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考研英语全真冲刺模拟试题2

论坛   2012-07-02 11:25 【 】【我要纠错

全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语(一)全真冲刺试卷Ⅱ

Simulated National Entrance Test of English for MA/MS Candidates

(2011)

考生注意事项

1. 考生必须严格遵守各项考场规则。

2. 答题前,考生应按准考证上的有关内容填写答题卡上的“考生姓名”、“报考单位”、“考生编号”等信息。

3. 答案必须按要求填涂或写在指定的答题卡上。

(1) 英语知识运用、阅读理解A节、B节的答案填涂在答题卡1上。填涂部分应该按照答题卡上的要求用2B铅笔完成。如要改动,必须用橡皮擦干净。

(2) 阅读理解部分C节的答案和作文必须用(蓝)黑色字迹钢笔、圆珠笔或签字笔在答题卡2上作答。字迹要清楚。

4. 考试结束,将答题卡1、答题卡2及试题一并装入试题袋中交回。

考试时间

满分180分钟100分得分

Section ⅠUse of English

Directions:

Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

It is generally recognized in the world that the second Gulf War in Iraq is a crucial test of high-speed web. For decades, Americans have anxiously 1 each war through a new communication 2, from the early silent film of World War I to the 24-hour cable news 3 of the first Persian Gulf War.

Now, 4 bombs exploding in Baghdad, a sudden increase in wartime 5 for online news has become a central test of the 6 of high-speed Internet connections. It is also a good 7 both to attract users to online media 8 and to persuade them to pay for the material they find there, 9 the value of the Cable News Network persuaded millions to 10 to cable during the last war in Iraq.

11 by a steady rise over the last 18 months in the number of people with high-speed Internet 12, now at more than 70 million in the United States, the web sites of many of the major news organizations have 13 assembled a novel collage (拼贴) of 14 video, audio reports, photography collections, animated weaponry 15, interactive maps and other new digital reportage.

These Internet services are 16 on the remarkable abundance of sounds and images 17 from video cameras 18 on Baghdad and journalists traveling with troops. And they have found a 19 audience of American office workers 20 their computers during the early combat. (245 words)

1. [A] notified [B] publicized [C] followed[D] pursued

2. [A] means[B] medium[C] method [D]measure

3. [A] coverage[B] publication [C] convention [D] conveyance

4. [A] during[B] in [C] as [D] with

5. [A] report [B] demand[C] concern[D] prospect

6. [A] ability [B] chance [C] potential [D] power

7. [A] opportunity [B] perspective [C] message [D] response

8. [A] outlets [B] resources[C] circumstances[D] positions

9. [A] for all that[B] now that [C] just as[D] as if

10. [A] subject[B] contribute[C] apply [D] subscribe

11. [A] Discouraged [B] Inspired [C] Impressed[D] Effected

12. [A] approach [B] usage[C] application[D] access

13. [A] radically [B] plausibly [C] orderly[D] hastily

14. [A] living[B] alive[C] live [D] lively

15. [A] destruction [B] displays [C] installation [D] contest

16. [A] capitalizing [B] embarking[C] broadcasting[D] operating

17. [A] accessible [B] desirable [C] feasible[D] available

18. [A] focused[B] rested [C] reckoned [D] depended

19. [A] continuous [B] perpetual[C] captive [D] temporary

20. [A] with [B] at [C] beside[D] near

Section ⅡReading Comprehension

Part A

Directions:

Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

Text1

Of all the areas of learning the most important is the development of attitudes: emotional reactions as well as logical thought processes affect the behavior of most people. “The burnt child fears the fire” is one instance; another is the rise of despots like Hitler. Both these examples also point up the fact that attitudes come from experience. In the one case the experience was direct and impressive; in the other it was indirect and cumulative. The Nazis were influenced largely by the speeches they heard and the books they read.

The classroom teacher in the elementary school is in a strategic position to influence attitudes. This is true partly because children acquire attitudes from those adults whose words are highly regarded by them.

Another reason it is true is that pupils often devote their time to a subject in school that has only been touched upon at home or has possibly never occurred to them before. To a child who had previously acquired little knowledge of Mexico his teachers method of handling such a unit would greatly affect his attitude toward Mexicans.

The media through which the teacher can develop wholesome attitudes are innumerable. Social studies (with special reference to races, creeds and nationalities), science matters of health and safety, the very atmosphere of the classroom... these are a few of the fertile fields for the inculcation of proper emotional reactions.

However, when children go to school with undesirable attitudes, it is unwise for the teacher to attempt to change their feelings by cajoling or scolding them. She can achieve the proper effect by helping them obtain constructive experiences.

To illustrate, first-grade pupils afraid of policemen will probably alter their attitudes after a classroom chat with the neighborhood officer in which he explains how he protects them. In the same way, a class of older children can develop attitudes through discussion, research, outside reading and all-day trips.

Finally, a teacher must constantly evaluate her own attitudes, because her influence can be negative if she has personal prejudices. This is especially true in respect to controversial issues and questions on which children should be encouraged to reach their own decision as a result of objective analysis of all the facts. (377 words)

Notes: point up (=emphasize)强调,突出。touch upon 触及。creed 信条,教义。inculcation谆谆教诲。cajoling 哄骗。

21. Which of the following best describes the organization of the first paragraph of the text?

[A] An assertion is made and two examples are given to illustrate it.

[B] A controversy is stated and two opposite points of view are presented.

[C] A widely accepted definition is presented and two men are described.

[D] An idea is stated and two results of recent research are summarized.

22. The central idea conveyed in the above text is that

[A] attitudes affect our actions.

[B] teachers play a significant role in developing or reshaping pupils attitudes.

[C] attitudes can be modified by some classroom experiences.

[D] by their attitudes, teachers don't affect pupils' attitudes deliberately.

23. In paragraph 6 the author implies that

[A] the teacher should guide all discussions by revealing her own attitude.

[B] in some aspects of social studies a greater variety of methods can be used in the upper grades than in the lower grades.

[C] people usually act on the basis of reasoning rather than on emotion.

[D] children's attitudes often come from those of other children.

24. A statement not made or implied in the text is that

[A] attitudes can be based on the learning of untrue statements.

[B] worthwhile attitudes may be developed in practically every subject area.

[C] attitudes cannot easily be changed by rewards and lectures.

[D] the attitudes of elementary school-aged children are influenced primarily by the way they were treated as infants.

25. The text specially states that

[A] direct experiences are more valuable than indirect ones.

[B] whatever attitudes a child learns in school have already been introduced at home.

[C] teachers can sometimes have an unwholesome influence on children.

