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2006年考研英语模拟题及答案解析和参考译文(二)

夏徛荣   2005-11-24 00:00 【 】【我要纠错

  SectionⅠUse of English

  Directions:Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  If it were only necessary to decide whether to teach elementary science to everyone on a mass basis or to find the gifted few and take them as far as they can go, our task would be fairly simple. The public school system, however, has no such 1 , 2 the jobs must be carried 3 at the same time. Because we depend so 4 upon science and technology for our 5, we must produce specialists in many fields. 6 we live in a 7 nation, whose citizens make the policies for the nation, large numbers of us must be educated to understand, to uphold, and 8 necessary, to judge the work of 9. The public school must educate both producers and 10 of scientific services.

  In education, there should be a good balance 11 the branches of 12 that contribute to effective thinking and 13 judgment. Such balance is defeated by 14 much emphasis on any one field. This 15 of balance involves not only the 16 of the natural sciences, the social sciences and the arts but also relative emphasis among the natural sciences themselves.

  17, we must have a balance between current and 18 knowledge. The attention of the public is continually drawn to new 19 in scientific fields and the discovery of new knowledge; these should not be allowed to turn our attention away from the sound, established materials that form the basis of 20 for beginners.

  1.[A] entity   [B] auction   [C] choice   [D] coalition

  2.[A] whereas   [B] though   [C] while   [D] for

  3.[A] off   [B] forward   [C] away   [D] on

  4.[A] substantially   [B] heavily   [C] equally [  D] misleadingly

  5.[A] stimulation   [B] shift   [C] progress   [D] glamour

  6.[A] If [B] Although   [C] Because   [D] Supposing

  7.[A] prosperous   [B] democratic   [C] literate   [D] thriving

  8.[A] unless   [B] in case   [C] when   [D] only

  9.[A] experts   [B] populace   [C] voters   [D] mob

  10.[A] subscribers   [B] users   [C] passers-by   [D] victims

  11.[A] amid   [B] between   [C] upon   [D] among

  12.[A] knowledge   [B] data   [C] intelligence   [D] quest

  13.[A] fair   [B] wise   [C] risky   [D] proper

  14.[A] too   [B] fairly   [C] very   [D] rather

  15.[A] incident   [B] question   [C] inference   [D] impact

  16.[A] reaction   [B] cooperation   [C] interaction   [D] relation

  17.[A] Conversely   [B] Similarly   [C] Accordingly   [D] Presumably

  18.[A] primitive   [B] ultimate   [C] classical   [D] initial

  19.[A] possibilities   [B] capabilities   [C] abilities   [D] responsibilities

  20.[A] grounds   [B] courses   [C] doctrines   [D] quotas

  SectionⅡReading Comprehension

  Part A

  Directions: Reading the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

  Text 1

  In the next century we‘ll be able to alter our DNA radically, encoding our visions and vanities while concocting new life-forms. When Dr. Frankenstein made his monster, he wrestled with the moral issue of whether he should allow it to reproduce,“Had I the right, for my own benefit, to inflict the curse upon everlasting generations?”Will such questions require us to develop new moral philosophies?

  Probably not. Instead, we‘ll reach again for a timetested moral concept, one sometimes called the Golden Rule and which Kant, the millennium’s most prudent moralist, conjured up into a categorical imperative: Do unto others as you would have them do unto you; treat each person as an individual rather than as a means to some end.

  Under this moral precept we should recoil at human cloning, because it inevitably entails using humans as means to other humans‘ends and valuing them as copies of others we loved or as collections of body parts, not as individuals in their own right. We should also draw a line, however fuzzy, that would permit using genetic engineering to cure diseases and disabilities but not to change the personal attributes that make someone an individual (IQ, physical appearance, gender and sexuality)。

  The biotech age will also give us more reason to guard our personal privacy. Aldous Huxley in Brave New World, got it wrong: rather than centralizing power in the hands of the state, DNA technology has empowered individuals and families. But the state will have an important role, making sure that no one, including insurance companies, can look at our genetic data without our permission or use it to discriminate against us.

