You now have 5 minutes to transfer all your answers from your test booklet to ANSWER SHEET 1.
Section ii Vocabulary and Structure （10 points）
Directions： There are 20 incomplete sentences in this section. For each sentence there are four choices marked A，B，C and D. Choose the ONE answer that best completes the sentence. Then blacken the corresponding letter on the ANSWER SHEET 1 with a pencil.
21. Long long ago，most foresters have been men， but today， a number of women this field is climbing.
A. registering B. pursuing
C. devoting D. engaging
22. The bankno0tes which had fooled many bank tellers were discovered to be
A. artificial B. genuene
C. counterfeit D. faulty
23. Without a whole hearted to a keen forward-looking vision and a deep insight， you cnnot be a leader.
A. determination B. resolution
C. commitment D. obligation
24. All transactions are strictly ， and we never sell， rent or trade any customer‘s name.
A. considerable B. confident
C. considerate D. confidential
25. Big businesses enjoy certain that smaller ones do not have.
A. transactions B. privileges
C. subsidies D. substitutes
26. Your kindness in giving to the consideration of the above problem vill be highly appreciated.
A. importance B. advantage
C. priority D. authority
27. The border incident led to the two countries their diplomatic relations.
A. breaking out B. breaking in
C. breaking through D. breaking off
28. I meant to sound confident at the interview but I‘m afraid I as self-assertive.
A. got in B. got over
C. got off D. got out
29. John planned to take part in the competition but had to on account of the car accident.
A. drop out B. hold out C. get out D. run out
30. He doesn’t work but he gets a good from his investment.
A. subsidy B. income C. earning D. salary
31. can help but be fascinated by the world into which he is taken by the science fiction.
A. Anybody B.Nobody C. Somebody D. Everybody
32. Anyone with half an eye on the unemployment figures knew thay the assertion about economic recovery just around the corner was untrue.
A. was B. being C. would be D. to be
33. Oceans continually lose by evaporating much of the river water into them.
A. to constantly flow B. be constantly flowing
C. constantly flows D. constantly flowing
34. The result has turned still worse than it .
A. would otherwise have been B. would be otherwise
C. had otherwise been D. has otherwise benn
35. There is no reason they should limit how much vitamin you take， they can limit how much water you drink.
A. much more than B. no more than
C. no less than D. any more than
36. He told us how he dealt with the self-interest of different countries to bring them into a kind of international accord. everyone seemed to benefit.
A. where B. what C. that D. which
37. We hope the measures to control prices taken by the government will succeed.
A. when B. as C. since D. after
38. The costs of distribution and sales make up a large part of prices that .
A. all products are paid for
B. are paid for all products
C. all products paid
D. for which all products paid
39. So quickly are science and technology advancing is a possibility today may be a reality tomorrow.
A. that B. what C. that which D. that what
40. It is still Richard‘s ambition to study medicine ， someday， to make a real contribution to the field of science.
A. and B. also C. but D. or
SectionⅢCloze （5 points）
Directions： For each numbered blank in the following passage， there are four choices marked A，B，C， and D. Choose the best one and mark your answer on the ANSWER SHEET 1. Each year， hundreds of thousands of people die form heart attack， a leading cause of death. In the Landmark Physicians‘Health Study at Harvard University in the United States in the late 1980s， a research team led by Dr. Heinekens studied 22， 701 healthy male physicians， half of whom were randomly 41 to take an aspirin every other day while the others took placebos （安慰剂）。 After the participants had been 42 for an average of five years， the doctors in the aspirin group were found to have suffered 44 percent fewer first heart attacks. 43 ，a recent international study indicates that aspirin can be beneficial for those people with a history of coronary artery（冠动脉）bypass surgery， 44 of their sex， age or whether they have high blood pressure or diabetes. According to a report by the American Heart Association. Doctors should consider prescribing 45 aspirin for middle-aged people with a family history of， or 46 for， heart disease.（Risk factors include smoking， being more than 20 percent overweight， high blood pressure and lack of exercise.）
Aspirin is also a lifesaver during heart attacks. Paramedics now give it routinely， and experts urge anyone with chest pain， 47 if it spreads to the neck， shoulder or an arm， or is accompanied by sweating， nausea（恶心）， light/headedness and breathing difficulty to chew and 48 an aspirin tablet immediately. When taking aspirin for heart attack， 49 the plain， uncoated variety. For even faster absorption， crush and mix with a little water. Speed of absorption is critical because most heart attack deaths occur 50 the first few hours after chest pain strikes.