[D] teachers should always conceal their own attitudes

Text2

An industrial society, especially one as centralized and concentrated as that of Britain, is heavily dependent on certain essential services: for instance, electricity supply, water, rail and road transport, and harbors. The area of dependency has widened to include removing rubbish, hospital and ambulance services, and, as the economy develops, central computer and information services as well. If any of these services ceases to operate, the whole economic system is in danger.

It is this economic interdependency of the economic system which makes the power of trade unions such an important issue. Single trade unions have the ability to cut off many countries' economic blood supply. This can happen more easily in Britain than in some other countries, in part because the labor force is highly organized. About 55 percent of British workers belong to unions, compared to under a quarter in the United States. For historical reasons, Britain's unions have tended to develop along trade and occupational lines, rather than on an industry-by-industry basis, which makes a wages policy, democracy in industry and the improvement of procedure for fixing wage levels difficult to achieve.

There are considerable strains and tensions in the trade union movement, some of them arising from their outdated and inefficient structure. Some unions have lost many members because of their industrial changes. Others are involved in arguments about who should represent workers in new trades. Unions for skilled trades are separate from general unions, which means that different levels of wages for certain jobs are often a source of bad feeling between unions. In traditional trades which are being pushed out of existence by advancing technologies, unions can fight for their members disappointing jobs to the point where the jobs of other union members are threatened or destroyed. The printing of newspapers both in the United States and in Britain has frequently been halted by the efforts of printers to hold on to their traditional highly-paid jobs.

Trade unions have problems of internal communication just as managers in companies do, problems which multiply in very large unions or in those which bring workers in very different industries together into a single general union. Some trade union officials have to be re-elected regularly; others are elected, or even appointed, for life. Trade union officials have to work with a system of “shop stewards” in many unions, “shop stewards” being workers elected by other workers as their representatives at factory or works level. (411 words)

26. Why is the interdependence of the UK economy mentioned in paragraph 1?

[A] To point up the importance of the trade union power.

[B] To outline in brief the great scale of essential services.

[C] To illustrate the danger in the whole economic system.

[D] To bring out a centralized and concentrated industrial society.

27. Because of their out-of-date organization some unions find it difficult to

[A] recruit new members to join.

[B] remold themselves as industries change.

[C] adapt to advancing technologies.

[D] bargain for high enough wages.

28. Disagreements arise between unions because some of them

[A] take over other unions' jobs.

[B] try to win over members of other unions.

[C] protect their own members at the expense of others.

[D] intend to represent workers in new trade organizations.

29. What basic problem are we told most trade unions face?

[A] They are equal in size of influence.

[B] They are less powerful than ever before.

[C] They don't have enough members.

[D] They are not organized efficiently.

30. The title which best expresses the idea of the text would be

[A] British Trade Unions and Their Drawbacks.

[B] A Centralized and Concentrated Society.

[C] The Power of Trade Unions in Britain.

[D] The Structure of British Trade Unions.

Text3

Is the literary critic like the poet, responding creatively, intuitively, subjectively to the written word as the poet responds to human experience? Or is the critic more like a scientist, following a series of demonstrable, verifiable steps, using an objective method of analysis?

For the woman who is a practitioner of feminist literary criticism, the subjectivity versus objectivity, or critic-as-artist-or-scientist, debate has special significance; for her, the question is not only academic, but political as well, and her definition will provoke special risks whichever side of the issue it favors. If she defines feminist criticism as objective and scientific—a valid, verifiable, intellectual method that anyone, whether man or woman, can perform—the definition not only makes the critic-as-artist approach impossible, but may also hinder accomplishment of the utilitarian political objectives of those who seek to change the academic establishment and its thinking, especially about sex roles. If she defines feminist criticism as creative and intuitive, privileged as art, then her work becomes vulnerable to the prejudices of stereotypic ideas about the ways in which women think, and will be dismissed by much of the academic establishment. Because of these prejudices, women who use an intuitive approach in their criticism may find themselves charged with inability to be analytical, to be objective, or to think critically. Whereas men may be free to claim the role of critic-as-artist, women run different professional risks when they choose intuition and private experience as critical method and defense.

These questions are political in the sense that the debate over them will inevitably be less an exploration of abstract matters in a spirit of disinterested inquiry than an academic power struggle, in which the careers and professional fortunes of many women scholars only now entering the academic profession in substantial numbers will be at stake, and with them the chances for a distinctive contribution to humanistic understanding, a contribution that might be an important influence against sexism in our society.

As long as the academic establishment continues to regard objective analysis as “masculine” and an intuitive approach as “feminine,” the theoretician must steer a delicate philosophical course between the two. If she wishes to construct a theory of feminist criticism, she would be well advised to place it within the framework of a general theory of the critical process that is neither purely objective nor purely intuitive. Her theory is then more likely to be compared and contrasted with other theories of criticism with some degree of dispassionate distance. (418 words)

31. Which of the following titles best summarizes the content of the text?

[A] How Theories of Literary Criticism Can Best Be Used

[B] Problems Confronting Women Who Are Feminist Literary Critics

[C] A Historical Overview of Feminist Literary Criticism

[D] Literary Criticism: Art or Science?

32. According to the author, the debate has special significance for the woman who is a theoretician of feminist literary criticism because

[A] women who are literary critics face professional risks different from those faced by men who are literary critics.

[B] there are large numbers of capable women working within the academic establishment.

[C] there are a few powerful feminist critics who have been recognized by the academic establishment.

[D] like other critics, most women who are literary critics define criticism as either scientific or artistic.

33. The author specifically mentions all of the following as difficulties that particularly affect women who are theoreticians of feminist literary criticism EXCEPT the

[A] tendency of a predominantly male academic establishment to form preconceptions about women.

[B] limitations that are imposed when criticism is defined as objective and scientific.

[C] likelihood that the work of a woman theoretician who claims the privilege of art will be viewed with prejudice by some academics.

[D] tendency of members of the academic establishment to treat all forms of feminist literary theory with hostility.

34. It can be inferred that the author would define as “political”(Line 1, Para. 3) the questions that

[A] cannot be resolved without extensive debate.

[B] are primarily academic in nature and open to abstract analysis.

[C] are contested largely through contention over power.

[D] will be debated by both men and women.

35. Which of the following is most likely to be one of the “utilitarian political objectives” mentioned by the author?

[A] To forge a new theory of literary criticism.

[B] To pursue truth in a disinterested manner.

[C] To demonstrate that women are interested in literary criticism that can be viewed either subjectively or objectively.

[D] To convince the academic establishment to revise the ways in which it assesses women scholars professional qualities.

