing(提防说错话);going beyond what the evidence justifies(比事实所证实的远,即信念与事实根据不相符)。另外,后面you will probably……在意义上是原因状语从句。

  49、This has one advantage, and only one,「1」as compared with actual conversation with opponents:「2」this one advantage is that the method is not subject to the same limitations of time and space.「3」


  「解析」该句中的is not subject to意为受……限制、受……支配。as compared with ……是固定结构,意为和……相比。

  50、But if you want to make sure that you are right in agreeing with the prevailing opinion,「1」you will find it a good plan to test the arguments「2」that occur to you by considering what Gandhi might have said in refutation of them.「3」


  「解析」the prevailing opinion意为流行的观点,即大多数人的观点;句中it作形式宾语,to test the arguments that ……为真正宾语,其中,the arguments that occur to you直译为发生在你身上的论点,意译为你的论点。In refutation of something or somebody意为反驳……。




  Dear Sir/Madam,

  I am Chinese student.


  In the coming October, I will go to your university to do cooperation research in the Department of Geography as a visiting scholar.

  I have known from


  the booklet on accommodation in your university that I should apply for an accommodation in advance. This time I am going to your university alone. The accommodation I prefer is to get a small furnished flat on the campus. If permitted, Id like to share the flat with two male friends of mine who will to go your university along with me.

  Now, would


  you be kind enough to get a flat with two bedrooms for me? If not possible, what kind of accommodation would you be able to offer to me?

  Your kind help would be greatly appreciated.

  I am looking forward to you early reply.

  Yours sincerely

  Li Ming

  52Great Expectations


  The artist conveys


  to us in the picture that nowadays many parents are expecting too much of their kids and laying their unfulfilled hopes unto the young children.

  In the old days


  when our grandparents lived, life was destitute and most of them tried hard all their lives to barely make the ends meet, let alone to enjoy such luxuries as fine clothes, exquisite food and education. Even in the first few decades after liberation in 1949, people in China were still fighting with poverty and doing their uttermost to construct our social and economic infrastructures. The life at that time nonetheless could not provide most people with abundant food. Good education was still most peoples lingering dream. Only after China opened its door wide to the outside world after the 80s of the last century did Chinese economy begin to take on wings and peoples living standard greatly improved. Only till then can people afford to send their children to school. To have their childhood dreams realized, they crammed the kids leisure with various afterclass courses such as English, computer, music instrument of one sort or another, dance class and the like, regardless of the childrens own interest and free will.

  We can see


  that children now are overwhelmed by such unreasonable and extra burdens both in and out of school and as a result, they are deprived of what might be more interesting in their adolescent realm of possibility and fun as well, such as more sport activities, more free time for more amusement. So we hope teachers as well as parents relieve our kids of the unfair heavy load and return to them a lighthearted and cheerful childhood

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