  Then we can get ready for the breakthroughs that could come at the end of the next century and the technology is comparable to mapping our genes: plotting the 10 billion or more neurons of our brain. With that information we might someday be able to create artificial intelligences that think and experience consciousness in ways that are indistinguishable from a human brain. Eventually we might be able to replicate our own minds in a“dryware”machine, so that we could live on without the“wetware”of a biological brain and body. The 20th century‘s revolution in infotechnology will thereby merge with the 21st century’s revolution in biotechnology. But this is science fiction. Let‘s turn the page now and get back to real science.

  21.Dr. Frankenstein‘s remarks are mentioned in the text

  [A] to give an episode of the DNA technological breakthroughs.

  [B] to highlight the importance of a means to some everlasting ends.

  [C] to show how he created a new form of life a thousand years ago.

  [D] to introduce the topic of moral philosophies incurred in biotechnology.

  22.It can be concluded from the text that the technology of human cloning should be employed

  [A] excessively and extravagantly.     [B] reasonably and cautiously.

  [C] aggressively and indiscriminately.    [D] openly and enthusiastically.

  23.From the text, we learn that Aldous Huxley is of the opinion that

  [A] DNA technology should be placed in the charge of individuals.

  [B] government should assume less control over individuals.

  [C] people need government to protect their DNA information.

  [D] old moral precepts should be abolished on human cloning.

  24.Judged from the information in the last paragraph, we can predict that the author is likely to write which of the following in the next section?

  [A] The reflection upon biotechnological morality.

  [B] The offensive invasion of our personal privacy.

  [C] The inevitable change of IQs for our descendants.

  [D] The present state of biotechnological research.

  25.According to the last paragraph,“dry-ware”is to“wet-ware”as

  [A]“collective”to“individual”。    [B]“fictional”to“factual”。

  [C]“mechanical”to“corporeal”。   [D]“temporary”to“permanent”。

  Text 2

  Before a big exam, a sound night‘s sleep will do you more good than poring over textbooks. That, at least, is the folk wisdom. And science, in the form of behavioral psychology, supports that wisdom. But such behavioral studies cannot distinguish between two competing theories of why sleep is good for the memory. One says that sleep is when permanent memories form. The other says that they are actually formed during the day, but then“edited”at night, to flush away what is superfluous.

  To tell the difference, it is necessary to look into the brain of a sleeping person, and that is hard. But after a decade of painstaking work, a team led by Pierre Maquet at Liege University in Belgium has managed to do it. The particular stage of sleep in which the Belgian group is interested in is rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, when brain and body are active, heart rate and blood pressure increase, the eyes move back and forth behind the eyelids as if watching a movie, and brainwave traces resemble those of wakefulness. It is during this period of sleep that people are most likely to relive events of the previous day in dreams.

  Dr. Maquet used an electronic device called PET to study the brains of people as they practiced a task during the day, and as they slept during the following night. The task required them to press a button as fast as possible, in response to a light coming on in one of six positions. As they learnt how to do this, their response times got faster. What they did not know was that the appearance of the lights sometimes followed a pattern—what is referred to as“artificial grammar”。 Yet the reductions in response time showed that they learnt faster when the pattern was present than when there was not.

  What is more, those with more to learn (i.e., the“grammar”, as well as the mechanical task of pushing the button) have more active brains. The“editing”theory would not predict that, since the number of irrelevant stimuli would be the same in each case. And to eliminate any doubts that the experimental subjects were learning as opposed to unlearning, their response times when they woke up were even quicker than when they went to sleep.

  The team, therefore, concluded that the nerve connections involved in memory are reinforced through reactivation during REM sleep, particularly if the brain detects an inherent structure in the material being learnt. So now, on the eve of that crucial test, maths students can sleep soundly in the knowledge that what they will remember the next day are the basic rules of algebra and not the incoherent talk from the radio next door.

  26.Researchers in behavioral psychology are divided with regard to

  [A] how dreams are modified in their courses.

  [B] the difference between sleep and wakefulness.

  [C] why sleep is of great benefit to memory.

   [D] the functions of a good night‘s sleep.

  27.As manifested in the experimental study, rapid eye movement is characterized by

  [A] intensely active brainwave traces.   [B] subjects‘quicker response times.