Text4

Recent years have brought minority-owned businesses in the United States unprecedented opportunities—as well as new and significant risks. Civil right activists have long argued that one of the principal reasons why Blacks, Hispanics and other minority groups have difficulty establishing themselves in business is that they lack of access to the sizable orders and subcontracts that are generated by large companies. Now Congress, in apparent agreement, has required by law that businesses awarded federal contracts of more than $500, 000 do their best to find minority subcontractors and record their efforts to do so on forms filed with the government. Indeed, some federal and local agencies have gone so far as to set specific percentage goals for apportioning parts of public works contracts to minority enterprises.

Corporate response appears to have been substantial. According to figures collected in 1977, the total of corporate contracts with minority businesses rose from $77 million in 1972 to 1.1 billion in 1977. The projected total of corporate contracts with minority businesses for the early 1980's is estimated to be over $3 billion per year with no letup anticipated in the next decade.

Promising as it is for minority businesses, this increased patronage poses dangers for them, too. First, minority firms risk expanding too fast and overextending themselves financially, since most are small concerns and, unlike large businesses, they often need to make substantial investment in new plants, staff, equipment and the like in order to perform work subcontracted to them. If, thereafter, their subcontracts are for some reason reduced, such firms can face potentially crippling fixed expenses. The world of corporate purchasing can be frustrating for small entrepreneurs who get requests for elaborate formal estimates and bids. Both consume valuable time and resources, and a small company's efforts must soon result in orders, or both the morale and the financial health of the business will suffer.

A second risk is that White-owned companies may seek to cash in on the increasing apportionment through formation of joint ventures with minority-owned concerns. Of course, in many instances there are legitimate reasons for joint ventures; clearly, White and minority enterprises can team up to acquire business that neither could acquire alone. But civil right groups and minority business owners have complained to Congress about minorities being set up as “fronts” with White backing, rather than being accepted as full partners in legitimate joint ventures.

Third, a minority enterprise that secures the business of one large corporate customer often runs the danger of becoming and remaining dependent. Even in the best of circumstances, fierce competition from larger, more established companies makes it difficult for small concerns to broaden their customer bases; when such firms have nearly guaranteed orders from a single corporate benefactor, they may truly have to struggle against complacency arising from their current success. (469 words)

Notes: civil rights activists公民权利激进分子。Hispanics西班牙后裔美国人。sizable orders大额订单。subcontract转包合同。on forms filed with the government在政府存档备案。percentage goals指标。apportionment分配,分派。public works市政工程。letup减弱,缓和。promising as it is... 这是as引导的让步状语从句,表语倒装了。patronage优惠。concern n. 公司。and the like以及诸如此类的。crippling fixed expenses引起损失的固定开支。the world of大量的。bid投标。to cash in on...靠…赚钱。team up一起工作,合作。fronts在此处意为“摆门面”。complacency自满。

36. The primary purpose of the text is to

[A] present a commonplace idea and its inaccuracies.

[B] describe a situation and its potential drawbacks.

[C] propose a temporary solution to a problem.

[D] analyze a frequent source of disagreement.

37. According to the text, civil rights activists maintain that one disadvantage under which minority-owned businesses have traditionally had to labor is that they have

[A] been especially vulnerable to government mismanagement of the economy.

[B] been denied bank loans at rates comparable to those afforded larger competitors.

[C] not had sufficient opportunity to secure business created by large corporations.

[D] not been able to advertise in those media that reach large numbers of potential customers.

38. The text suggests that the failure of a large business to have its bids for subcontracts result quickly in orders might cause it to

[A] experience frustration but not serious financial harm.

[B] have to record its efforts on forms filed with the government.

[C] increase its spending with minority subcontractors.

[D] revise its procedure for making bids for federal contracts and subcontracts.

39. The author implies that a minority-owned concern that does the greater part of its business with one large corporate customer should

[A] avoid competition with larger, more established concerns by not expanding.

[B] concentrating on securing even more business from that corporation.

[C] use its influence with the corporation to promote subcontracting with other minority concerns.

[D] try to expand its customer bases to avoid becoming dependent on the corporation.

40. According to the organization of the text, it most likely appeared in

[A] a business magazine.

[B] an accounting textbook.

[C] a dictionary of financial terms.

[D] a yearbook of business statistics.

Part B

Directions:

The following paragraphs are given in a wrong order. For Questions 41—45, you are required to reorganize these paragraphs into a coherent article by choosing from the list A—G to fill in each numbered box. The first and the last paragraphs have been placed for you in Boxes. Mark your answer on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

[A] By contrast, somewhat more than 25 percent of the earth's population can be found in the industrialized societies. They lead modern lives. They are products of the first half of the twentieth century, molded by mechanization and mass education, brought up with lingering memories of their own country's agricultural past. They are, in effect, the people of the present.

[B] The remaining 2 or 3 percent of the world's population, however, are no longer people of either the past or the present. For within the main centers of technological and cultural change, in Santa Monica, California and Cambridge, Massachusetts, in New York and London, and Tokyo, are millions of men and women who can already be said to be living the way of life of the future. Trend-makers often without being aware of it, live today as millions will live tomorrow. And while they account for only a few percent of the global population today, they are already from an international nation of the future in our midst. They are the advanced agents of man, the earliest citizens of the worldwide super-industrial society now in the throes of birth.

[C] It is, in fact, not too much to say that the pace of life draws a line through humanity, dividing us into camps, triggering bitter misunderstanding between parent and child, between Madison Avenue and Main Street, between men and women, between American and European, between East and West.

[D] What makes them different from the rest of mankind? Certainly, they are richer, better educated, more mobile than the majority of the human race. They also live longer. But what specifically marks the people of the future is the fact that they are already caught up in a new, stepped-up pace of life. They “live faster” than the people around them.

[E] The inhabitants of the earth are divided not only by race, nation, religion or ideology, but also, in a sense, by their position in time. Examining the present population of the globe, we find a tiny group who still live, hunting and food-foraging, as men did millennia ago. Others, the vast majority of mankind, depend not on bear-hunting or berry-picking, but on agriculture. They live, in many respects, as their ancestors did centuries ago. These two groups taken together compose perhaps 70 percent of all living human beings. They are the people of the past.

[F] Some people are deeply attracted to this highly accelerated pace of life—going far out of their way to bring it about and feeling anxious, tense or uncomfortable when the pace slows. They want desperately to be “where the action is.” James A. Wilson has found, for example, that the attraction for a fast pace of life is one of the hidden motivating forces behind the muchpublicized “brain-drain”—the mass migration of European scientists and engineers who migrated to the U.S. and Canada. He concluded that it was no higher salaries or better research facilities alone, but also the quicker tempo that lure them. The migrants, he writes, “are not put off by what they indicated as the ‘faster pace' of North America; if anything, they appear to prefer this pace to others.”

