您的位置:考研教育网>  > 考研英语 > 模拟试题 正文

考研英语全真冲刺模拟试题3

论坛   2012-07-02 11:23 【 】【我要纠错

全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语(一)全真冲刺试卷 Ⅲ

Simulated National Entrance Test of English for MA/MS Candidates

(2011)

考生注意事项

1. 考生必须严格遵守各项考场规则。

2. 答题前,考生应按准考证上的有关内容填写答题卡上的“考生姓名”、“报考单位”、“考生编号”等信息。

3. 答案必须按要求填涂或写在指定的答题卡上。

(1) 英语知识运用、阅读理解A节、B节的答案填涂在答题卡1上。填涂部分应该按照答题卡上的要求用2B铅笔完成。如要改动,必须用橡皮擦干净。

(2) 阅读理解部分C节的答案和作文必须用(蓝)黑色字迹钢笔、圆珠笔或签字笔在答题卡2上作答。字迹要清楚。

4. 考试结束,将答题卡1、答题卡2及试题一并装入试题袋中交回。

考试时间

满分180分钟100分得分

Section ⅠUse of English

Directions:

Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

When anyone opens a current account at a bank, he is lending the bank money. He may 1 the repayment of the money at any time, either 2 cash or by drawing a check in favor of another person. 3, the banker-customer relationship is that of debtor and creditor who is 4 depending on whether the customer's account is 5 credit or is overdrawn. But, in 6 to that basically simple concept, the bank and its customer 7 a large number of obligations to one another. Many of these obligations can give 8 to problems and complications but a bank customer, unlike, say, a buyer of goods, cannot complain that the law is 9 against him.

The bank must 10 its customer's instructions, and not those of anyone else. 11, for example, a customer opens an account, he instructs the bank to debit his account only in 12 of checks drawn by himself. He gives the bank 13 of his signature, and there is a very firm rule that the bank has no right or 14 to pay out a customer's money 15 a check on which its customer's signature has been 16. It makes no difference that the forgery may have been a very 17 one: the bank must recognize its customer's signature. For this reason there is no 18 to the customer in the practice, 19 by banks, of printing the customer's name on his checks. If this 20 forgery, it is the bank that will lose, not the customer. (254 words)

1. [A] acquire[B] deposit [C] demand[D] derive

2. [A] for [B] through [C] as[D] in

3. [A] However[B] Primarily[C] Moreover [D] Presumably

4. [A] which[B] what[C] how[D] that

5. [A] on [B] with [C] in [D] for

6. [A] support[B] contrast[C] regard[D] addition

7. [A] owe[B] commit[C] attribute[D] embark

8. [A] purpose[B] rise[C] priority[D] thought

9. [A] loaded[B] offended[C] discriminated[D] directed

10. [A] conform[B] comply[C] obey[D] abide

11. [A] Unless[B] Although[C] Since[D] When

12. [A] respect[B] charge[C] line[D] place

13. [A] specifics[B] signs[C] symbols[D] specimens

14. [A] reputation[B] prestige[C] authority[D] impact

15. [A] by[B] on[C] with[D] for

16. [A] printed[B] confirmed [C] forged[D] justified

17. [A] delicate[B] skillful[C] unusual[D] unique

18. [A] risk[B] guarantee[C] fault[D] benefit

19. [A] engaged [B] intended[C] adapted[D] adopted

20. [A] contributes[B] facilitates[C] results[D] leads

Section ⅡReading Comprehension

Part A

When Dr. John W. Gofman, professor of medical physics at the University of California and a leading nuclear critic, speaks of “ecocide” in his adversary view of nuclear technology, he means the following: A large nuclear plant like that in Kalkar,the Netherlands, would produce about 200 pounds of plutonium each year. One pound, released into the atmosphere, could cause 9 billion cases of lung cancer. This waste product must be stored for 500,000 years before it is of no further danger to man. In the anticipated reactor economy, it is estimated that there will be 10,000 tons of this material in Western Europe, of which one table-spoonful of plutonium-239 represents the official maximum permissible body burden for 200,000 people. Rather than being biodegradable, plutonium destroys biological properties.

In 1972 the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration ruled that the asbestos level in the work place should be lowered to 2 fibers per cubic centimeter of air, but the effective date of the ruling has been delayed until now. The International Federation of Chemical and General Workers' Unions report that the 2-fiber standard was based primarily on one study of 290 men at a British asbestos factory. But when the workers at the British factory had been reexamined by another physician, 40—70 percent had X'ray evidence of lung abnormalities. According to present medical information at the factory in question, out of a total of 29 deaths thus far, seven were caused by lung cancer. An average European or American worker comes into contact with six million fibers a day. “We are now, in fact, finding cancer deaths within the family of the asbestos worker,” states Dr. Irving Selikoff, of the Mount Sinai Medical School in New York.

It is now also clear that vinyl chloride, a gas from which the most widely used plastics are made, causes a fatal cancer of the blood-vessel cells of the liver. However, the history of the research on vinyl chloride is, in some ways, more disturbing than the “Watergate cover-up.” “There has been evidence of potentially serious disease among polyvinyl chloride workers for 25 years that has been incompletely appreciated and inadequately approached by medical scientists and by regulatory authorities,” summed up Dr. Selikoff in the New Scientist. At least 17 workers have been killed by vinyl chloride because research over the past 25 years was not followed up. And for over 10 years, workers have been exposed to concentrations of vinyl chloride 10 times the “safe limit” imposed by Dow Chemical Company. (422 words)

Notes: plutonium 钚。asbestos 石棉。polyvinyl chloride 聚氯乙烯。

21. By “ecocide” the author most probably means

[A] waste utilization.

[B] ecological balance.

[C] radioactive reaction.

[D] massive bio-destruction.

22. According to the text, the author mentions plutonium in paragraph 1 to

[A] estimate the amount of nuclear material in Europe.

[B] exemplify one of the possible causes of lung cancer.

[C] highlight the measures needed to prevent lung cancer.

[D] show the destructive properties of industrial waste materials.

23. The style of the second paragraph is mainly

[A] factual.

[B] sarcastic.

[C] emotional.

[D] argumentative.

24. According to paragraph 3, some workers have been killed by harmful pollutants in that

[A] production could not be halted.

[B] they failed to take safety measures.

[C] research was not pursued to a solution.

[D] safety equipment was not adequately provided.

25. It can be inferred from the text that the author believes that

[A] nationwide application of anti-pollution devices can finally prevent cancer.

[B] tough legislation is needed to set lower limits of worker exposure to harmful chemicals.

[C] more research is required into the causes of cancer before further progress can be made.

[D] industrialization must be slowed down to prevent further spread of cancercausing agents.