41. A. expected B. demanded C. assigned D. advised
42. A. followed B. examined C. monitored D. experienced
43. A. Meanwhile B. Above all C. However D. In addition
44. A. in spite B. regardless C. careless D. whatever
45. A. low-does B. high-amount C. more D. right
46. A. ready B. at risk C. maybe D. in danger
47. A. naturally B. apparently C. especially D. furthermore
48. A. eat B. swallow C. digest D. assimilate
49. A. choose B. use C. hold out D. pick out
50. A. for B. along C. within D. except
Section IV Reading Comprehension （40 points）
Part A Directions： There are 4 passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are for choices marked A，B，C， and D. You should decide on the best choice and blacken the corresponding letter on the ANSWER SHEET1 whit a pencil.
Questions 51 to 54 are based on the following passage：
A little more than a century ago， Michael Faraday， the noted British physicist， managed to gain audience with a group of high government officials， to demonstrate an electro-chemical principle， in the hope of gaining support for his work. After observing the demonstrations closely， one of the officials remarked bluntly，“It‘s a fascinating demonstration， young man， but just what practical application will come of this？”
“I don‘t know，”replied Faraday，“but I do know that 100 years from now you’ll be taxing them.”
From the demonstration of a principle to the marketing of products derived from that principle is often a long， involved series of steps. The speed and effectiveness with which these steps art taken are closely related to the history of management， the art of getting things done. Just as management applies to the wonders that have evolved from Faraday and other inventors， so it applied some 4，000 years ago to the working of the great Egyptian and Mesopotamian import and export firms…to Hannibal‘s remarkable feat of crossing the Alps in 218 B.C. with 90，000 foot soldiers， 12，000 horsemen and a“conveyor belt”of 40 elephants…or to the early Christian Church， with its world-shaking concepts of individual freedom and equality. These ancient innovators were deeply involved in the problems of authority， divisions of labor， discipline， unity of command， clarity of direction and the other basic factors that are so meaningful to management today. But the real impetus to management as an emerging profession was the Industrial Revolution. Originating in 18-century England， it was triggered by a series of classic inventions and new processes； among them John Kay’s flying Shuttle in 1733. James Hargrove‘s’Spinning Jenny in 1770， Samuel Compton‘s Mule Spinner in 1779 and Edmund Cartwright’s Power Loom in 1785.
51. The anecdote about Michael Faraday indicates that
A. politicians tax everything
B. people are skeptical about the values of pure research
C. government should support scientists
D. he was rejected by his government
52. Management is defined as
A. the creator of the Industrial Revolution
B. supervising subordinates
C. the art of getting things done
D. an emerging profession
53. Management came into its own
A. in the Egyptian and Mesopotamian import and export firms
B. in Hannibal‘s famous trip across the Alps
C. in the development of early Christian Church
D. in the eighteenth century
54. A problem of management NOT mentioned in this passage is
A. the problem of command
B. division of labor
C. control by authority
Questions 55 to 58 are based on the following passage：
By education， I mean the influence of the environment upon the individual to produce a permanent change in the habits of behavior， of thought and of attitude. It is in being thus susceptible（容易受影响的）to the environment that man differs from the animals， and the higher animals from the lower. The lower animals are influenced by the environment but not in the direction of changing their habits. Their instinctive responses are few and fixed by heredity（遗传；继承）。 When transferred to an unnatural situation， such an animal is led astray by its instincts. Thus the“ant-lion”whose instinct implies it to bore into loose sand by pushing backwards with abdomen（腹部），goes backwards on a plate of glass as soon as danger threatens， and endeavors， with the utmost exertions to bore into it . It knows no other mode of flight，“or if such a lonely animal is engaged upon a chain of actions and is interrupted， it either goes on vainly with the remaining actions（as useless as cultivating an unsown field）or dies in helpless inactivity”。 Thus a net-making spider which digs a burrow and rims it with a bastion（堡垒）of gravel and bits of wood， when removed from a half finished home， will not begin again， though it will continue another burrow， even one made with a pencil. Advance in the scale of evolution along such lines as these could only be made by the emergence of creatures with more and more complicated instincts. Such beings we know in the ants and spiders. But another line of advance was destined to open out a much more far-reaching possibility of which we do not see the end perhaps even in man. Habits， instead of being born ready-made（when they are called instincts and not habits at all ）were left more and more to the formative influence of the environment， of which the most important factor was the parent who now cared for the young animal during a period of