  [C] complicated memory patterns.    [D] revival of events in the previous day.

  28.By referring to the artificial grammar, the author intends to show

  [A] its significance in the study.   [B] an inherent pattern being learnt.

  [C] its resemblance to the lights.   [D] the importance of night‘s sleep.

  29.In their study, researchers led by Pierre Maquet took advantage of the technique of

  [A] exposing a long-held folk wisdom.   [B] clarifying the predictions on dreams.

  [C] making contrasts and comparisons.   [D] correlating effects with their causes.

  30.What advice might Maquet give to those who have a crucial test the next day?

  [A] Memorizing grammar with great efforts.

  [B] Study textbooks with close attention.

  [C] Have their brain images recorded.

  [D] Enjoy their sleep at night soundly.

  Text 3

  This line of inquiry did not begin until earlier this month—more than three months after the accident—because there were“too many emotions, too many egos,”said retired Adm. Harold Gehman, chairman of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board.

  Testifying before the Senate Commerce Committee, Gehman said this part of his inquiry was in its earliest stages, starting just 10 days ago. But Gehman said he already has concluded it is“inconceivable”that NASA would have been unable or unwilling to attempt a rescue for astronauts in orbit if senior shuttle managers and administrators had known there was fatal damage to Columbia‘s left wing.

  Gehman told reporters after the hearing that answers to these important questions could have enormous impact, since they could place in a different context NASA‘s decisions against more aggressively checking possible wing damage in the days before Columbia’s fatal return.

  Investigators believe breakaway insulating foam damaged part of Columbia‘s wing shortly after liftoff, allowing superheated air to penetrate the wing during its fiery reentry on Feb.1, melt it from inside.

  Among those decisions was the choice by NASA‘s senior shuttle managers and administrators to reject offers of satellite images of possible damage to Columbia’s left wing before the accident. The subject dominated the early part of Wednesday‘s hearing.

  Gehman complained managers and administrators“missed signals”when they rejected those offers for images, a pointedly harsh assessment of the space agency‘s inaction during the 16-day shuttle mission.

  “We will attempt to pin this issue down in our report, but there were a number of bureaucratic and administrative missed signals here,”Gehman told senators.“We‘re not quite so happy with the process.”

  The investigative board already had recommended that NASA push for better coordination between the space agency and military offices in charge of satellites and telescopes. The U.S. National Imagery and Mapping Agency in March agreed to regularly capture detailed satellite images of space shuttles in orbit.

  Still, Gehman said it was unclear whether even images from America‘s most sophisticated spy satellites might have detected on Columbia’s wing any damage, which Gehman said could have been as small as two inches square. The precise capabilities of such satellites proved to be a sensitive topic during the Senate hearing.

  31.This text is most probably taken from an article entitled“ ”。

  [A] Gehman‘s Comments on Columbia Accident.

  [B] An Inquiry into Columbia Accident.

  [C] Shedding Light on Shuttle‘s Safety.

  [D] NASA’s Problems Being Exposed.

  32.The word“they”in the sentence“since they could place”(Para.3) denotes

  [A]“damages”。   [B]“answers”。   [C]“decisions”。   [D]“questions”。

  33.According to the writer, what may chiefly be responsible for the Columbia accident?

  [A] A supposed damage to the left wing of the spacecraft.

  [B] The deliberate rejection of satellite images.

  [C] A sense of sentiment and arrogance involved.

  [D] The space agency‘s inaction during its mission.

  34.As mentioned in the text, the Wednesday‘s hearing revolved around

  [A] the precise capabilities of spy satellites in orbit.

  [B] NASA‘s indecisions against checking upon the Columbia.

  [C] NASA‘s rejection of satellite images offered.

  [D] the coordination between NASA and military offices.

  35.Which of the following can best describe Gehman‘s attitude towards satellite images?

  [A] Apprehensive.   [B] Credulous.   [C] Indifferent.   [D] Cautious.