Text2

The topic of cloning has been a politically and ethically controversial one since its very beginning. While the moral and philosophical aspects of the issues are entirely up to the interpretation of the individual, the application of cloning technology can be studied objectively. Many in the scientific community advocate the use of cloning for the preservation and support of endangered species of animals, which aside from cloning, have no other practical hope for avoiding extinction.

The goal of the use of cloning to avoid extinction is the reintroduction of new genes into the gene pool of species with few survivors, ensuring the maintenance and expansion of genetic diversity. Likely candidates for this technique are species known to have very few surviving members, such as the African Bongo Antelope, the Sumatran Tiger, and the Chinese Giant Panda. In the case of Giant Panda, some artificial techniques for creating offspring have already been performed, perhaps paving the way for cloning as the next step in the process.

With the estimated population of only about 1000 Giant Pandas left in the world, the urgency of the situation has led to desperate measures. One panda was born through the technique of artificial insemination in the San Diego Zoo in the United States. “Hua Mei” was born in 1999 after her parents, Hsing-Hsing and Ling-Ling, had trouble conceiving naturally.

The plan to increase the Giant Panda population through the use of cloning involves the use of a species related to the Giant Panda, the American Black Bear. Egg cells will be removed from female black bears and then fertilized with Panda cells such as those from Ling-Ling or Hsing-Hsing. The fertilized embryo will then re-implanted into the black bear, where it will grow and mature, until a new panda is delivered from the black bear host.

Critics of cloning technology argue that the emphasis on cloning as a method by which to preserve species will draw funding away from other methods, such as habitat preservation and conservation. Proponents of cloning counter that many countries in which many endangered species exist are too poor to protect and maintain the species' habitats anyway, making cloning technology the only practical way to ensure that those species survive to future generations. The issue is still hotly debated, as both sides weigh the benefits that could be achieved against the risks and ethical concerns that constantly accompany any argument on the issue. (402 words)

Notes: ethically 道德上。gene pool基因库。insemination n. 受精。fertilize 使受精。embryo 胚胎。proponent 支持者,拥护者。weigh A against B 权衡A和B的利弊。

26. The author raises the issue of ethical consideration in cloning in paragraph 1 in order to

[A] identify the issues that will not be addressed in the text.

[B] reveal an area of interest that will be explored later in the text.

[C] identify one of the main issues affecting the cloning controversy today.

[D] draw the reader's attention to a sensitive issue that bears consideration in the topic of cloning.

27. The author directs attention to “Hua Mei”, the baby panda born in the San Diego Zoo, in order to

[A] show that cloning as an artificial birth technique has succeeded.

[B] argue that pandas are a particularly likely candidate for cloning.

[C] show that artificial birth techniques other than cloning have succeeded.

[D] demonstrate the necessity of cloning and other artificial birth techniques to the survival of certain species.

28. Paragraph 4 is written in order to

[A] detail the process by which cloning in the panda population has been executed in the past.

[B] guide the reader to consider the possibility of cloning in restoring the panda

population.

[C] demonstrate that the use of cloning to repopulate the panda species is a feasible goal.

[D] inform the reader of how cloning would be carried out in the panda population.

29. The main purpose of the last paragraph is to

[A] argue in favor of one side on a particularly controversial topic of cloning.

[B] display both sides' arguments on another contentious issue in cloning.

[C] redirect the readers' attention to the previously raised issue of ethics in cloning.

[D] provide further relevant information to the evaluation of cloning as a preservation technique.

30. It can be inferred from the information given in the text that the best candidate for cloning would be

[A] Giant Pandas.

[B] an endangered species with many living related species.

[C] the species in which previous techniques of artificial reproduction have been

successfully applied.

[D] those for which cloning is the only feasible method by which to reproduce the species.

Text3

Pronouncing a language is a skill. Every normal person is an expert in the skill of pronouncing his own language, but few people are even moderately proficient at pronouncing foreign languages. Now there are many reasons for this, some obvious, some perhaps not so obvious. But I suggest that the fundamental reason why people in general do not speak foreign languages very much better than they do is that they fail to grasp the true nature of the problem of learning to pronounce, and consequently never set about tackling it in the right way. Far too many people fail to realize that pronouncing a foreign language is a skill, one that needs careful training of a special kind, and one that cannot be acquired by just leaving it to take care of itself. I think even teachers of language, while recognizing the importance of a good accent, tend to neglect, in their practical teaching, the branch of study concerned with speaking the language.

So the first point I want to make is that English pronunciation must be taught; the teacher should be prepared to devote some of the lesson time to this, and by his whole attitude to the subject should get the student to feel that here is a matter worthy of receiving his close attention. So there should be occasions when other aspects of English, such as grammar or spelling, are allowed for the moment to take second place.

Apart from this question of the time given to pronunciation, there are two other requirements for the teacher: the first, knowledge; the second, technique.

It is important that the teacher should be in possession of the necessary information. This can generally be obtained from books. It is possible to get from books some idea of the mechanics of speech, and of what we call general phonetic theory. It is also possible in this way to get a clear mental picture of the relationship between the sounds of different languages, between the speech habits of English people and those, say, of your students. Unless the teacher has such a picture, any comments he may make on his students' pronunciation are unlikely to be of much use, and lesson time spent on pronunciation may well be time-wasted.

But it does not follow that you can teach pronunciation successfully as soon as you have read the necessary books. It depends, after that, on what use you make of your knowledge, and this is a matter of technique.

Now the first and most important part of a language teacher's technique is his own performance, his ability to demonstrate the spoken language, in every detail of articulation as well as in fluent speaking, so that the student's latent capacity for imitation is given the fullest scope and encouragement. The teacher, then, should be as perfect a model in this respect as he can make himself. And to supplement his own performance, however satisfactory this may be, the modern teacher has at his disposal recordings, radio, television and video, to supply the authentic voices of native speakers, or, if the teacher happens to be a native speaker himself or speaks just like one, then to vary the method of presenting the language material. (537 words)

Notes: set about着手,试图。articulation发音。latent潜在的,不明显的。at one's disposal供某人任意支配使用。

31. What does the writer actually say about pronouncing foreign languages?

[A] Only a few people are really proficient.

[B] No one is really an expert in the skill.

[C] There aren't many people who are even fairly good.

[D] There are even some people who are moderately proficient.

32. The writer argues that going about the problem of pronunciation in the wrong way is

[A] an obvious cause of not grasping the problem correctly.

[B] a fundamental consequence of not speaking well.

[C] a consequence of not grasping the problem correctly.

[D] not an obvious cause of speaking poorly.

33. What is it that teachers are said to be inclined to forget?

[A] The practical teaching of languages.

[B] The importance of a good accent.

[C] The principle of phonetic theory.

[D] The teaching of pronunciation in the classroom.

34. The value the student puts on correct speech habits depends upon

[A] how closely he attends to the matter.

