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[中科院植物研究所]06年外国语言学及应用语言学考试科目及参考书

中科院植物研究所   2005-10-20 00:00 【 】【我要纠错

  1.政治理论(100分)

  (全国硕士研究生入学统一考试)

  2.第二外国语(100分)

  1)日语:《标准日本语》(中级上、下册)人民教育出版社

  2)德语:《德语速成》外语教学与研究出版社;《德语-300小时》外语教学与研究出版社

  3)俄语:《大学俄语基础教程》(1-4册)高教社出版或其他相应水平的公外教材

  4)法语:《简明法语教程》(上、下册)孙辉编商务印书馆

  3.基础英语(150分)

  第一部分 词汇(30分)

  第二部分 结构(20分)

  第三部分 阅读(45分)

  第四部分 翻译(25分)

  第五部分 写作(30分)

  4.语言学及应用语言学基础(150分)

  1)文学(40分):

  《美国文学史及选读》(第一、二册)吴伟仁外语教学与研究出版社;

  《英国文学史及选读》(第一、二册)吴伟仁外语教学与研究出版社。

  2)英美概况(30分):

  《新编英美概况教程》周叔麟北京大学出版社。

  3)语言学(80分):

  《语言研究》(The Study of Language)George Yule外语教学与研究出版社;

  《语言学入门》(An Introduction to Linguistics)Stuart C. Poole外语教学与研究出版社;

  《现代汉语》(修订三版上、下册)黄伯荣廖序东高等教育出版社1980.

  “基础英语”考试的结构及题型

  第一部分 词汇(30分)

  A.近义词配对(15分)

  例:Group One

  1. tyranny A. cruelty

  2. spouse B. mate

  3. puppet C. doll

  D. boss

  E. mummy

  B.多项选择填空(15分)

  例:The savings on staff wages are ________ by the increased maintenance costs.

  A. offset B. compensated C. curtailed D. exceeded

  第二部分 结构(20分)

  找错并改错

  例:Few inventors have to their credit as much useful inventions as Thomas Alva Edison.

  A B C D

  第三部分 阅读(45分)

  A.把所给句子还原到所给文章的适当位置,使文章语义连贯。(30分)

  例:

  TEXT 1

  I began working in journalism when I was eight years old. It was my mother‘s idea. She wanted me to “make something” of myself and, after a levelheaded appraisal of my strengths, decided I had better start young if I was to have any chance of keeping up with the competition.

  61)_____ My idea of a perfect afternoon was lying in front of the radio rereading my favorite Big Little Book, Dick Tracy Meets Stooge Viller. My mother despised inactivity. Seeing me having a goodtime in repose, she was powerless to hide her disgust. “you‘ve got no more gumption than a bump on a log,” she said. “Get out in the kitchen and help Doris do those dirty dishes.”

  62)_____ She positively enjoyed washing dishes, making beds, and cleaning the house. When she was only seven she could carry a piece of short-weighted cheese back to the A&P, threaten the manager with legal action, and come back triumphantly with the full quarter-pound we‘d paid for and a few ounces extra thrown in for forgiveness. 63)_____ Because of this defect, however, the best she could hope for was a career as a nurse or schoolteacher, the only work that capable females were considered up to in those days.

  64)_____ If disappointed, though, she wasted no energy on self-pity. She would make me make something of myself whether I wanted to or not. “The Lord helps those who help themselves,” she said. That was the way her mind worked.

  65)_____ Having sized up the material that Lord had given her to mold, she didn‘t overestimate what she could do with it. She didn’t insist that I grow up to be President of the United States.

  A. She was realistic about the difficulty.

  B. My sister Doris, though two years younger than I, had enough gumption for a dozen people.

  C. The flaw in my character which she had already spotted was lack of “gumption.”

  D. Doris could have made something of herself if she hadn‘t been a girl.

  E. This must have saddened my mother, this twist of fate that had allocated all the gumption to the daughter and left her with a son who was content with Dick Tracy and Stooge Viller.

  B.写出下列语段的概要。(15分)

  例:

  TEXT 1

  In developing a model of cognition, we must recognize that perception of the external world does not always remain independent of motivation. While progress toward maturity is positively correlated with differentiation between motivation and cognition, tension will, even in the mature adult, militate towards a narrowing of the range of perception and in the lessening of the objectivity of perception.

  Cognition can be seen as the first step in the sequence of events leading from the external stimulus to the behavior of the individual. The child develops from belief that all things are an extension of its own body to the recognition that objects exist independent of his perception. He begins to demonstrate awareness of people and things which are removed from his sensory apparatus and initiates goal directed behaviors. He may, however, refuse to recognize the existence of barriers to the attainment of his goals, despite the fact that his cognition of these objects has been previously demonstrated.

  In the primitive being, goal-directed behavior can be very simply motivated. The presence of an attractive object will cause an infant to reach for it; its removal will result in the cessation of that action. Studies have shown no evidence of the infant‘s frustration; rather, it appears that the infant ceases to desire the object when he cannot see it. Further indications are that the infant’s attention to the attractive object increases as a result of its not being in his grasp. In fact, if he holds a toy and another is presented, he is likely to drop the first in order to clutch the second. Often, once he has the one desired in his hands, he loses attention and turns to something else.

  The impact of the socialization process, particularly that parental and social group ideology, may reduce cognitively directed behavior. The tension this produced, as for instance the stress of fear, anger, or extreme emotion, will often be the overriding influence.

  Summary:

  The passage expresses the process of development of cognition and shows the effects of society on learning may be to deter learning by reason of anxiety about possible conflict with ideology.(31)

  第四部分 翻译(25分)

  A.英译汉(10分)

  B.汉译英(15分)

  第五部分写作(30分)

  根据所给题目写一篇不少于500词的作文。

  “语言学及应用语言学基础”考试的结构和题型

  一、文学部分(40分)

  A.多项选择填空(10分)

  例:Paradise Lost by __________ presents its basic idea as a passionate appeal for freedom.

  [A] John Bunyan [B] John Milton

  [C] Thomas More [D] Edmund Spenser

  B.解释下列文学事件及其代表人物和作品(20分)

  例:The Lost Generation

  C.阅读下列节选并回答问题(10分)

  (略)

  二、英美概况部分(30分)

  A.解释下列术语或事件(10分)

  例:American Revolution

  B.指出下列描述正确与否(10分)

  例:Franklin Roosevelt was elected for two terms. (True or False)

  C.回答下列问题(10分)

  例:Comment on the cause of 9/11 event in the US.

  三、语言学部分(80分)

  A.填空(20分)

  例:The minimal unit of meaning or grammatical function is ________.

  B.简答下列问题(20分)

  例:Use examples to illustrate the difference between content words and function words.

  C.汉语知识(15分)

  (略)

  D.回答下列问题(25分)

  例:What is your opinion about the relationship between language and culture?

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