infancy in which vaguer instincts than those of the insects were molded to suit surroundings which might be considerably changed without harm. This means， one might at first imagine， that gradually heredity becomes less and environment more important. But this is hardly the truth and certainly not the whole truth. For although fixed automatic responses like those of the insect-like creatures are no longer inherited， although selection for purification of that sort is no longer going on， yet selection for educability is very definitely still of importance. The ability to acquire habits can be conceivably inherited just as much as can definite re responses to narrow situations. Besides， since a mechanism——is now， for the first time， created by which the individual （in contradiction to the species） can be fitted to the environment， the latter becomes， in another sense， less not more important. And finally， less not the higher animals who possess the power of changing their environment by engineering feats and the like， a power possessed to some extent even by the beaver （海狸），and preeminently（卓越地）by man. Environment and heredity are in no case exclusive but5 always-supplementary factors.
55. Which of the following is the most suitable title for the passage？
A. The Evolution of Insects
B. Environment and Heredity
C. Education： The Influence of the Environment
D. The Instincts of Animals
56. What can be inferred from the example of the ant-lion in the first paragraph？
A. Instincts of animals can lead to unreasonable reactions in strange situations.
B. When it is engaged in a chain actions it cannot be interrupted.
C. Environment and heredity are two supplementary factors in the evolution of insects.
D. Along the lines of evolution heredity becomes less and environment more important.
57. Based on the example provided in the passage， we can tell that when a spider is removed to a new position where half of a net has been made， it will probably.
A. begin a completely new net
B. destroy the half-net
C. spin the test of the net
D. stay away from the net
58. Which of the following is true about habits according to the passage？
A. They are natural endowments to living creatures
B. They are more important than instincts to all animals
C. They are subject to the formative influence of the environment.
D. They are destined to open out a much more far-reaching possibility in the evolution of human beings.
Questions 59 to 62 are based on the following passage：
One of the saddest things about the period in which we live is the growing estrangement（疏远）between America and Europe. This may be a surprising discovery to those who are over impressed by the speed with which turbojets can hop from New York to Paris. But to anyone who is aware of what America once meant to English libertarian poets and philosophers， to the young Ibises bitterly excoriating（痛斥）European royalty for the murder of Lincoln， to Italian novelists and poets translating the nineteenth century American classics as a demonstration against Fascism， there is something particularly disquieting in the way that the European Left， historically“pro-American”because it identified America with expansive democracy， now punishes America with Europe‘s lack of hope in the future. Although America has obviously not fulfilled the visionary hope entertained for it in the romantic heyday， Americans have， until recently， thought of themselves as an idea， a“proposition”（in Lincoln’s word） set up for the enlightenment and the improvement of mankind. Officially， we live by our original principles； we insist on this boastfully and even inhumanly. And it is precisely this steadfastness to principle that irks（使苦恼，使厌烦） Europeans who under so many pressures have had to shift and to change， to compromise and to retreat. Historically， the obstinacy of America‘s faith in“principles”has been staggering ——the sacrament（神圣） of the Constitution， the legacy of the Founding Fathers， the moral rightness of all our policies， the invincibility of our faith in the equality and perfectibility of man. From the European point of view， there is something impossibly romantic， visionary， and perfectibility of man. From the European point of view， there is something impossibly romantic， visionary， and finally outrageous about an attachment to political formulas that arose even before a European revolutionary democracy was born of the French Revolution， and that have survived all the socialist utopias and internationals. Americans honestly insist on the equality of men even when they deny this equality in practice； they hold fast to romantic doctrines of perfectibility even when such doctrines contradict their actual or their formal faith—— whether it be as scientists or as orthodox Christians. It is fact that while Americans as a people are notoriously empirical. Pragmatic， and unintellectual， they live their lives against a background of unalterable national shibboleths（陈旧的语句）。 The same abundance of theory that allowed Walt Whitman to fill out his poetry with philosophical road signs of American optimism allows a president to make pious references to God as an American tradition——references which， despite their somewhat mechanical quality， are not only sincere but which， to most Americans， express the reality of America.