[B] whether it is English that is being taught.

[C] his teacher's approach to pronunciation.

[D] the importance normally given to grammar and spelling.

35. According to the text, in relation to someone teaching his own language to foreigners, audio-visual aids can

[A] completely replace his own teaching performance.

[B] provide alternative samples of native speech.

[C] help to improve teaching quality to a great extent.

[D] provide a perfect model for language students to follow.

Text4

The majority of successful senior managers do not closely follow the classical rational model of first clarifying goals, assessing the problem, formulating options, estimating likelihood of success, making a decision, and only then taking action to implement the decision. Rather, in their day-by-day tactical activities, these senior executives rely on what is vaguely termed “intuition” to manage a network of interrelated problems that require them to deal with ambiguity, inconsistency, novelty, and surprise; and to integrate action into the process of thinking.

Generations of writers on management have recognized that some practicing managers rely heavily on intuition. In general, however, such writers display a poor grasp of what intuition is. Some see it as the opposite of rationality; others view it as an excuse of capriciousness.

Isenberg's recent research on the cognitive processes of senior managers reveals that managers' intuition is neither of these. Rather, senior managers use intuition in at least five distinct ways. First, they intuitively sense when a problem exists. Second, managers rely on intuition to perform well-learned behavior patterns rapidly. This intuition is not arbitrary or irrational, but is based on years of painstaking practice and personal experience that build skills. A third function of intuition is to synthesize isolated bits of data and practice into an integrated picture, often in an “Aha!” experience. Fourth, some managers use intuition as a check on the results of more rational analysis. Most senior executives are familiar with the formal decision analysis models and tools, and those who use such systematic methods for reaching decisions are occasionally suspicious of solutions suggested by these methods which run counter to their sense of the correct course of action. Finally, managers can use intuition to bypass in-depth analysis and move rapidly to find out a plausible solution. Used in this way, intuition is an almost instantaneous cognitive process in which a manager recognizes familiar patterns.

One of the implications of the intuitive style of executive management is that “thinking” is inseparable from acting. Since managers often “know” what is right before they can analyze and explain it, they frequently act first and explain later. Analysis is invariably tied to action in thinking/acting cycles, in which managers develop thoughts about their companies and organizations not by analyzing a problematic situation and then acting, but by acting and analyzing in close concert.

Given the great uncertainty of many of the management issues that they face, senior managers often initiate a course of action simply to learn more about an issue. They then use the results of the action to develop a more complete understanding of the issue. One implication of thinking/acting cycles is that action is often part of defining the problem, not just of implementing the solution. (454 words)

Notes: capriciousness 多变,反复无常。run counter to 与…背道而驰;违反。bypass 绕过。in close concert 一齐,一致。given prep. 考虑到,由于。

36. The logical organization of the first paragraph of the text is that

[A] a conventional model is dismissed and an alternative introduced.

[B] the results of recent research are introduced and summarized.

[C] two opposite points of view are presented and evaluated.

[D] a widely accepted definition is presented and qualified.

37. In relation to the “writers on management” mentioned in Para. 2, the text suggests that they

[A] have not based their analyzes on a sufficiently large sample of actual managers.

[B] have relied in drawing their conclusions on what managers say rather than what managers do.

[C] have misunderstood how managers use intuition in making business decisions.

[D] have not acknowledged the role of intuition in managerial practice.

38. According to the text, senior managers use intuition in all of the following ways EXCEPT

[A] to speed up the creation of a solution to a problem.

[B] to identify a problem or bring together different facts.

[C] to initiate clear goals and in the end attain them.

[D] to evaluate possible solutions to a problem.

39. When mentioning “thinking/acting cycles”(in Para. 4), the author is most likely to believe that

[A] a manager analyzes a series of problems and then acts on that analysis.

[B] a manager gathers data by acting and then observes the effects of action.

[C] action and analysis in managerial practice invariably occur simultaneously.

[D] a manager takes action, being able to clarify reasons for that action.

40. According to the text, which of the following would most probably be one major difference in behavior between Manager X, who uses intuition to reach decisions, and Manager Y, who uses only formal decision analysis?

[A] Manager X checks possible solutions to a problem by systematic analysis; Manager Y does not.

[B] Manager X takes action in order to arrive at the solution to a problem; Manager Y does not.

[C] Manager Y draws on years of personal experience in creating a solution to a problem; Manager X does not.

[D] Manager X depends on day-by-day tactical activities; Manager Y does not.

Part B

Directions:

You are going to read a text about stress, followed by a list of arguments. Choose the best argument from the list A—G for each numbered subheading (41—45). There are two extra arguments which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

41. Two types of stress:

There are basically two types of stress placed on human beings—physical and mental.

42. Effects of stress—physical or emotional:

Whether physical or emotional in origin, stress causes the body to react in the same way.

43. Guilty—useful, though most harmful:

Probably the most harmful of all the stresses is guilt.

44. Instances—no need to feel guilty:

However, many of us as children learned rules that we no longer need.

No one is perfect:

Guilt and the worry that often accompanies this major stress are difficult to eradicate, but people subject to excessive guilt feelings should realize, as simple as it sounds, that no one is perfect. People cannot always be cheerful and helpful to every one they meet. Another good lesson is that mistakes should be forgotten, not lingered over and brought out to examine periodically.

45. Life with a little stress—significant:

A life without stress, such as retirement with nothing to do, would be boring.

Notes: respiration 呼吸。pupil瞳孔。dilate 膨胀。perspiration 出汗,勤奋。date 约会。sour 使别扭。eradicate vt. 消除,根除。at best 充其量。linger over 细细品味。meditation深思,沉思。might as well 不妨。

[A] Fat adults should no longer feel guilty about leaving a little food on the plate, a successful businessman need not feel guilty about spending a little too much money on a vacation, nor should he feel guilty that he can combine a business trip to the West Coast with some swimming and golf at an ocean resort. But many people do feel guilty over such apparently innocent actions. Excessive guilt can sour all of life and make life not worth living; it can also cause self-hatred as well as other fears and anxieties that cause all life's successes to be bittersweet, at best.

[B] Stress from physical activity, if not carried too far, is actually beneficial. Exercise relaxes you and may help forget about mental and emotional stress. But mental stress is almost always bad for you. If mental stress is unrelieved, it can actually cause diseases such as ulcers, migraine headaches, heart problems, or mental illness.

[C] Just as we need a little guilt—to keep us correct—and a little worry—to make us plan ahead—we need a little stress to stay interested in life. But when stress begins to bother you, you might as well change your routine. Take your mind off your worries with some physical activity; you may discover a solution you have overlooked before.

[D] Stress is a natural part of everyday life and there is no way to avoid it. In fact, it is not the bad thing it is often supposed to be. A certain amount of stress is vital to provide motivation and give purpose to life. It is only when the stress gets out of control that it can lead to poor performance and ill health.