  Text 4

  When a disease of epidemic proportions rips into the populace, scientists immediately get to work, trying to locate the source of the affliction and find ways to combat it. Oftentimes, success is achieved, as medical science is able to isolate the parasite, germ or cell that causes the problem and finds ways to effectively kill or contain it. In the most serious of cases, in which the entire population of a region or country may be at grave risk, it is deemed necessary to protect the entire population through vaccination, so as to safeguard lives and ensure that the disease will not spread.

  The process of vaccination allows the patient‘s body to develop immunity to the virus or disease so that, if it is encountered, one can ward it off naturally. To accomplish this, a small weak or dead strain of the disease is actually injected into the patient in a controlled environment, so that his body’s immune system can learn to fight the invader properly. Information on how to penetrate the disease‘s defenses is transmitted to all elements of the patient’s immune system in a process that occurs naturally, in which genetic information is passed from cell to cell. This makes sure that, should the patient later come into contact with the real problem, his body is well equipped and trained to deal with it, having already done so before.

  There are dangers inherent in the process, however. On occasion, even the weakened version of the disease contained in the vaccine proves too much for the body to handle, resulting in the immune system succumbing, and, therefore, the patient‘s death. Such is the case of the smallpox vaccine, designed to eradicate the smallpox epidemic that nearly wiped out the entire Native American population and killed massive numbers of settlers. Approximately 1 in 10,000 people who receives the vaccine contract the smallpox disease from the vaccine itself and dies from it. Thus, if the entire population of the United States were to receive the Smallpox Vaccine today, 3000 Americans would be left dead.

  Fortunately, the smallpox virus was considered eradicated in the early 1970‘s, ending the mandatory vaccination of all babies in America. In the event of a re-introduction of the disease, however, mandatory vaccinations may resume, resulting in more unexpected deaths from vaccination. The process, which is truly a mixed blessing, may indeed hide some hidden curses.

  36.The best title for the text may be

  [A]“Vaccinations: A Blessing or A Curse.”

  [B]“Principles of Vaccinations.”

  [C]“Vaccines: Methods and Implications.”

  [D]“A Miracle Cure Under Attack.”

  37.What does the example of the Smallpox Vaccine illustrate?

  [A] The possible negative outcome of administering vaccines.

  [B] The practical use of a vaccine to control an epidemic disease.

  [C] The effectiveness of vaccines in eradicating certain disease.

  [D] The method by which vaccines are employed against the disease.

  38.The phrase“ward it off naturally”(Paragraph 2) most probably means

  [A] dispose of it naturally.   [B] fight it off with ease.

  [C] see to it reluctantly.    [D] split it up properly.

  39.Which of the following is true according to the text?

  [A] Saving the majority would necessarily justify the death of the minority.

  [B] The immune system can be trained to fight weaker versions of a disease.

  [C] Mandatory vaccinations are indispensable to the survival of the populace.

  [D] The process of vaccination remains a mystery to be further resolved.

  40.The purpose of the author in writing this passage is

  [A] to comment and criticize.    [B] to demonstrate and argue.

  [C] to interest and entertain.    [D] to explain and inform.

  Part B

  本部分内容请参见Part B(二)

  Part C

  Directions:Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points)

  The old adage of the title has a parallel in the scientific world“all research leads to biomedical advances”。 The fact that research in one discipline contributes to another is well understood by the scientific community. It is not, however, so clear to the public or to public policy-makers. (46) Because public support for funding of biomedical research is strong, the scientific community could build a more effective case for public support of all science by articulating how research in other disciplines benefits biological medicine.

  The time is ripe to improve public appreciation of science. A recent National Science Foundation survey suggested that Americans continue to support research expenditures. In addition, public opinion polls indicate that scientists and science leaders enjoy enviably high public esteems. (47) Instead of lamenting the lack of public understanding of science, we can work to enhance public appreciation of scientific research by showing how investigations are in many areas close-knit and contribute to biomedical advances. A crucial task is to convey to the public, in easily understood terms, the specific benefits and the overall good that result from research in all areas of science.