[G] The pace of life is frequently commented on by ordinary people. Yet, oddly enough, it has received almost no attention from either psychologists or sociologists. This is a gaping inadequacy in the behavioral sciences, for the pace of life profoundly influences behavior, evoking strong and contrasting reactions from different people. (578 words)

Notes: gaping 是gape的现在分词;gape vi. 裂开。not too much一点儿也不多,一点儿也不过分。Madison Avenue 麦迪逊街(纽约一条街道的名字。美国主要广告公司、公共关系事务所集中于此。常用以表示此等公司之作风、做法等。)。Main Street实利主义社会。food-foraging觅食的。millennium千年。trend-maker(=trend-setter) 领导新潮的人。in the throes of为…而苦干、搏斗。be caught up in 陷入。going far out of their way to bring it about远远没有阻碍它的诞生。brain-drain(高科技)人才流动(从欧洲到美洲)。

Order:

Part C

Directions:

Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points)

46) A recent phenomenon in present-day science and technology is the increasing trend toward “directed” or “programmed” research; i. e. research whose scope and objectives are predetermined by private or government organizations rather than researchers themselves. Any scientist working for such organizations and investigating in a given field therefore tends to do so in accordance with a plan or program designed beforehand.

At the beginning of the century, however, the situation was quite different. At that time there were no industrial research organizations in the modern sense: the laboratory unit consisted of a few scientists at the most, assisted by one or two technicians. 47) Nevertheless, the scientist, often working with inadequate equipment in unsuitable rooms, was free to choose any subject for investigation he liked, since there was no predetermined program to which he had to conform.

48) As the century developed, the increasing magnitude and complexity of the problems to be solved made it impossible, in many cases, for the individual scientist to deal with the huge mass of new data, techniques and equipment that were required for carrying out research accurately and efficiently. The increasing scale and scope of the experiments needed to test new hypotheses and develop new techniques and industrial processes led to the setting up of research groups or teams using highly-complicated equipment in elaborately-designed laboratories. 49) Owing to the large sums of money involved, it was then felt essential to direct these human and material resources into specific channels with clearly-defined objectives. In this way it was considered that the quickest and most practical results could be obtained. This, then, was programmed (programmatic) research.

One of the effects of this organized and standardized investigation is to cause the scientist to become increasingly involved in applied research (development), especially in the branches of science which seem most likely to have industrial applications. Private industry and even government departments tend to concentrate on immediate results and show comparatively little interest in long-range investigations. 50) In consequence, there is a steady shift of scientists from the pure to the applied field, where there are more jobs available, frequently more highly-paid and with better technical facilities than jobs connected with pure research in a university.

Owing to the interdependence between pure and applied science, it is easy to see that this system, if extended too far, carries considerable dangers for the future of science—and not only pure science, but applied science as well. (409 words)

Section Ⅲ Writing

Part A

51. Directions:

A chemical plant should be responsible for the water pollution in a nearby river. Write a letter to the City Environment Protection Agency to

1) state the present situation,

2) suggest ways to deal with the problem and

3) express your sincere hope.

You should write about 100 words on ANSWER SHEET 2.

Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use “Li Ming” instead.

Do not write the address. (10 points)

Part B

52. Directions:

Write an essay of 160—200 words based on the following picture. In your essay, you should

1) describe the cartoon briefly,

2) interpret its intended meaning, and

3) give your view on the issue.

You should write it neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (20 points)

梦想金钱未必使人幸福

Section ⅠUse of English

参考译文

世人普遍认为发生在伊拉克的第二次海湾战争是对高速网络的一个至关重要的考验。从第一次世界大战的早期无声电影,到对上次海湾战争24小时的全天候有线电视报道,几十年来,美国人一直怀着焦虑不安的心情,通过新的通讯媒体来跟踪每一次战争。

目前,随着炸弹在巴格达炸响,对网络新闻的战时需求急剧增加,这对因特网的高速连接潜力是个关键性的考验。同时也是一个很好的机会,它可以吸引用户使用网络媒体,并说服他们出钱购买在网上看到的信息,这就像上次对伊战争期间,CNN的报道价值让数百万用户加入了有线电视网。

在过去18个月里,使用高速上网服务的人数稳步增加,目前,在美国已有7000多万人。受这种增长形势的鼓舞,许多大新闻机构的网站,匆匆忙忙把现场电视报道、录音报道、摄影专辑、动态武器展示、互动地图和其他电子报道杂乱无章地拼凑到一起。

这些网站充分利用了定格巴格达的摄影镜头和随军记者所提供的丰富可观的音像材料。早在开战初期,他们就发现,那些守在计算机旁的美国办公室工作人员是其最忠实的观众。

1. [答案] [C] followed

[注释] 词义搭配。notify vt. 通知;publicize vt. 宣传;pursue vt. 追求;从事。以上3词均不合题意。follow vt. 密切注意;注视;跟踪。与上下文吻合。

2. [答案] [B] medium

[注释] 词义搭配。means 手段;method 方法;measure措施;以上三词均不合题意。medium媒体,符合上下文需要。

3. [答案] [A] coverage

[注释] 词义搭配。publication n. 出版;发行;convention n. 习俗;大会;conveyance n. 传递。news coverage媒体报导,故应选[A]。

4. [答案] [D] with

[注释] 结构搭配。“with + 名词 + 分词短语”构成独立分词结构,在句中作状语,意为“随着…”。as是连词,不能引导独立分词结构;但可以引导时间从句。如本句改为as bombs are exploding in Baghdad,则也可以。

5. [答案] [B] demand

[注释] 词义结构搭配。本句在谈论“对网上新闻的战时需求”,故应选[B] demand。demand n. (for) 对…的需求。report 后不接for,故被排除。concern n. 后可接about, at, for意为“对…的关心;挂念,如concern about his own affairs(对他自己的事关心);concern at his misfortune(对他不幸的关切);show concern for his safety(表示对他安全的关心)。the concerns of the nation(国事)。prospect n.前景;展望。

6. [答案] [C] potential

[注释] 词义结构搭配。ability 后常接不定式作定语。chance机会,可能性,与the test of在逻辑上不能搭配。此句意为“检验高速互联网连结的潜力”,故应选potential。power权力;电力。不合题意。

7. [答案] [A] opportunity

[注释] 词义搭配。opportunity机遇,后常接不定式作定语,本题选[A]在词义和语法结构上均是正确的。perspective n. 视角,看法;message 信息,消息;response 反应,均不合句意。

8. [答案] [A] outlets

[注释] 词义搭配。outlet n. (水、气等的)出口;发泄;电源;直销店。to attract users to online media outlets意为“吸引用户得到网络媒体发出的各种信息”。