[E] Some people are not afraid of stress, and such characters are obviously prime material for managerial responsibilities, others lose heart at the first signs of unusual difficulties.

[F] In the first stage, your body prepares to meet the stress. The heartbeat and respiration rates increase, and the pupils of the eyes dilate; the blood sugar level increases, and the rate of perspiration speeds up, while digestion slows down as blood and muscular activity is diverted elsewhere. In the second stage, your body returns to normal and repairs any damage caused by the stressful situation. However, if stress continues, the body cannot repair itself, and the final stage, exhaustion, then begins. If this stage continues, if for example you are frustrated by your work and continue to be frustrated for a long time, physical or emotional damage will occur. These stages of stress reaction are always the same, whether the stress is caused by a cross-country run, a first date, buying a house, or narrowly missing an automobile accident.

[G] This common emotion is useful to have when it helps us to realize that we have, in fact, committed some error, violated our own rules or social rules. If we did not feel guilty, we would never do anything except the things that brought us immediate pleasure—we'd never obey the law, work, exercise, or even study in school, unless we wanted to do so in the first place. As a person's conscience develops, guilt feelings become inevitable; guilt is the sorrow we experience when we know we have done something incorrect.

Part C

Directions:

Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points)

As civilization proceeds in the direction of technology, it passes the point of supplying all the basic essentials of life—food, shelter, clothes, and warmth. 46) Then we either raise our standard of living above the necessary for comfort and happiness or leave it at this level and work shorter hours. Mankind has probably chosen the latter alternative. Men will be working shorter and shorter hours in their paid employment. And the great majority of the housewives will wish to be relieved completely of the routine operations of the home such as washing the clothes or washing up.

47) By far the most logical step to relieve the housewife of routine is to provide a robot slave which can be trained to meet the requirements of a particular home and can be programmed to carry out half a dozen or more standard operations, when so switched by the housewife. 48) It will be a machine having no more emotions than a car, but having a memory for instructions and a limited degree of instructed or builtin adaptability according to the positions in which it finds various types of objects. It will operate other more specialized machines, for example, the vacuum cleaner or clotheswashing machine.

There are no problems in the production of such a domestic robot to which we do not have already the glimmering of a solution. When I have discussed this kind of device with housewives, some 90 percent of them have the immediate reaction, “How soon can I buy one?” The other 10 percent have the reaction, “I would be terrified to have it moving about my house.” 49) But when one explains to them that it could be switched off or unplugged or stopped without the slightest difficulty, or made to go and put itself away in a cupboard at any time, they quickly realize that it is a highly desirable object. 50) Now it is generally recognized that there is no greater pleasure than to go to bed in the evening and know that the washing up is being done downstairs after one is asleep. Most families are now delighted, no doubt, to have a robot slave doing all the downstairs housework after they were in bed at night. (376 words)

Notes: glimmering迹象。

Section Ⅲ Writing

Part A

51. Directions:

You have just received a short message from your father informing that your mother is very ill and you want to ask for one weeks leave. Write a note(便笺) to your Office Head Mr. Wang about it.

You should write about 100 words on ANSWER SHEET 2.

Do not sign your own name at the end of the note. Use “Li Ming” instead.

Do not write the address.

Part B

52. Directions:

Write an essay of 160—200 words based on the following set of pictures. In your essay, you should

1) describe the pictures briefly,

2) interpret their intended meaning, and

3) point out their implications in our life.

You should write neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (20 points)

Section ⅠUse of English

参考译文

任何人在银行开一个活期账户时,他就是把钱借给银行。他可以随时提取这笔钱,提取的方式可以是现金,也可以是为他人开一张支票。银行与储户之间的关系主要是债务人与债权人之间的关系;谁是债务人谁是债权人取决于储户的账上是透支还是结余。但是,除了那种基本的简单的概念以外,银行与储户相互之间还承担许多义务。这些义务中的许多义务会引起很多问题和纠纷,但是银行储户譬如说不像货物的买主,他不能投诉说法律对他不利。

银行必须遵守它的客户的指令,而不是任何别人的指令。例如,当储户开一个账户时,他指示银行只有凭他开的支票才能支取他的存款。他给银行留下他签名的样本,并且有一条非常严格的规则,即银行没有任何权力把储户的钱付给一张冒名顶替的支票。即使伪造得非常巧妙,那也无济于事,因为银行必须辨认出它的储户的签名。为此银行采用把储户的姓名印在支票上的做法,这样,对客户就不存在任何风险了。如果这样做仍然使伪造得逞,那承担损失的将是银行,而不应是储户。

1. [答案] [C] demand

[注释] 词义搭配。demand the repayment of the money提取钱。 acquire vt. 获得; deposit vt. 将(钱)存入银行;derive vt. 得到,获取。例如:derive great pleasure from ones studies(从学习中得到很大乐趣)。

2. [答案] [D] in

[注释] 惯用搭配。in cash以现金方式。

3. [答案] [B] Primarily

[注释] 逻辑搭配。primarily主要地;however然而;moreover此外;presumably推测起来,大概。

4. [答案] [A] which

[注释] 逻辑搭配。 who is which depending on... 谁是债务人,谁是债权人取决于…。

5. [答案] [C] in

[注释] 惯用搭配。be in credit 有结余;buy on credit赊购。

6. [答案] [D] addition

[注释] 逻辑惯用搭配。in addition to除…以外。in support of支持;in contrast to与…相对照;in regard to关于,在…上。例如:I have nothing to say in/with regard to your complaints.(对于你的投诉,我无可奉告)。

7. [答案] [A] owe

[注释] 词义搭配。owe obligations to sb. 向某人承担义务; commit oneself to doing sth.使自己承担做某事的任务;attribute ... to把…归因于; embark on着手,开始从事,例如:embark on a new career(从事一项新的职业); embark on a long journey(开始漫长的旅行)。

8. [答案] [B] rise

[注释] 惯用搭配。give rise to引起,产生,例如:His words gave rise to a considerable amount of speculation.(他的话引起了很多猜测)。give purpose to使…有目的,例如:give purpose to ones life(使某人的生活有目的)。give priority to优先考虑,例如:We should give priority to the development of our reading skills. give thought to考虑…,例如:Have you given any thought to which university you would like to go to when you leave school?

9. [答案] [A] loaded

[注释] 词义惯用搭配。be loaded against... 对…不利,例如:The odds were loaded against him. (情况对他不利)。offend against...触犯(法律等),例如:This verdict offends against ones idea of justice.(这个裁决触犯了人们的正义观念)。

discriminate against歧视,例如:The law does not discriminate against any race, creed or color.(法律并不歧视任何种族、信条或肤色)。

direct... against使…针对…,例如:His remark directs its blows mainly to the working people.(他的话主要打击了劳动人民)。

10. [答案] [C] obey

[注释] 词义结构搭配。obey ones instructions服从某人的指令。conform to符合,遵守,例如:All students must conform to the rules.(全体学生都必须遵守这些规则)。 conform with符合,例如:The design conforms with the regulations.