  Take, for example, agricultural research. (48) On the surface, it may appear to have made few significant contributions to biomedical advances, except those directly related to human nutrition. This view is incorrect, however. In the case of nutrition, the connections between agricultural and biomedical research are best exemplified by the vitamin discoveries. (49) At the turn of the century, when the concept of vitamins had not yet surfaced and nutrition as a scientific discipline did not exist, it was in a department of agricultural chemistry that the first true demonstration of vitamins was made. Single-grain feeding experiments documented the roles of vitamins A and B. The essential role of some minerals (iron and copper) was shown later, and these discoveries provided the basis of modern human nutrition research.

  (50) Despite such direct links, however, it is the latest discoveries that have been made in agricultural research that reveal its true importance to biomedicine. Life-saving antibiotics such as streptomycin were discovered in soil microorganisms. The first embryo transplant was made in a dairy cow, and related research led to advances in the understanding of human reproduction.

  SectionⅢWriting

  Part A

  51.

  Direction:Yesterday you learnt in a newspaper advertisement that there is a job vacancy in a foreign-owned company. A secretary for the manager is needed. Write a letter to its personnel department, and

  1) show your desire for the position,

  2) describe your experiencerelated abilities,

  3) and express your wish for a job interview.

  Part B

  52.

  Direction:

  Good Neighbors

  A. Study the following cartoon carefully and write an essay in no less than 200 words.

  B. Your essay must be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2.

  C. Your essay should meet the requirements below:

  1) describe the cartoon,

  2) and point out its implications in our life.

  Part B (二)

  Sample One

  Directions:In the following text, some sentences have been removed. For questions 41-45, choose the most suitable one from the list A-G to fit into each of the numbered blank. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the gaps. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  As more and more material from other cultures became available, European scholars came to recognize even greater complexity in mythological traditions. Especially valuable was the evidence provided by ancient Indian and Iranian texts such as the Bhagavad-Gita and the Zend-A-vesta. From these sources it became apparent that the character of myths varied widely, not only by geographical region but also by historical period. (41) . He argued that the relatively simple Greek myth of Persephone reflects the concerns of a basic agricultural community, whereas the more involved and complex myths found later in Homer are the product of a more developed society.

  Scholars also attempted to tie various myths of the world together in some way. From the late 18th century through the early 19th century, the comparative study of languages had led to the reconstruction of a hypothetical parent language to account for striking similarities among the various languages of Europe and the Near East. These languages, scholars concluded, belonged to an Indo-European language family. Experts on mythology likewise searched for a parent mythology that presumably stood behind the mythologies of all the European peoples. (42) . For example, an expression like“maiden dawn”for“sunrise”resulted first in personification of the dawn, and then in myths about her.

  Later in the 19th century the theory of evolution put forward by English naturalist Charles Darwin heavily influenced the study of mythology. Scholars researched on the history of mythology, much as they would dig fossil-bearing geological formations, for remains from the distant past. (43) . Similarly, British anthropologist Sir James George Frazer proposed a three-stage evolutionary scheme in The Golden Bough. According to Frazer‘s scheme, human beings first attributed natural phenomena to arbitrary supernatural forces ( magic), later explaining them as the will of the gods (religion), and finally subjecting them to rational investigation (science)。

  The research of British scholar William Robertson Smith, published in Lectures on the Religion of the Semites (1889), also influenced Frazer. Through Smith‘s work, Frazer came to believe that many myths had their origin in the ritual practices of ancient agricultural peoples, for whom the annual cycles of vegetation were of central importance. (44) . This approach reached its most extreme form in the so-called functionalism of British anthropologist A. R. Radcliffe-Brown, who held that every myth implies a ritual, and every ritual implies a myth.

  Most analyses of myths in the 18th and 19th centuries showed a tendency to reduce myths to some essential core-whether the seasonal cycles of nature, historical circumstances, or ritual. That core supposedly remained once the fanciful elements of the narratives had been stripped away. In the 20th century, investigators began to pay closer attention to the content of the narratives themselves. (45) .

  [A] German-born British scholar Max Muller concluded that the Rig-Veda of ancient India—the oldest preserved body of literature written in an Indo-European language—reflected the earliest stages of an Indo-European mythology. Muller attributed all later myths to misunderstandings that arose from the picturesque terms in which early peoples described natural phenomena.