9. [答案] [C] just as

[注释] 逻辑搭配。for all that conj. 尽管;用来引导让步从句。now that conj. 既然。as if 似乎,后接方式从句,用虚拟语气。just as 就像。

10. [答案] [D] subscribe

[注释] 词义结构搭配。subject...to...使…受到、服从…。contribute to 有助于,促进。apply to 适合。subscribe to 订阅;同意。subscribe to cable 交钱收看有线电视。

11. [答案] [B] Inspired

[注释] 词义搭配。discourage vt. 使沮丧;打消(某人做某事的念头)。inspire vt. 鼓舞。impress vt. 使留下印象。effect vt. (=bring about)产生,发生,引起:effect a cure/a change/a sale 产生疗效/引起变化/实行大减价。

12. [答案] [D] access

[注释] 词义搭配。approach n. 接近,通入(to)。usage n. 用法。application n. 应用;申请。access n. 利用…的权利:people with high speed Internet access(有权使用高速互联网的人们)。

13. [答案] [D] hastily

[注释] 词义搭配。radically 根本地;激进地。plausibly 似乎可信地。orderly 有序地。hastily匆忙地:hastily assemble a novel collage of...(匆忙地把…拼凑在一起)。

14. [答案] [C] live

[注释] 词义搭配。living adj. 有生命的:living things(生物)。alive adj. 活着:He is still alive. (他仍活着)。live adj. 实况的:live news coverage (实况新闻报导);live video(实况录像)。lively adj. (生动的)。

15. [答案] [B] displays

[注释] 词义搭配。destruction n. 毁灭;installation n. 安装;contest n. 竞赛。均不合题意。display n. 展览:animated weaponry displays(动态的武器展览)。

16. [答案] [A] capitalizing

[注释] 词义搭配。embark on 从事;贯彻。broadcast vt. 广播。operate on 给…做手术。capitalize on (=use sth. to ones own advantage) 利用某事(为达到某人利益)。

17. [答案] [D] available

[注释] 词义搭配。accessible adj. 可进入的;有权得到的。desirable adj. 想要的,令人满意的:a desirable job(令人满意的工作)。feasible adj. 可行的。available adj. 可得到的:the remarkable abundance of sounds and images available from video cameras (从录像机中得到的大量音像材料)。

18. [答案] [A] focused

[注释] 词义搭配。focus...on把焦点对准…。rest on依靠,依赖。reckon on 依靠,指望。depend on依靠,依赖;取决于。

19. [答案] [C] captive

[注释] 词义搭配。continuous adj. 持续不断的;perpetual adj. 永恒的;temporary adj. 临时的。captive adj. 俘虏的;跑不掉的;忠实的(观众、客户等)。

20. [答案] [B] at

[注释] 结构搭配。at在此句中表示“守在…的近旁收看”,有动作含义,如be at work/at table(在工作/在吃饭)。beside, near只具有地点概念,无动作含义,故应排除。

小结

按大纲规定“英语知识应用”,即完形填空,题材应为一篇240~280字的短文。本文是275字,符合大纲要求。试题类型有逻辑搭配、词义搭配、结构搭配和惯用搭配。本文与2010年考题要求相一致。完形填空解题技巧是:把握主题、抓住逻辑主线、瞻前顾后、各个击破,最后统观全文、查错补漏。预计2011年完形填空难度不会超过2010年试题难度。完形填空解题时间通常为15分钟左右。千万不要超时,以免挤占后面各项的解题时间。

Section ⅡReading Comprehension

Part A

21. [答案] [A] An assertion is made and two examples are given to illustrate it.

[注释] 逻辑结构题。本题问:下面哪一表述最好地描述了本文第1段的逻辑构思?第1段第1句写道:“学习的所有领域中,最重要的是培养态度:各种情感反应和逻辑思维过程都会影响大多数人的行为。”这是作者提出的看法。接着作者举了两个例子来阐述这一看法。可见,本段的逻辑构思应为[A]。

22. [答案] [B] teachers play a significant role in developing or reshaping pupils' attitudes.

[注释] 全文主旨题。本题问:本文要传递的中心思想是什么?本文第1段起了铺垫作用,从总体上提出作者的看法。第2段第1句切入了本文的中心思想,即小学的任课老师处于影响学生各种态度形成的战略性地位。接下去各个段落从不同角度来说明该中心思想。故应选[B]。

23. [答案] [B] in some aspects of social studies a greater variety of methods can be used in the upper grades than in the lower grades.

[注释] 推理判断题。本题问:作者在第6段中暗示了什么?参阅第6段。作者在此暗示,对低年级学生采用的方法比较简单、单一,而对高年级学生采用的方法则更多样化,如讨论、研究、课外阅读和全天的旅行。

24. [答案] [D] the attitudes of elementary school-aged children are influenced primarily by the way they were treated as infants.

[注释] 细节辨认题。本题问:本文中没有提到或暗示的表述是什么?作者列出的4个选择中前面3个直接或间接地在文章中提到了。第1段最后一句是讲法西斯纳粹主要是受他们听到的讲演和读过的书籍的坏影响,即为[A]所述的内容。第3、4段中作者谈到教师讲的各种课程对孩子“形成看法”的影响,即为[B]所指的内容。第5段中作者提到it is unwise for the teacher to attempt to change their feelings by cajoling or scolding them,句中cajoling(哄骗)即为选项[C]中的rewards,而scolding即为选项[C]中的lectures(严责,以长篇说教训人)。可见,是否选[C]的关键是对lectures的词义的正确理解。这样,只有选择项[D]在本文中未有提及,故答案非[D]莫属。

25. [答案] [C] teachers can sometimes have an unwholesome influence on children.

[注释] 总结归纳题。本题问:本文专门阐述了什么?最后一段中作者提到because her influence can be negative if she has personal prejudices...(教师如果存有个人偏见的话,会对学生产生不良影响……)。可见,正确的选择应为[C]。[C]选项中的unwholesome意为“不良的,不健康的”。

注意:本文的试题要求考生对文章中的有关句子细细推敲才能正确解题。对这种试题考生应深入分析命题者的思路,才能逐渐把握要领,学会解题的方法。

26. [答案] [A] To point up the importance of the trade union power.

[注释] 逻辑结构题。本题问:第1段中为什么提到英国经济的相互依赖性?第1段最后1句和第2段第1句写道:“如果这些设施中任何一项(由于劳工纠纷)而停止运行,那整个经济体系就危在旦夕。正是经济体系的这种互相依赖性使得工会的权力成为一个非常重要的问题。”故应选[A]“为了强调工会权力的重要性”。[B]“为了简要概述基础设施的巨大规模”不能入选,原因是它答非所问。[C] 是强干扰项,不能选的原因是它只提及一点,偏离主题。[D]“展示一个集中的工业社会”,偏离段落内部的逻辑关系,故不能入选。

27. [答案] [B] remold themselves as industries change.

