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考研英语冲刺 阅读之视角混淆

论坛   2012-12-20 09:04 【 】【我要纠错

考研阅读得分的提高,在很大程度上取决于错误选项的辨认,因为考研阅读的错误选项的干扰性很强,常使不善分辨的考生轻易掉入陷阱。干扰选项所体现的特征与中国人的思维有关,所以我称它们为中国式陷阱。关于阅读方面的中国式陷阱将从三个方面进行论述,今天讨论第一个方面: 视角混淆。所谓视角混淆,就是指问题涉及的是一个主体,而选项描述的是另一个主体的特征。例如,选项说到的主体是A,而一个选项描述的是B的特征,这一选项就是干扰选项。视角混淆这一陷阱常出现于作者的观点与文中其他人的观点之间,有时也出现于原文两种相对的人之间,需要加以注意。

  例一,

  Here is an example, which I heard at a nurses’ convention, of a story which works well because the audience all shared the same view of doctors. A man arrives in heaven and is being shown around by St. Peter. He sees wonderful accommodations, beautiful gardens, sunny weather, and so on. Everyone is very peaceful, polite and friendly until, waiting in a line for lunch, the new arrival is suddenly pushed aside by a man in a white coat, who rushes to the head of the line, grabs his food and stomps over to a table by himself. “Who is that?” the new arrival asked St. Peter. “Oh, that’s God.” came the reply, “but sometimes he thinks he’s a doctor.”

  The joke about doctors implies that, in the eyes of nurses, they are______.

  [A] impolite to new arrivals

  [B] very conscious of their godlike role

  [C] entitled to some privileges

  [D] very busy even during lunch hours

  这是一道有名的难题,难点在于问题中提到doctors与nurses两个主体,不易判断问题针对的是哪一个。事实上,in the eyes of nurses告诉我们问题问的是护士们对医生怎么看。问题的意思是“关于医生的笑话暗示护士们认为医生如何。”这一笑话在二段,它的含义在二段末句: “噢,那是上帝,但有时候他认为自己是个医生。”笑话中的医生自认为是上帝时,举动很不礼貌:买饭时推人,拿了东西就吃,这样显得自己很重要。医生的这些举动代表他们平时的表现,这是护士们眼中的医生形象:没有礼貌、目中无人,B“医生把自己看得像上帝一样重要”符合此意,为正确答案。C“应该享有一些特权”与原文不符,因为问题是“护士眼中的医生如何”,虽然医生认为自己应该享有特权,但护士并不这样认为,所以C是干扰选项。

  例二,

  With thousands of career-related sites on the Internet, finding promising openings can be time-consuming and inefficient. Search agents reduce the need for repeated visits to the databases. But although a search agent worked for Redmon, career experts see drawbacks. Narrowing your criteria, for example, may work against you: “Every time you answer a question you eliminate a possibility.” says one expert.

  For any job search, you should start with a narrow concept—what you think you want to do—then broaden it. “None of these programs do that,” says another expert. “There’s no career counseling implicit in all of this.” Instead, the best strategy is to use the agent as a kind of tip service to keep abreast of jobs in a particular database; when you get E-mail, consider it a reminder to check the database again. “I would not rely on agents for finding everything that is added to a database that might interest me,” says the author of a job-searching guide.

  Which of the following can be a disadvantage of search agents?

  [A] Lack of counseling. [B] Limited number of visits.

  [C] Lower efficiency. [D] Fewer successful matches.

  这也是一道难题。能否做对此题,关键在于是否注意到“视角混淆”这一陷阱。问题的意思是 “search agents的不足之处”,这是二段和三段的内容。三段开始指出:For any job search, you should start...,但是 “None of these programs do that”,原因是 “There’s no career counseling implicit in all of this”(但是所有项目中都不包含职业咨询)。A“缺乏咨询”符合此意,为正确答案。C选项和D选项没有明确作为search agents的不足之处提出,是干扰选项。B选项的内容与原文不符,因为二段末指出增加求职标准就减少了可能性,这不等于说访问次数受限,因为是否访问取决于访问者本人。当然,减少了可能性也不等于求职意向与职位的成功匹配减少,因为可能出现这种情况:增加求职标准使得成功匹配的可能性更大或与不增加时持平。简而言之,如果根据问题中的视角“search agents”直接寻找答案就容易得多,因为只有A是原文明确提到的search agents的缺点,而其他几个选项都是从求职者的角度而言的。

  例三,

  Anyway, the townsfolk can’t understand why the Royal Shakespeare Company needs a subsidy. (The theatre has broken attendance records for three years in a row. Last year its 1,431 seats were 94 percent occupied all year long and this year they’ll do better.) The reason, of course, is that costs have rocketed and ticket prices have stayed low.

  According to the townsfolk, the RSC deserves no subsidy because

  [A] ticket prices can be raised to cover the spending.

  [B] the company is financially ill-managed.

  [C] the behavior of the actors is not socially acceptable.

  [D] the theatre attendance is on the rise.

  这道题也涉及视角混淆问题,正确答案是D。不少考生选A,原因可能是对问题所要求的视角(小镇居民的视角)判断不准。

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