注意:conform to较常用;只偶尔用conform with。comply with照…办;遵守,例如:1) People who refuse to comply with the law will be punished. 2) He knows the regulations, and if he refuses to comply with them he must take the consequences. abide by遵守,服从:1) We agreed to abide by your judgment. 2) She will abide by her promise. 3) abide by承受:You will have to abide by the consequences.

11. [答案] [D] When

[注释] 逻辑结构搭配。when引导时间状语从句。

12. [答案] [A] respect

[注释] 结构搭配。in respect of...用来付…的钱(商业用语),例如: The company gave him $230 in respect of the work he has done.(公司给他230美元用来支付他的工钱)。in charge of... 负责,例如: 1) (作表语) He will be in charge of the whole factory next week when the director is away.2) (作定语) The officer in charge requested Arthur to put on his outdoor clothes. in line with与…一致,符合,例如: 1) (作表语) Some of the recent actions of the government are not in line with the statement of policy in their election manifesto. (政府最近的一些行动不符合他们在大选宣言中的政策声明)。 2) (作状语) In line with history and social evolution socialism is inevitable.(按照历史和社会的发展,社会主义是必然的)。in place of ... 代替…,用…而不用…,例如:The Chinese use chopsticks in place of knives and forks. (中国人用筷子,而不用刀叉。)

13. [答案] [D] specimens

[注释] 词义搭配。 specimen样本; specific细节; sign迹象,符号,牌;symbol象征。

14. [答案] [C] authority

[注释] 词义搭配。authority权力;reputation声誉; prestige声望; impact影响。

15. [答案] [B] on

[注释] 结构搭配。on a cheque 凭支票;on表示原因或根据。

16. [答案] [C] forge

[注释] 词义搭配。 forge (= invent)伪造,如:He got the money dishonestly, by forging his brothers signature on a check. forge的原意是“锻造”,例如:The blacksmith forged the horseshoe with great skill.(这位铁匠熟练地锻造了这块马蹄铁)。print vt. 印刷,出版,如:print books。confirm vt. 1)证实,肯定,确认:The experiment confirmed his theory. 2)加强,坚定(信念等): The latest information confirms my belief that he is to blame.(最新的信息坚定了我的信念:他应受责备)。 3)批准,同意:The agency confirmed the contract.(这个机构批准了这个合同)。justify vt. 证明…是正确的,如:1) You will have to justify your work to others.(你得向其他人解释你的工作是对的)。 2) The fact that he annoyed you does not justify your treating him in that way.(他触怒你这一事实并不能证明你那样对待他是正确的)。

17. [答案] [B] skillful

[注释] 词义搭配。skillful有技巧的,巧妙的; delicate精细的,纤细的;unique (同类中)独一无二的。

18. [答案] [A] risk

[注释] 词义搭配。risk风险。risk可作及物动词用,后接名词或动名词,例如:1) The brave man risked his life in trying to save the child. 2) He didnt want to risk getting wet as he had only one suit. risk作名词用时常用的词组如下:1) at the risk of冒…的风险:At the risk of offending you, I must tell you that I disapprove of your behavior. 2) run (or take) a risk冒危险: You are running a big risk in trusting him. 3) at risk处于危险中:The governments income policy is seriously at risk.

19. [答案] [D] adopted

[注释] 词义搭配。adopt vt. 采用,采取:We must adopt strong measures against any environmental destruction.

20.[答案] [B] facilitates

[注释] 词义搭配。 facilitate vt. 使…方便,促使,例如:1) The broken lock facilitated my entrance into the empty room. 2) I decided to employ a secretary in order to facilitate the work. contribute to有助于,促使,例如:1) Plenty of fresh air contributes to good health. 2) Cigarette smoking is a major factor contributing to lung cancer. 3) Cars contribute air pollution in the city. result in导致; lead to导致。

小结

按大纲规定“英语知识应用”,即完形填空,题材应为一篇240~280字的短文。本文是254字,符合大纲要求。试题类型有逻辑搭配、词义搭配、结构搭配和惯用搭配,与2010年考题相一致。完形填空解题技巧是:把握主题、抓住上下文的逻辑联系、分段解题、瞻前顾后、各个击破,最后统观全文、查错补漏。完形填空解题时间通常为15分钟左右。千万不要超时,以免挤占后面各项的解题时间。

Section ⅡReading Comprehension

Part A

21. [答案] [D] massive biodestruction.

[注释] 词汇释义题。本题问:“ecocide”的含义是什么?本题测试根据上下文推测词义的能力。后面写到:荷兰卡尔卡那样的核工厂每年生产约200磅钚,只要一磅钚释放到大气层就可能使90亿人患肺癌。可见,戈夫曼博士在反核技术的观点中谈到的是“巨大的生物毁灭”。此外,从构词上看,eco 意为“生态”,cide作为后缀,意为“杀灭”。所以,ecocide意为“生态生物灭绝”。故应选[D]。

22. [答案] [B] exemplify one of the possible causes of lung cancer.

[注释] 逻辑结构题。本题问:根据课文,作者在第一段中提到钚是为了什么?解这类题的思路是从宏观看微观、从主题看细节。本文的主题是讲“先进技术与癌症的因果关系”。第1段中作者讲到“只要一磅钚释放到大气层就可能使90亿人患肺癌”。可见,作者提到钚是要举出造成癌症原因的一个例子。故应选[B]。[A]“估计欧洲核材料的数量”,与全文主题和段落逻辑结构相悖。[C]“强调预防癌症所需要的措施”,段落中没有讲到措施。[D]“表明工业废料的毁灭性能”,钚是核物质,并非一般工业废料。故[A],[C],[D]均不能入选。

23. [答案] [A] factual.

[注释] 语气判断题。本题问: 第2段的文体是什么?通读第2段,可以看出,作者举出许多实例来说明石棉是致癌物质之一。作者只是陈述事实,没有与人争论,也没有感情激动和讥讽。故排除argumentative(议论的),emotional(感情激动的),sarcastic (讥讽的)。

24. [答案] [C] research was not pursued to a solution.

[注释] 细节理解题。本题问:根据第3段,为什么有些工人死于有害污染物?第3段倒数第2句写道:“至少17名工人死于氯乙烯,原因是25年来研究工作没有一追到底。”10余年来,工人接触到的氯乙烯浓度是道尔化学公司硬性规定的“安全极限”的10倍。故[C]“研究没有进行到问题解决”与原文相符。

25. [答案] [B] tough legislation is needed to set lower limits of worker exposure to harmful chemicals.