[注释] 细节归纳题。本题问:由于组织结构老化,有些工会会遇到什么困难?解这类题要注意段落的主题句及其扩展句的综合归纳。第3段第1句写道:“在工会运动内部存在着巨大的压力和紧张情绪,其中有些问题是由于工会过时的、效率低下的组织结构产生的。”接着对此论点进行具体阐述并举例说明。可见,作者要说明,由于组织结构的落后性,有些工会发现很难随着行业的变化来改变其内部组织。故[B]符合题意。[C]“适应先进的技术”是强干扰项,属概念偷换,因为文中指的是传统行业,而不是指有些工会。

28. [答案] [C] protect their own members at the expense of others.

[注释] 细节理解题。本题问:工会间产生分歧的原因何在?第3段倒数第2句写道:“技术的进步淘汰了许多传统行业,在这些行业中工会能够为它们成员令人失望的工作而苦斗,以致使其他工会成员的工作受到威胁或毁灭。”可见, [C]项符合此意。[D]“打算在新的贸易组织中代表工人”是强干扰项,属概念偷换,因为文中指的是新的技术行业中,而不是指新的贸易组织中。

29. [答案] [D] They are not organized efficiently.

[注释] 总结归纳题。本题问:大多数工会遇到的基本问题是什么?从最后一段中可以看出,由于行业的变化和重组,各种工会遇到了前所未有的困难——缺少内部有效的思想交流,组织机构陈旧,效率低下。可见,[D]反映了这种状况。[B] “它们的力量不如以前”是强干扰项,不能选的原因是它太笼统,针对性差。

30. [答案] [A] British Trade Unions and Their Drawbacks.

[注释] 全文主旨题。本题问:本文最好的题目是下面哪一个?从全文的内容看,文章主要阐述英国工会的状况及其存在的问题。故应选[A]。[D] The Structure of British Trade Unions 只提到英国工会的结构,而没有谈及其存在的问题,故不能入选。

31. [答案] [B] Problems Confronting Women Who Are Feminist Literary Critics.

[注释] 全文主旨题。本题问:下面哪一个标题最好地总结了本文的内容?第2段第1句基本反映全文的主旨:“对于从事女权主义文学评论的妇女来说,这场关于主观性和客观性、评论家作为艺术家还是作为科学家的争论有其特殊的意义。对于女权主义的文学评论家来说,问题不仅是学术性的,而且还是政治性的。”接着文章环绕这个主题展开。故正确选项应为[B]。

32. [答案] [A] women who are literary critics face professional risks different from those faced by men who are literary critics.

[注释] 细节理解题。本题问:根据作者的看法,为什么本文提到的辩论对妇女文学评论的理论家具有特殊的意义?第2段第1句和最后1段分别写道:“对于从事女权主义文学评论的妇女来说,这场关于主观性和客观性,评论家作为艺术家还是作为科学家的争论有其特殊的意义。对于女权主义的文学评论家来说,问题不仅是学术性的,而且还是政治性的。”“只要学术机构仍然把客观分析看做‘男子的,而把直觉方法视为‘女子的,理论家就必须在这两种观点之间把握好细微的哲学方向。假如她想创立一种女权主义文艺批评理论的话,她最好还是把这种理论置于既不是纯客观又不是纯直觉的一般评论方法的理论框架内。这样,她的理论更可能以某种程度的冷漠态度来与其他的批评理论进行比较与对照。”文章中还写道:“男子可以自由地自称他是像艺术家那样的评论家,而女子选择直觉和个人经验作为评论方法和争辩方法时会冒各种职业风险。”可见,从事文学评论的妇女面临的职业风险不同于从事文学评论的男子所面临的风险。故应选[A]。

33. [答案] [D] tendency of members of the academic establishment to treat all forms of feminist literary theory with hostility.

[注释] 细节辨认题。本题问:作者认为下面哪一点并不是影响妇女文学评论的困难?解这类题的关键是对所找信息进行段落定位。本题所涉及的作为女权文学评论家的妇女所遇到的困难主要在第2段中加以阐述。[A]“男子占统治地位的学术机构有形成对妇女先入为主的倾向”,可参阅第2段倒数第2句:“由于这些偏见,采用直觉方法进行评论的女子可能被认为缺乏分析能力、缺乏客观性或批判性思考的能力”。这些都是对妇女有先入为主的成见。[B]“把评论定义为客观的和科学的时所受到的限制”,参阅第2段第2、3句。[C]“主张艺术特殊性的女理论家的作品可能被某些学者带偏见地加以考虑”,参阅第2段第3句。[D]中写有 ...treat all forms of feminist theory with hostility,文中未提及。

34. [答案] [C] are contested largely through contention over power.

[注释] 推理判断题。本题问:可以推理作者把哪些问题定义为“政治的”?第3段第1句写道:“这些问题在一定意义上是政治性的:在这些问题上的争论与其说是以一种无私去探索抽象问题的研究精神,还不如说是一场学术性的权力之争。在这场斗争中许多女性学者(只是现在才大量进入学术专业领域)的学术生涯与专业命运将处于危险之中;同时她们也会有对人文科学的理解做出特殊贡献的机遇。这种贡献可能会在我们的社会中反对歧视妇女方面具有重要的影响。”可见,作者认为这些问题之所以是“政治性的”,主要因为它是权力之争。故应选[C]。

35. [答案] [D] To convince the academic establishment to revise the ways in which it assesses women scholars' professional qualities.

[注释] 推理判断题。本题问:下面哪一点很可能是作者提到的“功利的政治目标”之一?第2段第2句写道:“如果她把女权主义的评论定义为客观的、科学的,即任何人,不管男女,都能使用的有效的、可证实的、理智的方法,那这种定义不仅使作为艺术家的评论家的观察方法无法实现,而且也可能阻碍那些试图改变学术机构及其思想,特别是关于男女在文学评论中作用的思想的人们,实现其功利主义的政治目的。”可见,[D]“说服学术机构改变其评估女性学者的专业素质”很可能是作者提到的“功利主义的政治目的”之一。

36. [答案] [B] describe a situation and its potential drawbacks.