59. The writer uses the example of Ibises and others to maintain that
A. Europeans do not have the proper appreciation of the United States
B. Europeans have made a notable shift in attitude toward the United States
C. American culture has been rediscovered by Europeans
D. Europeans no longer feel that there should be an exchange of ideas with Americans
60. The writer states that， until recently， Americans thought of their country as a
A. source of enlightenment
B. leader in technological progress
C. recipient of European heritage
61. The author states that American democracy in practice sometimes is in conflict with
A. theoretical notions of equality
B. other political systems
C. Europe‘s best interests
D. Both A and B
62. Which of the following was NOT mentioned by the author as an American principle？
A. Equality of man.
B. Moral rightness as American policy decisions.
C. Man‘s capacity to become perfect.
D. The inviolability（不可侵犯）of the individual’s integrity.
Questions 63 to 65 are based on the following passage：
The truly incompetent may never know the depths of their own incompetence， a pair of social psychologists said on Thursday.“We found again and again that people who perform poorly relative to their peers（同等人）tended to think that they did rather well.”Justin Kruger， co-author of a study on the subject， said in a telephone interview. Kruger and co-author David Dunning found that when it came to a variety of skills—logical reasoning， grammar， even sense of humor——people who essentially were inept（无能的；愚蠢的）never realized it ，while those who had some ability were self-critical. It had little to do with innate modesty， Kruger said， but rather with a central paradox： Incompetents lack the basic skills to evaluate their performance realistically. Once they get those skills， they know where they stand， even if that is at the bottom，Americans and Western Europeans especially had an unrealistically sunny assessment of their own capabilities， Dunning said by telephone in a separate interview， while Japanese and Koreans tended to give a reasonable assessment of their performance. In certain areas， such as athletic performance， which can be easily quantified， there is less self-delusion（欺骗），the researchers said. But even in some cases in which the failure should seem obvious， the perpetrator is blithely（愉快地；快活地）unaware of the problem. This was especially true in the areas of logical reasoning， where research subjects + students at Cornell University， where the two researchers were based +often rated themselves highly even when they flubbed（搞得一团糟） all questions in a reasoning test. Later， when the students were instructed in logical reasoning， they scored better on a test but rate themselves lower， having learned what constituted competence in this area. Grammar was another area in which objective knowledge was helpful in determining competence， but the more subjective area of humor posed different challenges， the researchers said. Participants were asked to rate how funny certain jokes were ，and compare their responses with what an expert panel of comedians thought. On average， participants overestimated their sense of humor by about 16 percentage points. This might be thought of as the“above-average effect”， the notion that most Americans would rate themselves as above average， a statistical impossibility. The researchers also conducted pilot studies of doctors and gun enthusiasts. The doctors overestimated how well they had performed on a test of medical diagnoses and the gun fanciers thought they knew more than they actually did about gun safety. So who should be trusted： The person who admits incompetence of the one who shows confidence？ Neither， according to Dunning.“you can‘t take them at their word. You’ve got to take a look at their performance，”Dunning added.
63. Why do incompetent people rarely know they are inept？
A. They are too inept to know what competence is
B. They are not skillful at logical reasoning， grammar， and sense of humor.
C. They lack the basic skills to evaluate their performance realistically.
D. They have some ability to over criticize themselves.
64. Which of the following statement is NOT true， according to the passage？
A. Students at Cornell University often rated themselves highly even when they flubbed all questions in a reasoning test.