[注释] 推理判断题。从本文可以推理,作者同意下面哪一看法?[A]“全国采用反污染装置才能最后防止癌症”过于偏激,实际上做不到。[C]“更多研究癌症的原因才能取得进一步的进展”,只是研究致癌原因,而不采取措施,于事无补。[D]“必须使工业化减速以防止致癌物的扩散”属极端做法。[B]“建立更严厉的法律来限制工人接触有害化学物质”可从文中推断出,因为第3段后半段写道:“由于医学科学家和管理当局重视不够,许多工人在高浓度氯乙烯的环境中工作,健康和生命受到威胁”。而现行的各种限制标准比道尔公司规定的“安全极限”都高。所以,可以推理,作者认为,需要更严格的法规来降低工人接触有害化学物质。故应选[B]。

注意:the official maximum permissible body burden公认的体内最大承受量。biodegradable不能起生物递降分解作用的。

26. [答案] [A] identify the issues that will not be addressed in the text.

[注释] 细节理解题。本题问:作者在第1段中提出克隆方面的道德考虑问题其目的何在?第1段第1句写道:“克隆的话题从一开始就是一个在政治上和伦理上有争议的问题。”接着作者说:“虽然这些问题的道德观和哲学观完全依赖于个人的解释说明,但是对克隆技术的应用还是可以进行客观研究的。”从这句话中可以看出,作者在本文中并不打算来论述克隆问题的道德观和哲学观,而是想客观地来研究克隆技术的应用问题。因此,[A]“来确认本文中不想陈述的问题”是作者提出该问题的目的。

27. [答案] [C] show that artificial birth techniques other than cloning have succeeded.

[注释] 细节理解题。本题问:作者把注意力转到圣地亚哥动物园中的大熊猫幼仔“华妹”其目的何在?第2段最后一句写道:“就大熊猫而论,某些人工繁衍后代的技术已经施行,或许这就为下一步克隆大熊猫铺平了道路。”这句话说明,现在已经研究出一些人工繁衍后代的技术,这些技术虽不是克隆技术,但为下一步实施克隆技术铺平了道路。接着在第3段中作者以大熊猫幼仔“华妹”为例来说明,除克隆外,一些人工繁衍后代的技术(如人工授精技术)已经取得成功。可见, [C]“表明,除了克隆以外其他一些人工繁殖技术已经取得成功” 是正确选项。

注意:上述两题属于“深入应用题”,解这类题要求考生在理解文章中相关细节的基础上能够利用所获得的信息去发掘深层次的内涵。这类题难度较大。希望考生深入研究命题思路,制定行之有效的应试对策。

28. [答案] [D] inform the reader of how cloning would be carried out in the panda population.

[注释] 总结归纳题。本题问:第4段写来是为了什么?第4段第1句写道:“通过使用克隆技术来增加大熊猫的种群,这一计划涉及使用与大熊猫相关的物种——美国黑熊。”接着作者详细阐述了这一克隆的全过程。可见,本段内容写来是向读者介绍如何在大熊猫种群中进行克隆工作。故答案非[D]莫属。

29. [答案] [B] display both sides arguments on another contentious issue in cloning.

[注释] 总结归纳题。本题问:第5段写来是为了什么?第5段第1句陈述了在研究资金问题上克隆技术反对者的论据,而第2句则介绍了在经济能力问题上克隆技术支持者的论点。可见,选项[B]“摆出了在克隆方面另一个争论的问题上双方的论据”总结归纳了第5段的写作目的。

30. [答案] [B] an endangered species with many living related species.

[注释] 推理判断题。本题问:从本文所给信息中可以推理,下面哪一项会成为克隆的最佳候选者?[A]项无概括性,不能选用。至于[C]项,文中只讲到过去曾经采用人工授精的方法来繁殖大熊猫,但这不能推理说,过去成功采用人工技术繁殖的物种是克隆的最佳候选者。至于[D]“那些只能靠克隆来作为惟一可行的繁殖方法的物种”,文章中没有相关的细节可作为此推理的依据,故不能入选。文章中说到大熊猫是濒临灭绝的动物,而且又有与它相关的物种(如美国黑熊)可以作为克隆媒体。可见,克隆的最佳候选者应具备以上两条,故[B]为正确选项。

31. [答案] [C] There arent many people who are even fairly good.

[注释] 细节理解题。本题问:关于讲外语,作者实际上说了什么?第1段第1句后半句写道:“...but few people are even moderately proficient at pronouncing foreign languages”。此句与[C]的表述相符。

32. [答案] [C] a consequence of not grasping the problem correctly.

[注释] 细节理解题。本题问:作者争辩说,用错误的方法处理发音问题会产生什么后果?第1段第4句写道:“但是我认为,人们通常不能把外语说得更好的基本原因是他们没有理解学说外语的真实本质,因而从未着手正确处理这个问题。”本句与[C]的表述相符。

33. [答案] [D] The teaching of pronunciation in the classroom.

[注释] 细节理解题。本题问:据说教师往往容易忘记的是什么?参阅第1段第6句中提供的信息:...tend to neglect, in their practical teaching, the branch of study concerned with speaking the language. 此句与[D]的表述相符。

34. [答案] [C] his teachers approach to pronunciation.

[注释] 细节理解题。本题问:学生重视培养正确的语言习惯取决于什么?最后一段第1句写道:“语言教师的教学方法中最基本、最重要的是,他自己在每一个发音细节中及流利的说话中的课堂表演、他示范口语的能力,这样就给学生潜在的模仿能力提供了最充分的发展范围和最有力的鼓励。”可见,学生重视培养正确的语言习惯取决于他的教师对发音的态度。故应选[C]。

35. [答案] [B] provide alternative samples of native speech.

[注释] 细节理解题。本题问:根据本文,对某位把自己的语言教给外国人的老师来说,视听辅助设施能起到什么作用?最后一段最后一句写道:“为了补充教师自己的工作,不管这样做可能在多大程度上令人满意,现代的教师可以方便地使用录音、收音机、电视和录像以便提供说外语的真实声音;或者如果教师正好是说这种语言的人或讲外语讲得像说本族语一样,那么就可以用来变换讲授语言材料的方法。”由此可见,视听辅助设施能“提供听说外国语言的替换形式”。故[B]符合上面的表述。

注意:at one‘s disposal 供某人任意使用,可自行支配。例如:Students have a well-stocked library at their disposal. (有个藏书丰富的图书馆供学生们任意使用。)

36. [答案] [A] a conventional model is dismissed and an alternative introduced.