[注释] 全文主旨题。本题问:本文的主要写作目的是什么?第1段中阐述了“最近几年来,美国少数民族企业在面临新的、巨大危险的同时,也遇到了前所未有的良好机遇。”“少数民族团体很难在商业界立足,……因为它们无法得到大额订单和分包合同。现在国会已经同意通过法律要求被奖励了价值50万美元以上的联邦合同企业要尽力找少数民族分包者,并将有关情况报告给政府登记备案”。接着在第2段中举例说明。第3段起始句写道:“尽管资助的增加给少数民族企业带来了很大的希望,这样做同时也给它们带来了风险”。然后,从三个方面说明了这种风险。可见,作者写本文的目的在于描述一种情况,并说明其不足之处。

注意:解这类题要求考生有高度的总结归纳、抽象概括的能力。训练这种能力的方法是抓住各段落的主题句,然后串起来进行抽象归纳,从而把握全文梗概。

37. [答案] [C] not had sufficient opportunity to secure business created by large corporations.

[注释] 细节理解题。本题问:根据本文,公民权利激进分子认为少数民族企业过去一直面临的一个不利条件是什么?第1段第2句写道:“长期以来,公民权利激进分子一直声辩说,黑人、西班牙裔美国人和其他少数民族团体很难在商业上立足,其主要原因是它们很少得到大公司的大额订单和分包合同。”可见,选项[C]符合此意。

38. [答案] [A] experience frustration but not serious financial harm.

[注释] 推理判断题。本题问:大公司假如不能使它的合同投标尽快得到订货,就可能会引起什么情况?第3段第3句起写道:“因此,如果它们(小公司)的分包合同由于某种原因减少了,这样的公司可能面临潜在的严重固定开支损失。大量的公司购买可能使小企业家受损,因为要他们做详尽的正规估价和投标会使他们耗费大量的时间和财力,小公司必须努力尽快得到订单,否则公司的士气和财政状况会受损。”言下之意,大公司如果遇到这种情况也会受损,但不会遭受严重的财政损失。可见,[A]符合此意。

注意:推理判断题解题技巧之一是正话反说、反话正说。考生常常可以由此入手,难题就迎刃而解。

39. [答案] [D] try to expand its customer bases to avoid becoming dependent on the corporation.

[注释] 推理判断题。本题问:作者暗示少数民族拥有的公司在与大公司做生意时应当怎样做?最后一段写道:“第三,能与大公司客户做生意的少数民族企业常常会冒一种风险——成为并继续成为大公司的附庸”。可见,作者暗示,小公司应扩大客户来源,以避免依赖大公司。故应选[D]。

40. [答案] [A] a business magazine.

[注释] 总结推断题。本题问:根据这篇文章的构思,本文可能刊登在什么地方?从全文而论,本文阐述了70年代政府规定的契约令给少数民族企业带来的利弊。本文不可能选自一本会计教科书,也不可能摘自财经术语词典(因为本文并未对财经术语注释),更不可能刊登在商业统计数字年鉴上(因为其中没有列举各种商业统计数字)。可见,正确答案非[A]莫属。

小结

1) 按大纲规定,阅读部分4篇文章总字数为1600左右。本卷阅读试题总字数为1721,后两篇难度较大,完全符合2011年试题的命题趋势。

2) 从本卷4篇文章的题材来看,第1篇关于文化,第2篇关于英国工会及其权力,第3篇关于文学批评,第4篇关于美国少数民族企业。可见,其题材与历届考题的题材基本一致。

3) 从本卷4篇文章的题目类型来看,有细节理解题、细节辨认题、词汇释义题、总结归纳题、推理判断题、逻辑结构题和全文主旨题。与2010年试题类型相一致。

4) “阅读理解”解题时间通常为60—65分钟。考生应根据实际情况调整好解题时间。要牢记先易后难!

5) 解题方法:先浏览第1段,尽可能找到全文主题信息词。然后扫描 第1题,划出题干中的信息词,到相应段落中寻找相关的信息词,划出信息词、搜索目标信息,比对4个选项,排除干扰项,确定正确答案。其他4题以此类推。如题目顺序与段落顺序不一致,要以变应变、机动灵活。

Part B

本文论述人类生活节奏的加快深刻地影响了社会上不同群体的人,从而产生所谓“过去的人”、“现在的人”和“将来的人”。

本文共7段,其中两段在文章中的位置已经给出,分别是篇首和篇尾。

41. [答案] [C]

[注释] 第1段[G]告诉我们:“普通老百姓常常在评论生活节奏。然而,奇怪的是,生活节奏几乎并没有受到心理学家或社会学家的注意。这是行为科学中引起分裂的弊病,因为生活节奏深刻地影响着行为,从而引发了来自不同人的强烈的、不同的反应。” [C]选项符合第1段思路的自然延续。因为它写道:“实际上,我们可以毫不过分地说,生活节奏在人类中划了一条分界线,把我们分成不同的阵营,引发了父子之间、美国主要广告公司的做法和小城镇实利主义社会之间、男子与女子之间、美国人与欧洲人之间、东西方之间令人伤心的误解。”可见,两段之间的逻辑联系是递进关系,即第2段进一步说明生活节奏产生的影响。

42. [答案] [E]

[注释] [E]段继续论述地球上的居住者不仅由种族、国家、宗教或思想来划分,而且在某种意义上由某时段所处的地位来划分。接着谈到地球上仍有一小部分人以狩猎和觅食为生;而其他大部分人则靠农业而生。这两部分人总计约占人口的70%。他们是过去的人。

43. [答案] [A]

[注释] 接着通过“By contrast(对照之下)”引出了另外25%的人,他们生活在工业化的社会里,过着现代生活。他们实际上是现代的人。故应选[A]。第3段与第4段是对比两代人。考生解题时要注意关键信息词的连结:70 percent—the people of the past—By contrast—25 percent—the people of the present。

44. [答案] [B]

[注释] [B] 段一开头就讲到剩下的2%或3%的地球人口,他们是将来的人。他们是未来全世界的超级工业社会的最早公民并正在为自己的降临而奋斗。可见[B]段与上文在逻辑上是连贯的、一致的。

45. [答案] [D]

[注释] [D] 段讲到将来的人与现在的人和过去的人之间的区别所在。可以肯定,将来的人比人类大多数人更富裕、受教育程度更高、流动性更大,而且活得更长。通过“But”从另一个侧面来描绘将来的人:他们已经被困在新的、节奏更快的生活中。他们比他们周围的人“生活得更快”。

最后一段[F]写道:“有些人特别喜欢这种高度加速的生活节奏,不愿阻碍这种生活节奏的来临,当节奏减慢时,他们就感到焦虑、紧张或不舒服。他们拼命地要到‘有活力的地方去。”以上是本段的论点;接着通过for example提供了论据,即Wilson认为,喜欢快速生活节奏是广泛宣传的“人才外流”的潜在驱动力之一。所谓“人才外流”就是欧洲的科学家和技术人员大批流向美国和加拿大。下文中的He指代前面的Wilson。