  [B] The myth and ritual theory, as this approach came to be called, was developed most fully by British scholar Jan Ellen Harrison. Using insight gained from the work of French sociologist Emile Durkheim, Harrison argued that all myths have their origin in collective rituals of a society.

  [C] Austrian psycho-analyst Sigmund Freud held that myths—like dreams—condense the material of experience and represent it in symbols.

  [D] This approach can be seen in the work of British anthropologist Edward Burnett Tylor. In Primitive Culture (1871), Tylor organized the religious and philosophical development of humanity into separate and distinct evolutionary stages.

  [E] The studies made in this period were consolidated in the work of German scholar Christian Gottlob Heyne, who was the first scholar to use the Latin term myths ( instead of fabular , meaning“fable”) to refer to the tales of heroes and gods.

  [F] German scholar Karl Offried Muller followed this line of inquiry in his Prolegomena to a Scientific Mythology, 1825.

  Sample Two

  Directions:The following paragraphs are given in a wrong order. For Questions 41-45, you are required to reorganize these paragraphs into a coherent article by choosing from the list A-G to fill in each numbered box. The first and the last paragraphs have been placed for you in Boxes. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  [A] These issues cut right across traditional religious dogma. Many people cling to the belief that the origin of life required a unique divine act. But if life on Earth is not unique, the case for a miraculous origin would be undermined. The discovery of even a humble bacterium on Mars, if it could be shown to have arisen independently from Earth life would support the view that life emerges naturally.

  [B] Contrary to popular belief, speculation that we are not alone in the universe is as old as philosophy itself. The essential steps in the reasoning were based on the atomic theory of the ancient Greek philosopher Democritus. First, the laws of nature are universal. Second, there is nothing special or privileged about Earth. Finally, if something is possible, nature tends to make it happen. Philosophy is one thing, filling in the physical details is another. Although astronomers increasingly suspect that bio-friendly planets may be abundant in the universe, the chemical steps leading to life remain largely mysterious.

  [C] There is, however, a contrary view—one that is gaining strength and directly challenges orthodox biology. It is that complexity can emerge spontaneously through a process of selforganization. If matter and energy have an inbuilt tendency to amplify and channel organized complexity, the odds against the formation of life and the subsequent evolution of intelligence could be drastically shortened. The relevance of self-organization to biology remains hotly debated. It suggests, however, that although the universe as a whole may be dying, an opposite, progressive trend may also exist as a fundamental property of nature. The emergence of extraterrestrial life, particularly intelligent life, is a key test for these rival paradigms.

  [D] Similar reasoning applies to evolution. According to the orthodox view, Darwinian selection is utterly blind. Any impression that the transition from microbes to man represents progress is pure chauvinism of our part. The path of evolution is merely a random walk through the realm of possibilities. If this is right, there can be no directionality, no innate drive forward; in particular, no push toward consciousness and intelligence. Should Earth be struck by an asteroid, destroying all higher life-forms, intelligent beings, still less humanoids, would almost certainly not arise next time around.

  [E] Traditionally, biologists believed that life is a freak—the result of a zillion-to-one accidental concatenation of molecules. It follows that the likelihood of its happening again elsewhere in the cosmos is infinitesimal. This viewpoint derives from the second law of thermodynamics, which predicts that the universe is dying-slowly and inexorably degenerating toward a state of total chaos. Life stumbles across this trend only because it is a pure statistical luck.

  [F] Historically, the Roman Catholic church regarded any discussion of alien life as heresy. Speculating about other inhabited worlds was one reason philosopher Giordano Bruno was burned at the stake in 1600. Belief that mankind has a special relationship with God is central to the monotheistic religions. The existence of alien beings, especially if they were further advanced than humans intellectually and spiritually, would disrupt this cozy view.

  [G] The discovery of life beyond earth would transform not only our science but also our religions, our belief systems and our entire world view. For in a sense, the search for extraterrestrial life is really a search for ourselves—who we are and what our place is in the grand sweep of the cosmos.