[注释] 逻辑结构题。本题问:本文第1段的逻辑构思是什么?本段由两个长句构成。第1句中的关键词是“do not follow”,而第2句中的关键词是“Rather”。由此可见,第1句是排除了一个常规模式,而第2句是介绍了另一种模式。选项[A]正好概括了本段的逻辑构思。

注意:这类题要求考生具有较强的抽象概括能力。

37. [答案] [C] have misunderstood how managers use intuition in making business decisions.

[注释] 推理判断题。本题问:有关第2段中提到的“研究管理的作家”本文暗示了什么?第2段写道:“一代又一代研究管理问题的作家已经认识到,有些执行经理主要依靠直觉。然而,总的来说,这些作家对直觉的内涵知之甚少。有些作家视直觉为理性之反面;而另一些作家把直觉当做反复无常的借口。”由此推理,本文暗示,研究管理的作家们未能正确理解直觉的内涵而对直觉做出错误的判断。可见,[C]符合上述分析。[D]“他们没有承认直觉在经理工作中的作用”有较强的干扰性。从第2段中我们看到只说到这些作家对直觉的理解有误,并未说没有承认直觉的作用(have not acknowledged the role of intuition)。故[D]不能入选。

38. [答案] [C] to initiate clear goals and in the end attain them.

[注释] 细节理解题。本题问:根据本文,高级经理除了在哪一方面外都使用直觉?本题属细节辨认题,考生应参照文章逐一核对。第3段倒数第2句写道:“最后,经理们能够使用直觉绕过深度分析并迅速找到可行的解决办法。”选项[A]“加速提出问题的解决办法”与以上表述相符。第3段第3句写道:“首先,他们凭直觉判断什么时候存在问题。”选项[B]“确定问题或汇集不同事实”与以上表述相符。第3段第7句写道:“第四,有些经理使用直觉来检验更为理性的分析结果。”选项[D]“评价一个问题的各种可能解决办法”与上面的表述相符。由此可见,[C]“提出明确目标并最终实现目标”并不是高级经理使用直觉所为,故应排除。

39. [答案] [C] action and analysis in managerial practice invariably occur simultaneously.

[注释] 推理判断题。本题问:在提到经理工作中的思考/行动循环(第4段中)时,作者很可能怎么认为?从本文第4段和第5段我们可以看出,思考和行动是不可分割的。在思考中形成行动,在行动中思考决策。本文最后一句更明确指出,思考/行动循环的一条含义是行动经常是对问题定义的一部分,而不仅仅是执行决策的一部分。可见,[C]为正确答案。

40. [答案] [B] Manager X takes action in order to arrive at the solution to a problem; Manager Y does not.

[注释] 推理判断题。本题问:从本文可以推理,下面哪一点最有可能是使用直觉做出决定的X经理与只使用正式的决策分析的Y经理之间在行为表现方面的一条重要区别?最后一段第1句中写道:“……高级经理经常提出一种行动方针来进一步了解某个问题。然后他们使用行动结果对问题形成一个更加完整的认识。”这一表述符合选项[C]“X经理采取行动是为了找到问题的解决办法……”;而最后一段最后一句写道:“思考/行动循环的一条含义是行动经常是对问题定义的一部分,而不仅仅是执行决策的一部分。”由此看来,Y经理在这点上与X经理完全不一样。因此,正确答案应是[B]。

小结

1) 按大纲规定阅读部分4篇文章总字数为1600左右。本卷阅读试题总字数为1769,符合考试大纲要求。

2) 从本卷4篇文章的题材来看,第1篇是讲先进技术与癌症的因果关系,第2篇是讲利用克隆技术繁殖濒临灭绝的野生动物,第3篇是语言学习,第4篇是经济管理。可见,其题材与近年考题的题材相符。

3) 从本卷4篇文章的题目类型来看,有细节理解题、细节辨认题、总结归纳题、词语释义题、推理判断题、逻辑结构题和全文主旨题。与2010年试题类型完全一致。本部分试题一般来说前两篇文章稍易、题目难;后两篇文章稍难、题目不难。

4) “阅读理解”解题时间通常为60~65分钟。考生应根据实际情况调整解题时间。要牢记先易后难!

5) 解题方法:先浏览第1段,尽可能找到全文主题信息词。然后扫描第1题,划出题干中的信息词,到相应段落中寻找相关的信息词,划出信息词、搜索目标信息,比对4个选项,排除干扰项,确定正确答案。其他4题以此类推。如题目顺序与段落顺序不一致,要以变应变、机动灵活。

Part B

这一题型主要考查考生区分论点与论据、把握论点与论据一致性的能力。该题型要求考生根据小标题和段首句(通常是论点),从多个选项中找到支持相应论点的论据。

41. [答案] [B]

[注释] Two types of stress(两种类型的压力)。段首句明确指出,这两类压力是体力上的压力和心理上的压力。选项[B]具体阐述这两种压力以及它们的区别: “活动可以使人放松并有助于忘记精神和情感压力。(Exercise relaxes you and may help forget about mental and emotional stress.)”“而精神压力几乎总是对你有害。如果精神压力不减轻,它能引起各种疾病,如溃疡病……”(But mental stress is almost always bad for you. If mental stress is unrelieved, it can cause diseases such as ulcers, ...)。上下文在逻辑上保持连贯性。解这类题时要注意上下文中关键信息词的前后呼应和论点与论据的一致性。

42. [答案] [F]

[注释] Effects of stress—physical or emotional(压力造成的影响——体力的或情感的)。段首句指出:“压力,不管其根源是体力的还是情感的,同样会使身体做出反应。”选项\[F\]从两个阶段来具体说明身体的反应:“在第一阶段,你的身体准备去迎接压力…在第2阶段,你的身体恢复正常并且修复由于压力造成的损坏。”下文表示语气的转折:“然而,如果压力继续存在,身体就不能自身修复,这样,最后阶段,即精力耗尽,就开始了…”注意上下文中关键信息词的连接以及论点与论据之间逻辑上的一致性。

43.[答案] [G]

[注释] Guilty—useful, though most harmful(内疚——有用,尽管很有害)。从小标题可以看出下面将阐述内疚的有用性。但段首句却先从反面说,内疚或许是所有压力中最有害的。接着选项\[G\]具体说明这种常见情感的有用的一面,即有助于人们认识自己的错误。

44. [答案] [A]

[注释] Instances—no need to feel guilty(事例——不必感到内疚)。段首句写道:“然而,我们中许多人小时候学到了一些我们现在不再需要的规则。”可见,下面要引证不需要感到内疚的具体事例。故应选[A]。

45. [答案] [C]

[注释] Life with a little stress—significant(有一点压力的生活很有意义)。段首句先从反面来论证:没有压力的生活,如退休后无所事事,会令人厌倦。选项[C]从正面来说明:我们需要一点压力使我们对生活永远积极进取,但要适可而止、正确处理,如干点体力活儿以便消除烦恼。