小结

1. 选择搭配题的考点是:

1) 语段结构:段首句、扩展句和结论句之间在逻辑上的一致性。

2) 语篇结构:起、承、转、合。段落与段落之间语篇结构的连贯性。

3) 逻辑结构:语段内论点与论据的逻辑一致性。小标题与段落内容在逻辑上的一致性。

2. 选择搭配题的解题思路是:

1) 第一种题型:浏览全文、把握主题,分段解题、关键信息词连结,针对题目、各个突破。

2) 第二种题型:吃透第一段,注意段落结尾句和段首句的承上启下功能,狠抓段落与段落之间联系的形态标志(信息词)和逻辑衔接,先慢后快。

3) 第三种题型:把握语段内论点与论据的一致性。

4) 第四种题型:浏览段落,把握小标题与段落在内容上的一致性。

3. 解题时间:20分钟左右。

Part C

46. [答案]

如今的科学技术中一种新的现象是,科学研究越来越朝着“有指导的”或“有计划的”趋势发展,也就是说,这种研究的范围和目标是由私人或政府机构,而不是由研究人员自己事先确定的。

[注释] “名词 + 同位语 + 定语从句”是英语中常见的句式。

47. [答案]

然而,科学家虽然常常在设备不足、不尽如人意的实验室工作,可是却能自由地选择他所喜欢的研究课题,因为不存在科学家必须服从的事先决定了的研究项目。

[注释] he liked是定语从句,修饰先行词subject。to which he had to conform 是定语从句,修饰先行词program。conform to 意为“服从;遵守”。

48. [答案]

随着本世纪时间的推移,欲待解决的问题与日俱增,其复杂性日趋深化。这一切在许多情况下使单个科学家无法处理进行精确而高效研究所需要的大量新资料、新技术和新设备。

[注释] it 是形式宾语,for sb. to do sth. 是带逻辑主语的动词不定式作实际宾语。that 引导定语从句,修饰前面三个并列的名词。

49. [答案]

由于涉及大笔科研经费,因此有必要把这些人力和物力投入到目标明确的具体研究领域。

50. [答案]

因此,科学家不断从理论科学研究领域转移到应用科学研究领域,因为后者能提供比在大学做纯理论研究工作更多的工作机会,而且通常待遇更优厚,技术设施更好。

[注释] frequently more highly-paid and with better technical facilities than...是后置定语,修饰前面的名词jobs。

小结

考试大纲的要求,英译汉短文总字数约400字。划线句子的总字数为150字左右。英译汉解题时间一般为30分钟左右。本文409字,5个划线句子的总长度略长,但句子结构的难度一般。2010年英译汉难度适中。编者估计2011年英译汉试题难度与2010年基本上保持一致。

Section Ⅲ Writing

Part A

51. 投诉信[参考样文]

Dear Sirs,

I am writing to complain about a chemical plant which contaminates the nearby river. Every day the plant drains a surprisingly large amount of waste liquids into it. The water in it has become gray and gives off a strong smell.

I think the local authorities should adopt several strong measures to deal with the public hazard. Firstly, it is necessary to prohibit the plant from discharging waste water into the river before it is purified. Secondly, a series of environment protection rules need to be laid down. Those who violate them deserve to be fined heavily.

Hoping the problem will be solved as soon as possible

Thanks for your attention.

Sincerely yours,

Li Ming

(111words)

[分析] 书信类应用文包括介绍信、推荐信、请求信、求职信、投诉信、建议信、道歉信、劝告信、拒绝信、邀请信等。考研英语书信类应用文的格式要求如下:

1. 称呼 (Salutation)

2. 正文 (Body)

3. 结尾套话 (Complimentary close)

4. 签名 (Signature)

考研英语书信类应用文不要求考生写信头、信内地址及写信时间。个人签名统一用“李明(Li Ming)”这个名字。字数要求在100字左右。

Part B

52. 议论文[参考样文]

Money has always been what some people long for. It is true that most of them work hard to acquire wealth. But, as is depicted in the picture, there are also people who dream of making a fortune all day and night. Money has become a mental burden for them, which makes them worried and depressed.

The picture means a lot to us. There is no doubt that wealth brings happiness, especially in the modern society. Various kinds of up-to-date electric appliances, latest fashions and recreations are coming into being with each passing day. All these miracles make our lives comfortable and colorful. But material comforts do not necessarily mean happiness. Money may tempt (=lure) weak-willed persons to be addicted to harmful habits and result in their own ruin. Moreover, a person may lose his reason and go astray if he only intends to seek wealth and indulges himself in a luxurious life. Obviously, it is crucial that we take a proper attitude toward money.

In my opinion, on no account should we equate wealth with happiness. The things that contribute most to a sense of happiness cannot be bought with money, such as a good family life, friendship and work satisfaction. (202 words)

注:lose his reason and go astray失去理智并误入歧途。come into being出现。equate...with...把…与…等同起来。

参考译文:

金钱一直是有些人所渴望的对象。确实,大多数人通过努力工作来获取财富。但是,正如此图所示,也有那么一些人整天梦想发财。金钱已经成了他们的精神负担,使他们焦虑和沮丧。

这幅画确实发人深省。毫无疑问,财富会带来幸福,尤其在现代社会里。各种现代化的家用电器、 时装和娱乐项目层出不穷、 日新月异。所有这些奇迹使我们的生活更为舒适、更加丰富多彩。但是,物质舒适未必意味着幸福。金钱可以促使意志薄弱者养成恶习,并导致他们自身的毁灭。此外,如果一个人一心只追求财富并沉溺于奢侈的生活,他就会失去理智、误入歧途。显然,我们必须正确对待金钱。

依我看, 无论如何我们也不能把金钱和幸福等同起来。那些最能使人产生幸福感的东西是不能用金钱买到的,如和睦的家庭生活、友谊和事业上的满足感。

小结

Part A是应用文,要求写一封投诉信。Part B是漫画加提纲作文。命题形式与大纲规定的命题形式相一致。大作文的命题不仅要求考生简短描述图画,而且要求考生写出其用意并说明自己的看法。考生应从参考作文中归纳出短文框架(划线句子)、段落结构和常用句型(黑体字),以达到举一反三、触类旁通的目的。要通过汉英对照、背诵、改写、套用,达到活学活用的目的。短文写作解题时间A节应用文一般为15分钟左右,B节说明性议论文一般为30分钟左右。

赠言

发挥你的强项,克服你的弱项,扬长避短,无往不胜。

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