  Order:

  G 41 42 43 44 45 F

  Sample Three

  Direction:You are going to read a text about the season for relief, followed by a list of examples. Choose the best example from the list A-F for each numbered subheading (41-45)。 There is one extra example which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  Winter‘s harsh weather, shorter hours of daylight and family demands can all aggravate feelings of stress. According to Dr. Paul Rosch, president of the American Institute of Stress, one Midwestern headache clinic reported that complaints of tension and migraine headaches increased 40 percent from Thanksgiving to Christmas, compared with other sixweek periods during the year.

  Many physicians are now trained in techniques to relieve tension and stress. But which strategies do they themselves use? Here top health professionals reveal their favorite stressbusters. Six in all, they are:

  (41) Soothe with food. When nutritional biochemist Judith Wurtman is stressed out, she does what a lot of people do this time of year: she reaches for food. But in her case, it‘s a healthy rice cake or two.

  (42) Run from your problem. Dr. Kenneth H. Cooper handles his own stress with a daily afterwork run.

  (43) Check your perspective. Driving in for a busy day as a MayoClinic stress-management expert, psychologist John Taylor saw the oil-maintenance light pop on in his minivan. He faced a nonstop schedule of patients and had to pick up his three-year-old after work.“I felt myself tense up,”recalls Taylor, who then tried his quick stress-busting strategy. He asked himself, Is this a matter of life or death? No. The oil could safely be changed the next week.

  (44) Look to the light side. On his way to the hospital where his father was to undergo surgery, author and educator Joel Goodman shared a hotel courtesy van with the anxious relatives of several patients. The driver began telling his stressed-out passengers a few jokes.“Then he did some magic tricks that had my mother and me laughing,”Goodman says.“In that five-minute ride he taught us that humor can relieve our stress.”The surgery was successful.

  (45) Take a timeout. A major cause of anxiety is an overloaded schedule. It‘s one source of stress you can ward off by preparing ahead.

  Say a little prayer. Psychologist and medical scientist Joan Bprysenko of Boulder, Colo., maintains that since most people spend too much time agonizing over the past or worrying about the future, the key to lessening stress is learning how to live emotionally in the present.

  “It helps to have some ritual to do this,”says Borysenko. For her the most relaxing ritual is“each morning when I pray.”Prayer has been shown to reduce the impact of stress hormones such as noradrenaline and adrenaline.

  But remember, says Borysenko, doctors can‘t turn on their patient’“internal healing system”。 That inner clam is up to you. So you‘re sick of stress, heal thyself.

  [A] Williams counts himself among the 20 percent of adults whose susceptibility to anger is high enough to threaten their health. But everyone can try his approach to handling the stressors that set anger off—and it needn‘t be in a work environment.

  [B]“Aerobic exercise is the best way to dissipate stress and make the transition into family time,”says the expert. But, he cautions, don‘t let exercise itself become a stress. Even moderate activity—such as a daily 30 minute walk can improve health and mood.“That’s why I tell my patients to be sure to walk their dog every day,”he says with a chuckle,“even if they don‘t have one.”

  [C]“My research suggests that carbohydrates raise levels of the mood-regulating brain chemical serotonin, which exerts a calming effect on the entire body,”says the M.I.T research scientist.“So symptoms of stress—such as anger, tension, irritability and inability to concentrate—are eased.”

  [D] He tells patients to do only those tasks that would have serious consequences if left undone.“Will you die if you don‘t do the laundry?”he asks. Taking at least half an hour a day to do something you enjoy, he notes, lets you recharge you batteries. Especially around the holidays, skip some routine chores to make time for family and friends.

  [E] When cardiologist Ray Rosenman was associate chief of medicine at San Francisco‘s Mount Zion Hospital, he would block off half an hour a day on his schedule.“If an emergency came up, I moved patients into that slot,”says Rosenman, co-author of Type A Behavior and Your Heart.“Or used that half-hour to return calls or go through my mail. You can’t control everything, but you can control your schedule to create some breathing space for yourself.”

  [F] He was so moved by his experience that he researched laughter‘s power.“A good laugh relaxes muscles, lowers blood pressure, suppresses stress-related hormones and enhances the immune system,”he says. In his workshops he tells clients to ask themselves how their favorite comedian would see this stressful situation.