B. Grammar was an area in which objective knowledge was helpful in determining competence.
C. Participants in the test estimated their sense of humor by about 16 percentage points.
D. Students scored better on a logical reasoning test but rated themselves lower.
65. What do you know about“above-average effect”based on the passage？
A. Most Americans assess themselves as above average.
B. American doctors overestimated how well they had performed on a test of medical diagnoses.
C. American gun enthusiasts thought they knew more than they actually did about gun safety.
D. All of the above.
Part B Directions： Read the following passage carefully and then give short answers to the five questions. Write your answers on the ANSWER SHEET2. Both in America and Britain there is an eagerness on the part of TV executives to play down the importance of the small screen， except .of course， if the field of selling goods. This desire to minimize the social impact of TV is perfectly natural. If it could be conclusively proved that the electronic box was a major factor in determining the attitudes and the values of a nation then two awkward questions would have to be answered. Is it right that a medium that has such influence should be primarily concerned with the provision of entertainment and the advertising of goods？
And an even more embarrassing question people might ask is whether the men now running TV have the authority. The understanding or the intelligence to be in control of such a vital part of the state apparatus. Because it is disrupting and disturbing life on almost every level in America and Britain， and because it is largely Indulged in by what might be described as the first“telly generation”， violence is the activity that has been most frequently linked with the consequences of TV. There are other even more important trends that might be stimulated or provoked by the program content of TV. The demoralization of institutions like the army， the church； the contempt for authority， a healthy skepticism and a welcome permissiveness； an over-simplification of complex issues which makes an electorate（选民） impatient with a political process that cannot solve them. How much is TV responsible？ And that these trends are helping to change society at a unprecedented rate can hardly be denied. Because the impact of these changes is relatively long-term and not easily pinpointed. there is a vast depth of unconcern about these developments. On violence， however， there is an intuitive suspicion that TV might have something to do with it. yet the men running TV have gone to considerable lengths to assure us that we are unduly alarmed about nothing.
66. In order to avoid the repetitions of the word“television”， what other nouns does the author use？ Please list at least four.
67. Can you use another word in this passage to tale the place of“play down”in para.1？
68. Why are TV executives in America and Britain eager to play down the importance of TV？
69. Why do people believe that TV has something to do with increasing violence？
70. What is the author‘s attitude toward the argument over TV’s influence？
Section V Translation （10 points）
Directions： In this section there is a passage in English. Translate the five sentences underlined into Chinese and write your translation on the ANSWER SHEET2. Lange， multinational corporations may be the companies whose ups and downs seize headlines. （71） But to a far greater extent than most Americans realize， the economy‘s vitality depends on the fortunes of tiny shops and restaurants， neighborhood services and are factories. Small businesses， defined as those with fewer than 100workers，now employ 60 percent of the workforce and expected to generate half of all new jobs between now and the year 2，000. Some 1.2 million small forms have opened their doors over the past 6 years of economic growth， and 1989 will see an additional 200，000 entrepreneurs striking off on their own. Too many of these pioneers， however， will blaze ahead unprepared. Idealists will overestimate the clamor for their products or fail to factor in the competition. Nearly everyone will underestimate， often fatally .the capital that success requires. （72） Midcareer executives， forced by a takeover or a restructuring to quit the corporation and find another way to support themselves， may savor the idea of being their own boss but may forget that entrepreneurs must also. at least for a while， be bookkeepers and receptionists， too. According to Samll Business Administration data， 24 of every 100 businesses starting out today are likely to disappear in two years， and 27 more will have shut their doors four years from now. By 1995， more than 60 of those 100 start-ups， 77 percent of the companies surveyed were still alive. （73） Most credited their success in large part to having picked a business they already were comfortable in Eighty percent had worked with the same product or service in their last jobs. Thinking through an enterprise before the launch is obviously critical. But many entrepreneurs forget that a firm’s health in its infancy may be little indication of how well it will age .you must tenderly monitor its pulse， in their zeal， to expand. Small business owners often ignore early warning signs of a stagnant market or of decaying profitability. （74） They hopefully four more and more into the enterprise， preferring not to acknowledge eroding profit margins that means the market for their ingenious service or product has evaporated， or that they must cut the payroll or vacate their lavish offices. Only when the financial well runs dry do they see the seriousness of the illness， and by then the patient is usually too far gone to save. Frequent checks of your firm‘s vital signs will also guide you to a sensible rate of growth. （75） To snatch opportunity， you must spot the signals that it is time to conquer the new markets， add products or perhaps franchise your hot ideas.
76. Directions： In this section， you are asked to write a composition entitled what is More Important， Wealth of Health？ Your composition should be based on the outline given below. You composition should be about 120 words. Remember to write clearly on the ANSWER SHEET 2. Outline：