小结

1. 选择搭配题的考点是:

1) 语段结构:段首句、扩展句和结论句之间在逻辑上的一致性。

2) 语篇结构:起、承、转、合。段落与段落之间语篇结构的连贯性。

3) 逻辑结构:语段内论点与论据的逻辑一致性。小标题与段落内容在逻辑上的一致性。

2. 选择搭配题的解题思路是:

1) 第一种题型:浏览全文、把握主题,分段解题、关键信息词连结,针对题目、各个突破。

2) 第二种题型:吃透第一段,注意段落结尾句和段首句的承上启下功能,狠抓段落与段落之间联系的形态标志(信息词)和逻辑衔接,先慢后快。

3) 第三种题型:把握语段内论点与论据的一致性。

4) 第四种题型:浏览段落,把握小标题与段落在内容上的一致性。

3. 解题时间:20分钟左右。

Part C

46. [答案]

于是,我们在已经达到舒适和幸福所必需的生活水准后,是继续再往上提高呢,还是停留在这种水平上,而去缩短工作时间?人类很可能选择了后者。

47. [答案]

减轻家庭主妇的日常事务的最合理的措施是提供一个机器人佣人,它可以被训练来满足某一个家庭的各种需要并且在家庭主妇启动它时,它能按预定程序完成几件或几件以上的一般性作业。

[注释] relieve sb. of sth. 使某人减轻/解除某事。carry out完成;执行。be programmed to do sth. 按预定程度(计划)做某事。

48. [答案]

它将是一部和汽车一样没有情感的机器,但它有一个指令储存器,并具有一定程度的受指令控制的或内装的适应能力,即根据它发现的各类物体所处的情况做相应的调整。

[注释] no more...than与…一样都不…,如:1) Jack is no more diligent than John.(杰克和约翰一样都不勤奋。) 2) Your story today is no more convincing than the one yesterday. (你今天讲的和昨天讲的一样不能令人信服。)

49. [答案]

但是当有人向这些家庭主妇说明,可以毫不费力地把它关掉,或拔掉插头,或让它停下来,或任何时候都可以让它走开并把自己收拾在橱柜内,她们很快就认识到,这是一件她们非常想要的东西。

[注释] plug n. 插头;vt. 把插头插上。unplug vt. 把插头拔掉。put away 把…收拾好,例如:Put away your books when you finish your work. 最好把them的指代关系翻译出来,否则可能会扣分。

50. [答案]

现在人们普遍认为,没有比晚上去睡觉时知道你睡着以后有机器人在楼下替你洗餐具更高兴的事了。

[注释] washing up 洗餐具。

小结

本文划线句子的难度与2010年考研试题基本同步。5个句子的长度分别为:25字,28字,39字, 44字和24字,总计160字。按考试大纲要求,英译汉划线句子的总字数为150字左右。英译汉解题时间一般为30分钟左右。在划线句子中如遇不认识的词,可根据上下文的逻辑联系推测其概念性含义。

Section Ⅲ Writing

Part A

51. 写请假条[参考样文]

Dear Mr. Wang,

I beg to apply for one week's leave of absence from the 10th to the 16th instant, both days inclusive, so as to go home to see my mother, who is seriously ill in hospital.

To support my application, I herewith submit the text of a short message to that effect received from my father.

I shall very much appreciate it if you could approve my request. As far as the work to be held up due to my absence is concerned, I will try hard to compensate for it as soon as I get back.

Thank you for your attention.

Yours sincerely

Li Ming

(101 words)

注: I beg to apply for...兹申请…。instant (=of the present month) 本月(用于日期后)。herewith同此,随信。submit提交。to that effect上述内容的。hold up 耽误。compensate for弥补。

此文必须背熟,类似便笺很可能要考!

参考译文:

尊敬的王先生:

兹因母亲病重住院, 特恳求请假一周回家探望,从本月10日起到16日止。

附上父亲发来的有关手机短信,以兹证明。

如果你批准我的请求,我将万分感激。至于请假所耽误的工作,待我返回后定将努力补上。

多谢关照。

此致

敬礼

李明

Part B

52. [参考样文]

As is depicted in the first picture, a farmer was working in the fields. All of a sudden he saw a hare running in the distance, only to dash itself against a big stump. The hare was seriously injured and could not move any more. The man came over and, to his delight, picked it up and went home happily. The second picture shows that the farmer was sitting near the stump, waiting for another hare to appear. But nothing similar happened at all.

The set of pictures tells us that those who dream of reaping without sowing will achieve nothing. Ironically, there are a lot of people in our life who are unwilling to make painstaking efforts but greedy for success. They tend to trust to chance and luck. My previous experiences in study and work have proven that in order to succeed, first and foremost, one should be both hardworking and persevering. We should strive for possible success. There is no reason for us to look to any accidental gain.

In my opinion, at no time and on no account should we trust to chance or luck. So my conclusion is that success results from hard work. (199 words)

注: in the distance在远处。“only to + 动词”意为“结果却…”,表示与主观愿望相反的客观结果。stump 树桩。reaping without sowing 不劳而获。trust to... 依靠(运气等)。persevering 有毅力的。look to... 依赖或指望某人提供某事物或做某事。industry n. 勤奋。

小结

Part A为应用文中的便笺(Note)。Part B为提纲漫画作文,与近年考试的命题形式基本一致;这种命题形式不仅要求考生描绘情境,而且要求考生说明内涵并结合实际生活经历发表个人的见解。考生应从参考作文中归纳出短文框架、段落结构和常用句型,以达到举一反三、触类旁通的目的。要通过背诵和改写,达到活用的目的。短文写作解题时间Part A一般为15分钟左右,而Part B一般为30分钟左右。

赠言

成功不自满,失败不灰心。

◇ 编辑推荐
·2015年考研复习:政治 英语 数学  专业课 · 2014年考研真题及答案汇总   历年考研真题
· 考研网上辅导热招!  ·2015年考研报考指南   ·历年考研国家分数线汇总   复试信息
相关热词:考研指南 考研辅导
 考研教育网官方微信

微信公众账号cnedu_cn

 网上辅导课程特色
  • 即报即学
  • 名师团队
  • 反复看课
  • 在线答疑
  • 移动教学
  • 讲义下载
  • 课后练习
  • 模拟测试
 24小时报名咨询
考研网上辅导课程 特色班 精品班 实验班
学费 购买 学费 购买 学费 购买
公共课 政 治 800元 购买 1500元 购买 3500元 购买
英 语 800元 购买 1500元 购买 3500元 购买
数 学 800元 购买 1500元 购买 3500元 购买

专业课

资料

952所考研院校、57300个招生专业、245000份考研辅导课件、核心纲要、考研笔记、内部题库现正热卖!

说明 专业课请到考研开放平台上注册及缴费----帮助