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2013考研英语态度题三大解题原则

论坛   2012-02-14 14:02 【 】【我要纠错

(1)客观理性原则

某一事物是好是坏,作者对它是支持、反对还是中立,态度一般都非常明确。问作者对某事物的态度时,表示“客观”的词多为正确选项。另外考试所选文章通常是理性的说明和论证,具有较强的逻辑性,作者对于所讨论话题的态度不会是及其偏激的。先好后坏,或先坏后好。

问作者对某事物的态度时,表示客观的词多为正确选项,如objective, impartial, unbiased等;问作者对其提到的人们的观点的态度时,答案只能是肯定或否定,支持或反对。如critical, approval, opposition, supporting等。

(2)关注责任原则

既然写了文章,那么作者的态度就不可能漠不关心,因此见到indifferent, uninterested这类词可以首先排除。而成为正确选项的最安全选项是concerned。这类题目抓住基本特征,是属于必得的分数。一般带有绝对化或表示过于强烈的态度的词必错,如strong, complete, entire, enthusiastic等。而有所保留的态度比较客观,因此常常是正确选项,如:reserved(保留的), qualified(有限制的,有条件的)等。

(3)主旨相关原则

作者观点一般与文章主旨相关联。

真题示例:

Over the past decade, many companies had perfected the art of creating automatic behaviors — habits — among consumers. These habits have helped companies earn billions of dollars when customers eat snacks or wipe counters almost without thinking, often in response to a carefully designed set of daily cues.

“There are fundamental public health problems, like dirty hand instead of a soap habit, that remain killers only because we can’t figure out how to change people’s habits,” said Dr. Curtis, the director the Hygiene Center at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine. “We wanted to learn from private industry how to create new behaviors that happen automatically.”

The companies that Dr. Curtis turned to — Procter & Gamble, Colgate-Palmolive and Unilever — had invested hundreds of millions of dollars finding the subtle cues in consumers’ lives that corporations could use to introduce new routines.

If you look hard enough, you’ll find that many of the products we use every day — chewing gums, skin moisturizers, disinfecting wipes, air fresheners, water purifiers, health snacks, teeth whiteners, fabric softeners, vitamins — are results of manufactured habits. A century ago, few people regularly brushed their teeth multiple times a day. Today, because of shrewd advertising and public health campaigns, many Americans habitually give their pearly whites a cavity-preventing scrub twice a day, often with Colgate, Crest or one of the other brands.

A few decades ago, many people didn’t drink water outside of a meal. Then beverage companies started bottling the production of far-off springs, and now office workers unthinkingly sip bottled water all day long. Chewing gum, once bought primarily by adolescent boys, is now featured in commercials as a breath freshener and teeth cleanser for use after a meal. Skin moisturizers are advertised as part of morning beauty rituals, slipped in between hair brushing and putting on makeup.

“Our products succeed when they become part of daily or weekly patterns,” said Carol Berning, a consumer psychologist who recently retired from Procter & Gamble, the company that sold $76 billion of Tide, Crest and other products last year. “Creating positive habits is a huge part of improving our consumers’ lives, and it’s essential to make new products commercially viable.”

Through experiments and observation, social scientists like Dr. Berning have learned that there is power in tying certain behaviors to habitual cues through ruthless advertising. As this new science of habit has emerged, controversies have erupted when the tactics have been used to sell questionable beauty creams or unhealthy foods.

35. The author’s attitude toward the influence of advertisement on people’s habits is .

[A] indifferent [B] negative [C] positive [D] biased

分析:根据关注责任原则,首先排除A、D选项。A选项Indifferent必然不会成为答案的中性词。类似的词还有suspicious, questionable, puzzled, neutral, uninterested, impersonal, detached, factual, impassive, ambivalent, partial, prejudiced, confused, perplexed。D选项Biased是必然不会成为答案的贬义词。

根据客观理性原则,可以成为正确答案的,有褒义含义的中性词,如Objective, impartial, surprised, amazed, supporting等;以及褒义词和贬义词,如pessimistic, disapproved, critical, skeptical,dubiously等往往是正确答案。

根据题干信号词advertisement on people’s habits可回文定位到第四段尾句和尾段首句两处,鉴于主观态度题的思路是关注出处信息的主观评论词,所以考生在这两个句子中应锁定shrewd (狡猾的,精明的)和ruthless(无情的,无休止的)两个形容词,因此作者态度是negative,选B。

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