  Sample Four

  Directions:You are going to read a list of headings and a text about explorations into maple lores. Choose the most suitable heading from the list A-F for each numbered paragraph (41-45)。 The first and last paragraphs of the text are not numbered. There is one extra heading which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  [A] The influence of maples on the Canadian culture.

  [B] The token of maples in Canada.

  [C] Contemplation of global distribution of maples.

  [D] The triumph of Nokomis over the devils with the help of maples.

  [E] The popularity of the maple in a favorite myth.

  [F] The maple signals the approach of fall.

  The maple smoke of autumn bonfires is incense to Canadians. Bestowing perfume for the nose, color for the eye, sweetness for the spring tongue, the sugar maple prompts this sharing of a favorite myth and original etymology of the word maple.

  41

  The maple looms large in Ojibwa folk tales. The time of year for sugaringoff is“in the Maple Moon.”Among Ojibwa, the primordial female figure is Nokomis, a wise grandmother. In one tale about seasonal change, cannibal wendigos-creatures of evil—chased old Nokomis through the autumn countryside. Wendigos throve in icy cold. When they entered the bodies of humans, the human heart froze solid. Here wendigos represent oncoming winter. They were hunting to kill and eat poor Nokomis, the warm embodiment of female fecundity who, like the summer, has grown old.

  42

  Knowing this was a pursuit to the death, Nokomis outsmarted the cold devils. She hid in a stand of maple trees, all red and orange and deep yellow. This maple grove grew beside a waterfall whose mist blurred the trees‘outline. As they peered through the mist, slavering wendigos thought they saw a raging fire in which their prey was burning. But it was only old Nokomis being hidden by the bright red leaves of her friends, the maples. And so, drooling ice and huffing frost, the wendigos left her and sought easier prey. For their service in saving the earth mother’s life, these maples were given a special gift: their water of life would be forever sweet, and Canadians would tap it for nourishment.

  43

  Maple and its syrup flow sweetly into Canadian humor. Quebeckers have the standard sirop d‘erable for maple syrup, but add a feisty insult to label imitation syrups that are thick with glucose glop. They call this sugary imposter sirop de Poteau“telephonepole syrup”or dead tree syrup.

  44

  The contention that maple syrup is unique to North America is suspect, I believe. China has close to 10 species of maple, more than any country in the world. Canada has 10 native species. North America does happen to be home to the sugar maple, the species that produces the sweetest sap and the most abundant flow. But are we to believe that in thousands of years of Chinese history, these inventive people never tapped a maple to taste its sap? I speculate that they did. Could Proto-Americas who crossed the Bering land bridge to populate the Americas have brought with them a knowledge of maple syrup? Is there a very old Chinese phrase for maple syrup? Is maple syrup mentioned in Chinese literature? For a non-reader of Chinese, such questions are daunting but not impossible to answer.

  45

  What is certain is the maple‘s holdfast on our national imagination. Its leaf was adopted as an emblem in New France as early as 1700, and in English Canada by the mid-19th century. In the fall of 1867, a Toronto schoolteacher named Alexander Muir was traipsing a street at the city, all squelchy underfoot from the soft felt of falling leaves, when a maple leaf alighted to his coat sleeve and stuck there. At home that evening, he wrote a poem and set it to music, in celebration of Canada’s Confederation. Muir‘s song,“The Maple Leaf Forever,”was wildly popular and helped fasten the symbol firmly to Canada.

  The word“maple”is from“mapeltreow”, the Old English term for maple tree, with“mapl”—as its ProtoGermanic root, a compound in which the first“m”—is, I believe, the nearly worldwide“ma”, one of the first human sounds, the pursing of a baby‘s lips as it prepares to suck milk from mother’s breast. The“ma”root gives rise in many world languages to thousands of words like“mama”,“mammary”,“maia”, and“Amazon.”Here it would make“mapl”mean“nourishing mother tree,”that is, tree whose maple sap in nourishing. The second part of the compound,“apl”, is a variant of IndoEuropean able“fruit of any tree”and the origin of another English fruit word, apple. So the primitive analogy compares the liquid sap with another nourishing liquid, mother‘s milk.

[1] [2]

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